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MANAGEMENT

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Title: MANAGEMENT


1
MANAGEMENT
2
WHAT IS MANAGEMENT?
  • Management or Manage is one of those words
    which is used everyday, which we think we
    understand until we are asked exactly what it
    means. The word manager takes its root from
    French manageur which means control,
    organise, direct, and plan. Generally, management
    may be viewed as a process that enables
    organisations to achieve their objectives.

3
Definitions of MANAGEMENT
  • I Classical definition by H Fayol
  • To manage is to forecast and plan, to organise,
    to command, to co-ordinate and to control. the
    emphasis is on (the authoritative role) of
    management but fails to mention motivation or any
    special qualities of leadership.

4
  • II Peter Drucker defines management as making
  • Resources productive, being the organ of society,
    specifically charged with making resources
    productive. He points out the need for a sense of
    social responsibility on managers
  • His analogy with animal world (management-
    Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices) comparing a
    business operated by an owner-entrepreneur with
    helpers
  • Drucker talks about size of an organisation
    and its management. The larger the size the need
    for size of management.

5
  • III Kast and Rosenweig- relate management to
    the environment in their book The management of
    Systems.
  • They see a firm as a system which exists
    within larger terms (Its environment) and which
    must adjust to those larger system in order to
    survive and grow.
  • They define management as involving the
    coordination of human and material resources
    towards objective accomplishment. It is the
    primary force within organisation which
    coordinates the activities of the systems and
    relates them to the environment.

6
  • They stress on employment of resources and
    objectives. The definition also tends to look at
    that part of management function within an
    organisation as ensuring that the organisation
    relates to what the environment covers.
  • Koontz and ODonnell also define Management
    stressing on environment.

7
  • IV John Marsh Management is an art and
    science concerned with the proper, systematic and
    profitable use of resources in all sections of a
    nations economy.
  • V R. Falk, Rosemary Stewart- They define the
    term management as getting things done through
    people.
  • Reference Study Manual (pp
    2 3)

8
Organisations and Management
  • Management is an essential ingredient in
    organisations, because it is the only tool that
    can create the conducive situation in which an
    organisation can achieve its objectives.
    Management is needed in all cooperation and at
    all levels of organisation in an enterprise.
  • E.F.L Brech- Management as a process.
  • Management is a social process entailing
    responsibility for effective planning and
    regulation of the operations of an enterprise in
    fulfillment of a given purpose.

9
Components of the Process
  • Planning
  • Forecasting
  • Goal setting
  • Decision making
  • b) Organising and directing
  • Organising- arranging for the work to be done
    (allocating of resources)
  • Directing- ensuring that employees are
    appropriately engaged in working on activities to
    meet goals and plans. (Involves motivating and
    supervising staff for effective performance.

10
  • c) Controlling
  • Process of monitoring and regulating performance
    (measurement and evaluation of activities)
  • Control also involves taking the appropriate,
    corrective action to ensure that performance is
    done according to expectations.

11
Management of Activities
  • Determining objectives (goal identification/
    objectives)
  • Problem identification for solution
  • Searching for solutions-(alternatives)
    considering time and cost
  • Determining of the best solutions choosing the
    best method for resolving problems considering
    cost effectiveness (effectiveness and efficiency)
  • Implementation seeking agreement for funds.

12
  • Preparation and instructions (effective
    communication)
  • Execution of agreed solutions (meeting
    organization goals and objectives) utilizing
    human resource, placing staff at the right place.
  • Devising and discharge of an auditing process
    continuous monitoring and assessment to determine
    the success of activity.

13
  • Roles
    Description____________
  • Interpersonal
  • Figurehead- formal, representational,
  • and symbolic
    duties
  • Leader - relationship with subordinates
  • motivating,
    communicating, coaching.
  • Liaison - contacts with others
    outside work unit
  • Informational
  • Monitor - ensuring acquisition of
    information
  • necessary for work
  • Disseminator - information distribution
  • Spokesperson - formal provision of information
  • on behalf of
    organization.

