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Chapter 7 Attitudes

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Title: Chapter 1 Consumers Rule Author: Clark Last modified by: eldons Created Date: 6/1/2003 7:35:00 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 7 Attitudes


1
Chapter 7 Attitudes
By Michael R. Solomon
Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth
Edition
2
Opening Vignette Soccer
  • How do Jan and Terri differ in their attitudes
    toward soccer?
  • Jan and Nancy are both soccer fans. How are they
    different?
  • Which one of the three is the most likely target
    for ads promoting soccer?
  • Is Nancy likely to convert to become a soccer
    fan?

3
WUSA Soccer
4
The Power of Attitudes
  • Attitude
  • A lasting, general evaluation of people
    (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or
    issues
  • Anything toward which one has an attitude is
    called an object (Ao).
  • Attitudes are lasting because they tend to endure
    over time.

5
The Functions of Attitudes
  • Functional Theory of Attitudes
  • Attitudes exist because they serve some function
    for the person (i.e., they are determined by a
    persons motives)
  • Katzs Attitude Functions
  • Utilitarian function - based on reward and
    punishment
  • Value-expressive function - goes to the
    consumers central values or self- concept.
  • Ego-defensive function - protects the person from
    threats or internal feelings.
  • Knowledge function - the need for order, meaning,
    and structure.

6
Clorox Uses A Utilitarian Appeal
7
Suave Uses Ego Defensive Appeal
8
AC Delco Uses a Value-Expressive Appeal
9
A Knowledge Appeal
10
Addressing Smoking Attitudes
  • This Norwegian ad addresses young peoples
    smoking attitudes by arousing strong negative
    feelings. The ad reads (left panel) Smokers are
    more sociable than others. (Right panel) While
    it lasts.

11
The ABC Model of Attitudes
  • Affect
  • The way a consumer feels about an attitude object
  • Behavior
  • Involves the persons intentions to do something
    with regard to an attitude object
  • Cognition
  • The beliefs a consumer has about an attitude
    object
  • Hierarchy of Effects
  • A fixed sequence of steps that occur en route to
    an attitude

12

Conation
Affect
Cognition
13
The Tricomponent Model
  • Cognitive Component
  • The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired
    by a combination of direct experience with the
    attitude object and related information from
    various sources.
  • Affective Component
  • A consumers emotions or feelings about a
    particular product or brand.
  • Conative Component
  • The likelihood or tendency that an individual
    will undertake a specific action or behave in a
    particular way with regard to the attitude
    object.

14
A Simple Representation of the Tricomponent
Attitude Model
15
Hierarchy of Effects Model
Cognitive
Awareness
Affective
Knowledge
Conative
Liking
Preference
Conviction
Purchase
16
Three Hierarchies of Effects
Figure 7.1
17
Personal Values
  • Comfortable life
  • Equality
  • Excitement
  • Freedom
  • Fun, exciting life
  • Happiness
  • Inner peace
  • Mature love
  • Personal accomplishment
  • Pleasure
  • Salvation
  • Security
  • Self-fulfillment
  • Self-respect
  • Sense of belonging
  • Social acceptance
  • Wisdom

18
(No Transcript)
19
Message Strategies
Cognitive
Affective
Conative
Brand
  • Generic
  • Preemptive
  • Unique Selling Proposition
  • Hyperbole
  • Comparative

20
An advertisement by Bonne Bell using the unique
selling proposition.
21
Cognitive
Affective
Conative
Brand
  • Resonance
  • Emotional

22
Advertisement by Cheerios using a resonance,
affective message strategy.
23
Message Strategies
Cognitive
Affective
Conative
Brand
  • Action-inducing
  • Promotional support

24
An advertisement by Fisher Boy encouraging
consumers to enter the contest.
25
Message Strategies
Cognitive
Affective
Conative
Brand
  • Brand user
  • Brand image
  • Brand usage
  • Corporate

26
An advertisement by Skechers using a brand image
message strategy.
27
Message Strategies and Hierarchy of Effects Model
Hierarchy of Effects Model
Message Strategies
  • Awareness
  • Knowledge
  • Liking
  • Preference
  • Conviction
  • Actual purchase
  • Cognitive strategies
  • Affective strategies
  • Conative strategies
  • Brand strategies

28
Attitude Hierarchies
  • The Standard Learning Hierarchy
  • Consumer approaches a product decision as a
    problem-solving process
  • The Low-Involvement Hierarchy
  • Consumer does not have strong initial preference
  • Consumer acts on limited knowledge
  • Consumer forms an evaluation only after product
    trial
  • The Experiential Hierarchy
  • Consumers act on the basis of their emotional
    reactions

29
Experiential Hierarchy
  • Emotional Contagion
  • Emotions expressed by the communicator of a
    marketing message affect the attitude toward the
    product
  • Cognitive-Affective Model
  • Argues that an affective judgment is the last
    step in a series of cognitive processes
  • Independence Hypothesis
  • Takes the position that affect and cognition
    involve two separate, independent systems

30
Smith and Wollensky
  • This ad for New Yorks famous Smith Wollensky
    restaurant emphasizes that marketers and others
    associated with a product or service are often
    more involved with it than are their consumers.

