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Chapter 1: The Science of Biology

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Title: Chapter 1: The Science of Biology Author: Justin Bragg Last modified by: eht Created Date: 9/8/2010 1:23:22 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 1: The Science of Biology


1
Chapter 1 The Science of Biology
  • Mr. Bragg
  • General Biology
  • 2012-2013

2
1.1 Essential question How do we find
explanations for the events in the natural world?
  • State the goals of science
  • Describe the steps of the scientific method

3
I. 1.1 What is Science?
  • A. Defined-
  • 1. Science is an organized way of gathering and
    organizing evidence about the natural world.
  • 2. Is a process and not a thing
  • 3. It refers to a working body of knowledge that
    scientific studies have gathered over the years

4
What is Science?
  • 4. Deals only with the natural world
  • 5. Data and information are collected in orderly
    ways
  • 6. Explanations are suggested based on evidence,
    not belief
  • 7. The explanations are tested with more evidence

5
B. Goals
  1. To give understanding of natural laws and to give
    explanations for natural phenomena
  2. To understand patterns in nature
  3. To make useful predictions about natural events
  4. Science aims for the best understanding of the
    natural world that can be found

6
C. Scientific Methodology
  • Observing and asking the question
  • a. Observation the act of noticing and
    describing what is happening in an orderly way
  • b. Leads to new questions

7
  • 2. Inferring and forming a hypothesis
  • a. Inference- an idea based upon what already is
    known can lead to a hypothesis
  • b. Hypothesis- is a scientific explanation for a
    set of observations that can be tested.

Observation- owls perch in trees Inference- owls
live in trees
8
  • 3. Designing controlled experiments
  • a. Testing a hypothesis involves keeping track of
    variables
  • b. A hypothesis should be tested with only one
    variable changed
  • Examples of variables include temperature,
    light, time

9
  • c. Controlled experiment- an experiment in which
    only one variable is changed
  • d. Controlled experiments are needed otherwise
    the cause of the results cannot be determined.

10
  • e. Control Group- is treated the same as the
    experimental group except for one independent
    variable (the variable that is changed)
  • f. Replication of results is important in science
    and often several sets of control and
    experimental groups are set up.

11
  • 4. Collecting and Analyzing Data
  • a. Data- detailed records of experimental
    observations gathered information
  • b. Two types
  • Quantitative- numbers found by counting and
    measuring
  • Qualitative- describe things that cannot be
    counted

12
5. Drawing Conclusions
  • a. Scientists will use the data to support or
    refute the hypothesis, to change the hypothesis,
    or to draw a valid conclusion.

13
6. When Experiments are not possible
  • a. In some cases, an experiment cannot work such
    as.
  • Animal behavioral studies in the wild
  • Ethics- beliefs about right and wrong example
    (page 8) chemicals and cancer

14
1.1 Essential question How do we find
explanations for the events in the natural world?
  • State the goals of science
  • Describe the steps of the scientific method

15
1.1 Do Now
  1. What are the goals of science?
  2. What procedures are at the core of scientific
    methodology?
  3. What is the relationship between the independent
    and dependent variables?

16
1.2 Essential question How do the scientific
community and society influence the process of
science?
  • Explain how scientific attitudes generate new
    ideas
  • Explain what a scientific theory is
  • Explain the relationship between science and
    society

17
II. 1.2 Science in Context
  • Where ideas come from?
  • 1. Scientific attitudes- good scientists share
    the following attitudes
  • Curiosity
  • Skepticism
  • Open-Mindedness
  • Creativity

18
2. Practical Problems
  • a. Scientific ideas often come from practical
    problems.
  • Example people want cars that do not produce air
    pollution
  • b. Discovery leads to new technology
  • Examples of technology vitamins, antibiotics,
    and hormones

19
3. Scientific theories
  • a. Theory- is a well tested explanation that
    unifies a broad range of observations and
    hypotheses, and enables scientists to make
    accurate predictions about new situations.
  • b. Theory is not absolute truth, but the best
    possible explanation that science has to offer.
  • Examples Germ theory of disease, evolutionary
    theory

20
4. Science and Society
  • Science can explain natural phenomena , but does
    not include ethical or moral views.
  • Example Science can explain what life is, but it
    cant tell why life exists or the meaning of
    life.

21
5. Avoiding Bias
  • Bias- is a certain preference or point of view
    that is personal, rather than scientific.
  • Example Personal tastes or liking one thing over
    the other.
  • Data can be used in the wrong way by people who
    want to prove a certain point.
  • Science should only be used in helpful, correct
    ways

22
1.2 Essential question How do the scientific
community and society influence the process of
science?
  • Explain how scientific attitudes generate new
    ideas
  • Explain what a scientific theory is
  • Explain the relationship between science and
    society

23
1.2 Do Now
  1. What types of attitudes help generate new ideas
    in science?
  2. What is a scientific theory?
  3. What is the difference between the use of the
    word theory by scientists and the conventional
    (everyday) use of the word theory?

24
1.3 Essential question What is biology?
  • List the characteristics of living things
  • Identify the central themes of biology
  • Explain how life can be studied at different
    levels.

25
III. Studying Life
  • Characteristics of Living Things
  • Biology- the study of living and once living
    things.
  • 2. Some nonliving things share traits with living
    things for this reason, biologists have set a
    criteria that includes multiple characteristics
    that all living things have in common.