14
  • Roles
    Description________
  • Decisional
  • Entrepreneur - initiating, developing
    and facilitating
  • change
    and information.
  • Disturbance - trouble shooting
    problems when
  • they
    arise.
  • Resource allocation - distributing and arranging
    use of

  • resources.
  • Negotiator - Representing
    organization in

  • negotiations within area of

  • responsibility.

15
  • HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

16
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
  • Scope and Definition of Human Resource and its
    Importance.
  • Definition HRM is concerned with People It is
    a dimension of management in organizations, made
    up of people, acquiring their services,
    developing their skills, motivating the high
    levels of performance and ensuring that they
    continue to maintain their commitment in order to
    achieve organisational objectives.

17
  • David Denzo and Stephen P. Robbins 1998
  • Robert Maths and John H. Jackson define HRM as
    a key ingredient affecting organizational
    effectiveness of an organization in product or
    service that fits. Customers need is critical to
    its survival. HRM has recently grown to become a
    strategic tool in management through the
    effective use of its employees, which results in
    competitive advantage to an organization. HRM
    systems that focus on performance of
    organizations have shown remarkable financial
    improvement and higher profitability.

18
  • It is about the efficient utilization of human
    talent to achieve organisational goals.
  • HRM is simply defined as a strategic and
    coherent approach to the management of an
    organisations most valuable asset (the people)
    working there, who individually and collectively
    contribute to the achievement of its objectives.

19
Main features of HRM
  • Strategic management of people (the human
    capital) in the organization which achieves fit
    or integration between the business and Human
    Resource strategy.
  • Comprehensive approach to the provision of
    mutually supporting employment policies and
    practices.
  • Gaining commitment to the organizations mission
    and values it is commitment oriented.

20
  • Treatment of people as assets and not cost and as
    human capital to be invested in through learning
    and development opportunities.
  • Concerns with employee relations, employees
    sharing the same interest with employers
  • Delivery of HRM as a line management
    responsibility.

21
Goals of HRM
  • Achieving high performance through people
  • Enhancing motivation, commitment and engagement
  • Human capital development
  • Knowledge management
  • H.R. development
  • Valuing employees
  • Employee relations
  • Bureaucratic administration
  • Centralization of personnel functions for
    departmental initiative.

22

Goals of HRM contd
  • Centralization of personnel functions for
    departmental initiative
  • Political dimension of Personnel Management in
    Public sector e.g. Position of Chief Executive.

23
Evolution from Personnel Management to HRM
  • Personnel Management traditionally
    characterized by a technician mentality. Level of
    authority for personnel-related activities and
    decision was low because personnel managers
    operated under the ambit of Finance and
    Administration Directors. Several organizations
    had personnel-related activities whose duties
    were mainly administrative, ie filing, logistics,
    leave rosters, running errands, providing
    refreshment, etc.

24
Models of PM
  • Clerk of works model routine administrative
    functions only are allowed or are the only
    functions to characterize the management of
    people. It is inadequate and highly inappropriate
    to the emerging needs of todays business.
  • Contract Management Model Improvement on the
    clerk of works model.
  • Architect Model - Best
    model for HRM. Professionalism and a high level
    of involvement in corporate decisions
    characterize HR function.

25
Effective HRM
  • Day-to-day dimension
  • Daily production
  • Administrative
  • Its aim is to ensure that people are healthy and
    attend to work in good environment.
  • Effective HRM implies ability to produce
    results
  • Ineffectiveness has consequences
  • Productivity
  • Organizational survival
  • Workers poor relationship
  • Stress
  • Poor commitment and poor motivation

26
Techniques of Strategic HRM
  • 1. People skills
  • Human Relations treat people as human beings
    and not as objects
  • 2. Communication skills
  • Top-down Bottom-up
  • Open door participatory involvement
  • 3. Supervisory skills
  • Control
  • Oversight
  • Delegation
  • Task skills
  • Job planning
  • Performance Management (Effective)
  • Leadership (by example)