31
Product Attitudes Dont Tell the Whole Story
  • Attitude Toward the Advertisement (Aad)
  • A predisposition to respond in a favorable or
    unfavorable manner to a particular advertising
    stimulus during a particular exposure occasion
  • Ads Have Feelings Too
  • Three emotional dimensions
  • Pleasure, arousal, and intimidation
  • Specific types of feelings that can be generated
    by an ad
  • Upbeat feelings Amused, delighted, playful
  • Warm feelings Affectionate, contemplative,
    hopeful
  • Negative feelings Critical, defiant, offended

32
Discussion Question
  • Sexually suggestive scenes like the one depicted
    in this ad for Union Bay clothing can generate
    feelings that affect brand attitudes.
  • What specific types of feelings or responses can
    this type of advertisement elicit? How will this
    scene affect the attitude toward the ad?

33
Forming Attitudes
  • Not All Attitudes are Created Equal
  • Levels of Commitment to an Attitude The degree
    of commitment is related to the level of
    involvement with an attitude object
  • Compliance - formed to gain reward or avoid
    punishment.
  • Identification - formed to be similar to others
  • Internalization - has to become part of a
    persons value system (hard to change once
    formed)
  • The Consistency Principle
  • Principle of Cognitive Consistency Consumers
    value harmony among their thoughts, feelings or
    behaviors to be consistent with other experiences

34
Levels of Attitudinal Commitment
  • By describing Cadillac as my company, the woman
    in this ad exhibits a high level of attitudinal
    commitment to her employer.

35
Forming Attitudes (cont.)
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony among Attitudes
  • Theory of Cognitive Dissonance When a person is
    confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes
    or behaviors, he or she will take action to
    reduce the dissonance by changing an attitude or
    modifying a behavior.
  • Self-Perception Theory
  • People maintain consistency by inferring that
    they must maintain a positive attitude toward a
    product they have bought or consumed
  • Foot-in-the-door technique
  • Sales strategy based on the observation that
    consumers will comply with a request if they have
    first agreed to comply with a smaller request

36
Strategies of Attitude Change
  • Changing the Basic Motivational Function
  • Associating the Product With an Admired Group or
    Event
  • Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes
  • Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model
  • Changing Beliefs About Competitors Brands

37
Attitudinal Commitment
  • This ad for a magazine illustrates that consumers
    often distort information so that it fits with
    what they already believe or think they know.

38
Social Judgment Theory
  • Social Judgment Theory
  • People assimilate new information about Aos
    based on what they already know or feel.
  • Attitudes of Acceptance and Rejection People
    differ in the information they find acceptable or
    unacceptable.
  • Assimilation effect Messages that fall within
    the latitude of acceptance tend to be seen as
    more consistent with ones position than they
    actually are
  • Contrast effect Messages falling within the
    latitude of rejection tend to be seen as being
    farther from ones position than they actually are

39
Balance Theory
  • Triad
  • An attitude structure consisting of three
    elements
  • (1) A person and his/her perceptions of
  • (2) an attitude object, and
  • (3) some other person or object
  • Unit relation
  • An element is seen as belonging to or being part
    of the other
  • Sentiment relation
  • Two elements are linked because one has expressed
    a preference for the other
  • Marketing Applications of Balance Theory
  • Celebrity endorsements

40
Alternative Routes to Restoring Balance in a
Triad
Figure 7.2
41
Discussion Question
  • Consumer researchers understand that consumers
    like to bask in the reflected glory of
    successful college athletic programs by wearing
    merchandise adorned with logos like the ones on
    the right.
  • How do the different attitude theories explain
    this consumer phenomenon?

42
Attitude Models
  • Attitude Models
  • Specify the different elements that might work
    together to influence peoples evaluations of
    Aos
  • Multiattribute Models
  • Model that assumes a consumers Ao will depend on
    the beliefs he or she has about several
    attributes toward the object
  • Multiattribute Models Specify 3 Elements
  • Attributes - characteristics of the attitude
    object
  • Beliefs - cognitions about the specific attitude
    object
  • Importance Weights - reflects the priority
    consumers place on the object.

43
Attitude Models
  • Choosing products
  • We often choose products because of their
    association with a certain lifestyle.
  • Goal of Lifestyle Marketing
  • To allow consumers to pursue their chosen ways to
    enjoy life and express their social identities.
  • Adopting Lifestyle Marketing
  • Implies that we must look at patterns of behavior
    to understand consumers

44
The Fishbein Model
  • Measures 3 components of attitude
  • (1) Salient Beliefs - those beliefs about the
    object that are considered during evaluation
  • (2) Object-attribute linkages - the probability
    that a particular object has an important
    attribute
  • (3) Evaluation - of each of the important
    attributes
  • Assumptions of the Fishbein Model
  • Ability to specify all relevant choice attributes
  • Identification, weight, and summing of attributes

45
Strategic applications of the multi-attribute
model would include
  • 1) Capitalize on relative advantage.
  • 2) Strengthen perceived product/attribute
    linkages.
  • 3) Add a new attribute.