26
3. Eight Features of Living Things
  • Living things are based on a universal genetic
    code.
  • DNA- genetic material that organisms inherit from
    their parents
  • b. Living things grow and develop
  • Growth increase in size
  • Develop- increase in sophistication

27
  • c. Living things respond to their environment.
  • Stimulus- is a signal to which a living thing
    reacts
  • Example Some plants can produce poisons to ward
    off caterpillars that feed on its leaves.

28
d. Living things reproduce.
29
  • e. Living things maintain a stable internal
    environment.
  • Homeostasis- the relatively constant internal
    physical and chemical conditions that organisms
    maintain.

30
  • f. Living things get and use material and energy.
  • Metabolism- the chemical reactions through which
    a living thing builds up or breaks down
    materials.

31
  • g. Living things are made up of cells.
  • The cell is the most basic unit and structure of
    all living things.

32
  • h. Taken as a group, living things evolve.
  • Over generations, groups of living things evolve
    or change over time.

Whale evolution timeline
33
B. Big Ideas in Biology
  1. Cellular basis of life- living things are made of
    cells.
  2. Information and Heredity- living things carry
    information written in a universal genetic code
    called DNA.

34
  • 3. Matter and energy- life needs matter that
    serves as nutrients to build body parts and
    energy that fuels the body
  • The need for matter and energy ties all living
    things on earth together into a living web of
    relationships

35
  • 4. Growth, development, reproduction- all living
    things reproduce. Offspring are often much
    smaller than the adults and need to grow and
    develop as they mature.

36
  • 5. Evolution- evolutionary change ties all forms
    of life to a common beginning more than 3.5
    billion years ago.
  • Evolution is the central organizing idea of all
    biology.

37
  • 6. Structure and function- each major group of
    living things has evolved its own set of body
    parts

38
  • 7. Unity and diversity of life- although life
    comes in a variety of forms, all living things
    are similar at the molecular level.

39
  • 8. Interdependence in nature- all forms of life
    are connected into a biosphere
  • Biosphere- the part of earth in which life exists
    including air, water, and land.

40
C. Fields of Biology
  1. Global ecology- the study of way living things
    interact with each other and their environment

41
  • 2. Biotechnology- this field is interested in
    being able to read, write, and edit the genetic
    code

42
  • 3. Taxonomy- there are about 1.8 million
    different kinds of living things that exist on
    our planet. This is the field that is interested
    in mapping out The tree of life.

43
  • 4. Ecology and evolution of disease- over time
    bacteria, viruses, and other organisms that cause
    disease evolve so that they may still infect
    people. This field is interested in how these
    organisms change and how they react to their
    surroundings.

44
  • 5. Genomics and Molecular biology- these
    scientists look at the DNA of various organisms
    to see how the genetic code is involved with
    growth, development, and the history of life on
    earth.

45
1.3 Essential question What is biology?
  • List the characteristics of living things
  • Identify the central themes of biology
  • Explain how life can be studied at different
    levels.

46
1.3 Do Now
  1. What characteristics do all living things share?
  2. List 3 different fields of biology and explain
    briefly what they study

47
D. Performing Biological Investigations
  • Scientific measurement
  • Metric system- the international system of units
    is used throughout the world when gathering data
    for scientific investigation.

Countries in red have not fully adopted SI.
48
  • b. Units are based on multiples of ten.
  • Examples of units used length meters, mass
    grams, volume liters, temperature Celsius.

49
E. Why metric system?
  • Its universal!

50
Why metric system?
  • One unit of measurement for each physical
    quantity. No matter from which other quantities
    of the SI system derived, yields always the same
    unit.

51
  • Scalability by prefixes - combinations of prefix
    and unit make for many convenient combined units.
  • King Henry Died by Drinking Chocolate Milk
  • King Kilo 1,000
  • Henry Hecto 100
  • Died Deca 10
  • By Base (m, L, g) 1
  • Drinking Deci 0.1
  • Chocolate Centi 0.01
  • Milk Milli 0.001

52
  • Decimal system - fractions are expressed in
    decimal notation. Not only makes this the
    notation unique, exhaustive and intuitively
    comparable, but also allows unit conversion
    without doing math - simply by shifts of the
    decimal point.
  • Example Converting millimeters into centimeters
  • Requires movement of the decimal point one time
    to the left

240 mm
53
How to remember different lengths in the metric
system
  • When you think of a millimeter (mm) think of
  • The thickness of a dime.
  • When you think of a centimeter (cm) think of
  • The width of your pinky.

54
How to remember different lengths in the metric
system
  • When you think of a meter (m) think of
  • The height of the doorknob.
  • When you think of a kilometer (km) think of
  • A little more than half of a mile

55
How to understand the ruler
  • One side has inches (duh!)
  • The other side is the metric side.
  • The big numbers represent centimeters
  • The smaller lines represent millimeters.
  • How many millimeters are in a centimeter?

10
56
Measurement Conversions to Know
  • 1 m 100 cm
  • 1 cm 10 mm
  • 1 m 1,000 mm
  • 1 km 1,000 m
  • 1 g 100 cg
  • 1 cg 10 mg
  • 1 g 1,000 mg
  • 1 kg 1,000 g
  • 1 L 100 cL
  • 1 cL 10 mL
  • 1 L 1,000 mL
  • 1 kL 1,000 mL

57
1.3 Essential question What is biology?
  • List the characteristics of living things
  • Identify the central themes of biology
  • Explain how life can be studied at different
    levels.

58
Do now questions chapter 1 section 3
  1. What characteristics do all living things share?
  2. What are the central themes of biology?
  3. How do different fields of biology differ in
    their approach to studying life?
  4. How is the metric system important in science?
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