27
  • Competencies required of HRM Professionals
  • Personal drive and effectiveness
  • People management and leadership
  • Professional competence (skills)
  • Adding value through people
  • Continuing learning
  • Thinking and applied resourcefulness (application
    to a systematic approach to situational analysis
    convincing business focused action plans,
    intuitive, creative thinking.)
  • Customer focus
  • Strategic capability
  • Influencing and interpersonal skills

28
  • Soft HRM (Personnel Administration)
  • Reaction-Service role
  • Emphasis on communication, motivation and
    leadership
  • Implements procedures and policies
  • Treats employees as valued assets
  • Employees seen as means rather than objects
  • Sets commitment of employees through involvement
    and communication
  • Builds trust
  • Common interest between employees and employers
    but interest of organization overriding those of
    the individual
  • Supporting change

29
  • Hard HRM
  • Proactive/ Innovative
  • Business oriented approach
  • Result- oriented
  • Seeks competitive advantage
  • Regards people as human capital for value
  • Strategic policies for results
  • Human capital to be invested and not as cost
    (training and dev.)
  • Initiates change

30
  •  
  • Activities of HRM
  • Organizational design
  • Organizational development
  • Job and role design
  • Human resource planning
  • Talent management
  • Recruitment and selection
  • Career development
  • Salary administration
  • Health and safety
  • Welfare service

31
  • Questions for assignment
  • Indicate a number of peculiar Human Resource
    problems or issues confronting your
    company/organization and suggest professional
    solutions to three of these problems based on
    your knowledge of HRM gained from this course.
  • Give clear definition of HRM and state its scope.
    Differentiate between soft and hard HRM

32
  • References 1. Human Resource Management (2004)
    Robert L. Mathis Etal, 10th Edition
  • 2.Personnel and Human Resource
    Management (2005), 5th Edition by G. A. Cole
  • 3. A Handbook of Human Resource
    Management Practice Michael Armstrong (2003)
    9th Edition
  • 4. Personnel/Human Resource Management,
    David A. Deconzo and Stephen P. Robbins 3rd
    edition
  • 5. Essential Elements of Human Resource
    Management Modular Series 1995, Sally Howe.

33
INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
  • 33

34
INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
  • International HRM is the process of employing
    and developing people in international
    organizations which employ people in Europe and
    other overseas countries including those of the
    African continent. It actually concerns itself
    with working across national boundaries to
    formulate and implement resourcing, developing,
    career management and remuneration strategies,
    policies, strategies, and practices, that can be
    applied to an international workforce, including

35
  • Parent country nationals working for long periods
    as expatriates or on short-term assignments
  • Local country nationals
  • Third country nationals who work for the
    corporation in a local country but are not parent
    country nationals (eg German working in West
    Africa for a British owned company)

36
Challenges
  • I.H.R.M can be more demanding than management
    within the boundaries of one country for the
    following reasons
  • Problem of managing the complex nature of the
    workforce. Eg. Wholly owned subsidiary companies
    may employ both host and parent country people
    together with third country nationals problem
    with employment practices as well as
    remuneration. A joint venture or complex
    workforce consisting of expatriates of the joint
    venture company, host country nationals, third
    country nationals and experts from any of the
    partners dealing with special problems or provide
    consultancy services.

37
  • According to Kanter (1989) and others, such
    problems include divided loyalties between the
    parent company and the joint venture consortium
    and the difficulties managers may face in trying
    to be both sensitive to local conditions and
    aware of the demands made by the consortium of
    their own parent company.

38
  • Managing diversity between cultures, social
    systems and legal requirements. International
    personnel managers are not in the business of
    controlling uniformity they would fail if they
    tried.
  • Communications Global communication is a major
    challenge. Even the most sophisticated electronic
    communication system may not be an adequate
    substitute for the face-to-face communications.
  • Resourcing international operations with people
    of the right calibre to deal with the much more
    complex problems that may arise.

39
  • As Perkins (1997) points out, it is necessary
    for businesses to remain competitive with their
    employment offering in the market place for
    attraction and retention of high quality staff
    with world-wide capabilities.