46
The Fishbein Equation
  • The Basic Formula
  • Aijk SßijkIik
  • Where
  • i attribute
  • j brand
  • k consumer
  • I the importance weight given attribute I by
    consumer k
  • ß consumer ks belief regarding the extent to
    which brand j possesses attribute I
  • A a particular consumers (ks) attitude score
    for brand j

47
The Basic Multiattribute Model
48
Strategic Applications of the Multiattribute Model
  • Capitalize on Relative Advantage
  • Strengthen Perceived Product/Attribute Linkages
  • Add a New Attribute

49
Using Attitudes to Predict Behavior
  • In many cases, knowledge of a persons attitude
    is not a very good predictor of behavior
  • Questionable link between attitude and behavior
  • Consumers love a commercial, but dont buy the
    product
  • The Extended Fishbein Model
  • Called the Theory of Reasoned Action
  • Contains several important additions to the
    original, which improve its ability to predict
    behavior

50
Theory of Reasoned Action
  • A comprehensive theory of the interrelationship
    among attitudes,intentions, and behavior.

51
The Theory of Reasoned Action
  • Intentions Versus Behavior
  • Social Pressure
  • Subjective Norm (SN)
  • Normative Belief (NB) Belief that others believe
    an action should or should not be taken
  • Motivation to Comply (MC) Degree to which
    consumers take into account anticipated reactions
  • Attitude Toward Buying
  • Attitude toward the act of buying (Aact)
  • How someone feels about buying due to the
    perceived consequences of a purchase

52
A Simplified Version of the Theory of Reasoned
Action
53
Obstacles to Predicting Behavior in the Theory of
Reasoned Action
  • Model is misapplied
  • Other obstacles
  • Model deals with actual behavior, not outcomes
  • Some outcomes are beyond the consumers control
  • The assumption of behavior as intentional may be
    invalid in some cases
  • Attitude measures dont correspond to the
    behavior they are supposed to predict
  • Too large a time frame between attitude measure
    and behavior measure
  • Attitude accessibility perspective
  • Behavior is a function of the persons immediate
    perceptions of the Ao

54
Cultural Roadblocks to the Theory of Reasoned
Action
  • Roadblocks that diminish the universality of the
    theory
  • Model was designed to predict voluntary acts
  • The relative impact of subject norms varies
    across cultures
  • The model assumes that consumers are actively
    thinking ahead and planning behaviors
  • A consumer that forms an intention claims that he
    or she is in control of his or her actions

55
Trying to Consume
  • Theory of Trying to Consume
  • States that the criterion of behavior in the
    reasoned action model should be replaced with
    trying to reach a goal
  • Sample issues that might be addressed
  • Past frequency
  • Recency
  • Beliefs
  • Evaluations of consequences
  • The process
  • Expectations of success and failure
  • Subjective norms toward trying

56
Figure 8.5 Ad Illustrating the Theory of Trying
to Consume
57
Selected Examples of Potential Impediments That
Might Impact Trying
POTENTIAL PERSONAL IMPEDIMENTS I wonder whether
my fingernails will be longer by the time of my
wedding. I want to try to lose fifteen pounds
by next summer. Im going to try to get tickets
for a Broadway show for your birthday. Im
going to attempt to give up smoking by my
birthday. I am going to increase how often I go
to the gym from two to four times a
week. Tonight, Im not going to have dessert at
the restaurant.
POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPEDIMENTS The first
ten people to call in will receive a free
T-shirt. Sorry, the shoes didnt come in this
shipment from Italy. There are only three
bottles of champagne in our stockroom. You better
come in sometime today. I am sorry. We cannot
serve you. We are closing the restaurant because
of a problem with the oven.
58
Theory of Trying (TT)
Figure 7.3
59
Figure 8.8 Encouraging Trial
60
Creating an Advertisement
61
Tracking Attitudes over Time
  • Attitude-tracking program
  • An single-attitude survey is a snapshot in time
  • A program allows researchers to analyze attitude
    trends during an extended period of time
  • Ongoing Tracking Studies
  • Attitude tracking involves administration of a
    survey at regular intervals (e.g. Gallup Poll,
    Yankelovich Monitor)
  • This activity is valuable for making strategic
    decisions

62
Gallup Poll
63
Attitude Changes over Time
  • Changes to Look for over Time
  • Changes in different age groups
  • Attitudes change with age
  • Historical effects
  • Scenarios about the future
  • Consumers tracked in terms of future plans,
    confidence in economy, and so on
  • Identification of change agents
  • Social phenomena can alter peoples attitudes

64
I once felt that all.....
  • Attitudes change with age

65
Changing Attitudes
Percentage of 16- to 24-year-olds who agree We
must take radical action to cut down on how we
use our cars.
Figure 7.4
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