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Micro-Organizational Behavior: Learning

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Title: Micro-Organizational Behavior: Learning


1
Micro-Organizational BehaviorLearning
2
Learning
  • A relatively permanent change in knowledge or
    behavior that results from experience.

3
Classical Conditioning
  • Learning that takes place when the learner
    recognizes the connection between an
    unconditioned stimulus and a conditioned stimulus.

4
Stimulus
  • Conditioned Stimulus A neutral stimulus that,
    as a result of being paired with an unconditioned
    stimulus, elicits a response.
  • Unconditioned Stimulus Anything that produces
    an unconditioned response.

5
Response
  • Unconditioned Response A response that occurs
    naturally in the presence of a given stimulus.
  • Conditioned Response A response that is called
    forth by a previously neutral stimulus (the
    conditioned stimulus.)

6
Operant Conditioning
  • Learning that takes place when the learner
    recognizes the connection between a behavior and
    its consequences.
  • Behaviors with positive consequences are
    acquired.
  • Behaviors with negative consequences are
    eliminated
  • Law of Effect tendency for behaviors leading to
    desirable consequences to be strengthened and for
    behaviors leading to undesirable consequences to
    be weakened

7
Operant Conditioning
8
An Example
9
Operant Conditioning Keys
  • Antecedents Anything that tells workers about
    desired and undesired behaviors and their
    consequences.
  • Behaviors Desirable organizational behaviors
    and undesirable organizational behaviors.

10
Operant Conditioning Keys
  • Consequences of Behavior Include positive
    reinforcement and negative reinforcement for
    desirable organizational behaviors and
    extinction and punishment for undesirable
    organizational behaviors.

11
Consequences of Behavior
  • Positive Reinforcement Administering positive
    consequences to workers who perform the desired
    behavior.
  • Negative Reinforcement Removing negative
    consequences to workers who perform the desired
    behavior.

12
Consequences of Behavior
  • Extinction Removing whatever is currently
    reinforcing the undesirable behavior.
  • Punishment Administering negative consequences
    to workers who perform the undesirable behavior.

13
Operant Conditioning
14
Reinforcement Schedules
  • Fixed-Interval Schedule
  • Variable-Interval Schedule
  • Fixed-Ratio Schedule
  • Variable-Ratio Schedule

15
Shaping
  • The reinforcement of successive and closer
    approximations to a desired behavior.

16
Observational Learning (Modeling)
  • Learning in which people acquire new behaviors by
    systematically observing the rewards and
    punishments of others.
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