40
Characteristics of IHRM
  • Torrington (1994) suggests that IHRM is not
    just about copying practices from the Americans,
    Japanese, Germans, etc, which will not
    necessarily translate culturally. Neither is it
    simply a matter of learning the culture of every
    country and suitably modifying behavior in each
    of them which is an impossible ideal because of
    the robust and subtle nature of national
    cultures.
  • His definition of IHRM relates to the following
    characteristics

41
  • 7 Cs
  • Cosmopolitan members of high flying
    multilingual elite or expatriates who may
    relocate after a long time who will find
    repatriation difficult.
  • Cultural diversity major differences in
    cultural background.
  • Compensation special requirements for the
    determination of the pay and benefits of
    expatriates and host country nationals.
  • Communication maintaining good communication
    between all parts of the organisation globally.

42
  • Consultancy need to bring in expertise to deal
    with local needs.
  • Competence developing a wider range of
    competences for people working across political,
    cultural and organizational boundaries.
  • Coordination devising formal and informal
    methods of getting thee different parts of the
    international business to work closer together.

43
Forms of Organisation and Governance4
Organisational Models
  • 1. Decentralized federation traditional
    multinational corporation. Each national unit
    managed as a separate entity.
  • 2. Coordinated federation the centre develops
    sophisticated management systems enabling it to
    control. But local management given the
    opportunity to adopt practices according to local
    market traditions.
  • 3. Centralized hub Focus on the global market
    rather than the local. Japanese practice this hub
    model.

44
  • 4. Transnational model the corporation develops
    multi strategic capabilities towards global
    competitive capabilities.
  • Caution - Perkins and Hendry (1999) sign a note
    of caution as firms seem polarized along these 2
    lines
  • Regionalization where local customer is
    important
  • Global business streams involved in setting
    up centrally controlled business segments dealing
    with similar products globally.

45
  • Cultural Diversity Hofstede (1980) identifies a
    number of cultural dimensions that affect
    international operations as follows
  • Equality versus inequality.
  • Certainty versus uncertainty.
  • Controllability versus uncontrollability.
  • Individualism versus personalization.

46
  • Sparrow and Hiltrop (1997) noted the following
    HR areas affected by national culture
  • Definitions of effective manager.
  • Giving face-to-face communication.
  • Readiness to accept international assignments.
  • Expectations of a manager subordinate
    relationships.
  • Pay systems and differential concepts of social
    justice.
  • Approaches to organizational structuring and
    dynamics.
  • Divergence to respect cultural differences may
    be more appropriate if the full potential of the
    overseas company is to be realized.

47
International Balancing Act
  • Balancing the needs of coordination, control,
    and autonomy and maintaining the appropriate
    balance are critical to the success of the
    multi-national corporation.
  • 6 Capabilities to achieve this balancing act.
  • Being able to determine core activities and
    non-core activities.
  • Achieving consistency while allowing flexibility.
  • Building global brand equity while honoring local
    customs.
  • Obtaining leverage while achieving focus.
  • Sharing, learning and creating new knowledge.
  • Endangering global perspectives while ensuring
    local accountability.

48
  • Employment Policies
  • 1. Fill key positions with parent country
    nationals
  • 2. Appoint home country nationals.
  • 3. Appoint the best people despite nationality.
    (International image)
  • 4. The third model is more favourable but has to
    contend with some countries which insist that
    their own nationals should be used at all cost.

49
Managing Development Strategy
  • Recruitment and selection- criteria
  • Technical competence
  • Previous achievement in the home country
  • Language skills
  • Motivation
  • Stress assistance
  • Goal oriented personality
  • Communication skills
  • Family circumstances how well the person and
    spouse are likely to adapt to working overseas.

50
  • Career Planning to be designed to suit
    international perspective.
    Based on i.e.
  • Talent and potential
  • Job rotation
  • Special assignment training
  • Attendance of management programmes run by
    international business schools.

51
International Employee Development
  • To implement international development
    strategies and programmes along cultural
    diversity factors and the impact of different
    legal, political, social and value systems and of
    the extent to which training should be left to
    local initiatives or centrally controlled.

52
Managing Expatriates
  • -Most difficult aspect of international
    personnel management. European multinationals
    face less failure rate than American ones
    according to Scullion (1995) because of the
    following
  • They felt they had more effective personnel
    policies covering expatriates.
  • Closer attention paid to the selection of
    expatriates.
  • International experience more valued.
  • British managers more international in their
    outlook than US managers.

53
(No Transcript)
54
LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT

55
LEADERSHIP
  • Leadership is defined as the ability to inspire
    confidence and support among people who are
    needed to achieve set objectives/goals.
  • Distinction between management and leadership
  • In todays world of business management is the
    ability to lead and get result from people or a
    team
  • Management deals with planning, organizing and
    controlling which are also ingredients of
    leadership

56
Differences
  • Management involves getting things done through
    people by way of delegation, where as leadership
    is helping people to get things done.
  • Leadership involves vision and team work about
    the future and about the organization. The
    leader thinks of what the organization will be in
    future through team work. He motivates and
    encourages employees but a manager persists.

57
  • Management is more formal than leadership as it
    rallies on universal skill such as budgeting,
    forecasting, experience and expertise. But
    leadership rallies on creativity, innovation and
    passion.

58
Influences of leadership
  • Power
  • Leaders influence people and employees through
    power and authority. This is the ability to
    influence decision and control resources. Power
    can control decision to buy and sell, employment,
    paying, demotion of staff and training. Power
    also controls money, access, cost, expenditure,
    revenue and profit.

59
  • Authority
  • Authority is the formal right given to people to
    do things in a formal or right way. It is only
    the organization that can give authority to
    someone but power can be acquired .E.g. if the HR
    manager is not given the authority he cannot
    sack any employee.

60
Types of power
  • For leaders to make their leadership
    effective they require the following types of
    power. (Very useful)
  • Expert power
  • Power derived from the leaders job- related
    knowledge as persists in the organization
  • It is derived from expert knowledge and
    skills. Such power can be exercised even in the
    absence of the leader.
  • Expert Power
  • Skill Knowledge
    Experience

61
  • Reward Power
  • This type of power is derived from the
    leaders ability to reward people. E.g. the
    ability to increase or decrease salary of
    employees. Reward power is excised on individual
    employees rather than team. It results in hard
    work.
  • Legitimate Power
  • Power enables the leader to make certain
    decisions whether favorable or not. This can be
    given or acquired.

62
  • Coercive Power
  • Power associated with punishment to
    offenders. Coercive power includes demotion,
    salary reduction, inflexible working hours, Job
    rotation, transfer or indefinite suspension.
    .
  • Subordinate Power
  • This is type power employees can excise on
    their junior employees. For example, an
    accountant can request an accounts clerk to work
    overtime.

63
Strategies of influence on leadership
  • Leadership by example service leading by
    example must watch his words and actions. If you,
    the leader wants your employees to report to work
    early, you yourself must come early.
  • Leader by value- A leader influences the people
    by demonstrating value through behavior that
    guides other people .If you the manager say the
    worker should not fight you must not fight with a
    customer. Should show positive attitude

64
  • Assertiveness what is expected of the employee
    and not make his feeling known. Can influence
    employees without looking at his feelings.
  • Rationality- influence through logic and common
    sense
  • Exchange influencing employees by offering
    something for a job done, e.g. giving a command
    by exchange of bonus.

65
  • Charismatic Leader
  • Such a leader is the one who appeals to the
    followers, not through beauty but by appearance.
    He wins the heart of his followers by what he
    says.
  • The drive to achieve
  • He is noted for effort to achieve greatness
    driven by achievement. He can motivate for goal
    achievement. He sets high standard for himself .
    The group must be passionate about what he does.

66
  • Self Confidence
  • Must be self confident in order to be an
    effective leader, especially in decision making.
    Project his self-image for followers to follow.
    Must be independent minded, when weighing
    opinions.
  • Trust Worthiness
  • Must be trustworthy in keeping secrets.
  • Must be reliable in difficult and turbulent
    times.
  • Courageous and must be able to make bold
    decision.
  • To exhibit moral and economic values.

67
  • Intellectual Ability
  • Technical know how about the organization
  • Intellectual ability to lead a team
  • Ability to share knowledge with team members
  • Attitudes
  • Must seek after knowledge acquisition.
  • Must take interest in developing his followers
  • Must be focused and smart.

68
BEHAVIOUR OF LEADERS
  • Setting high standard by effective leaders of
    the group they lead. Hold people responsible
    when standard as not met . Encourages people to
    meet goals and objective. Set higher expectation
    of their followers and how to achieve them.
  • Emotional Support They provide moral support.
    They encourage subordinates to achieve more even
    at first failure. Provide frequent feedback to
    employees through report and letters . Help
    employees to overcome their weakness and build
    their strength

69
  • Adaptive to change Ability to change to
    situation in order to achieve their goals. When
    situation changes they adapt to new ways of
    reaching their destination. Flexibility is one
    of the goals of leaders.

70
TYPES OF LEADERSHIP
  • Success of leadership depends on the type of
    style of particular leader. It also depends on
    the type of particular leader. It also depends on
    implementation of control and authority.
    Leadership implies the exercise of power and
    control.

71
Types of leadership styles
  • Autocratic leadership characteristics. He makes
    decision in confidence and assumes the group
    members will comply.
  • 1. They do not concern themselves with group
    members attitude towards their decision
  • 2. Task- oriented who want a job to be done
  • 3. Insensitivity- toward group members
  •  
  • Participative leadership three types
  • - Consultative
  • - Democratic
  • - Consensus

72
  • Consultative leadership- leader confers with
    subordinate before making a decision. The leader
    brainstorm with the employee before coming up
    with a decision. His decision, however is final.
  • Democratic leadership the leader brainstorms
    with the employees/employers but then delegates
    total decision to the employees. He gathers data
    from all employees about their opinions
    regarding certain issues and sometimes takes vote
    before decisions.
  • Consensus leadership Discuss between the
    leader and employees or members about an issue.
    Decisions are not final until all parties agree
    on a decision. Decisions are not final until all
    parties agree on a decision.

73
  • Free rein leadership- hands over total authority
    and control to the group. Members discuss and
    determine the outcome of the issue and come out
    with the best way of solving the issue.
    Subordinates/ members are allowed all the freedom
    to decide on what is best for the organization
    and submit to the leader. The leader will only
    reject the decision by the group only when it is
    against the corporate policies, goals,
    objectives, short term and long term plans.

74
  • Theory X Y Leadership- According to McGregor,
    X Y employees must be carefully led since by
    nature they are lazy or hardworking. If Managers
    misuse their leadership style, X Y employees
    may be wrongly led. McGregor indicates that
    theory X employees must be led by participative
    leader with little application of autocratic
    leadership style. There must be small
    punishment. The Y poses that an employee who does
    not want to be supervised must be led by
    free-rein leader with little application of
    participative leadership style.

75
  • Situational leadership- Such leadership style
    demands application of either participative,
    autocratic or free-rein depending on the
    situation. It is the leadership style that is
    applicable to the readiness of group members to
    do as occasion demands.
  • Basis of the situational leadership under
    situation model depends on the following behavior
    of the employees/ members.

76
  • Task Behavior where the leader carefully
    outlines the responses and duties of the group
    and individual. In this situation the leader
    should look at the behavior of the appropriate at
    a time. Autocratic leadership is needed under
    task behavior when employees behavior controlling
    or against what is expected of them.
  • Relationship Behavior The leader enters
    into-two-way communication with the employees. It
    involves listening, providing encouragement and
    coaching. What methods to apply is participative
    style since it is two-way communication.
  • Readiness Behavior group members have the
    ability and willingness to accomplish a specific
    task. The leader should apply free-rein
    leadership style when employees are ready to
    perform task.

77
  • Entrepreneur Leadership This is the type of
    leadership that is seen in individual who start
    their business from scratch. The entrepreneur
    leader must have the following qualities.
  • a) Full of vision about the business
  • b) Can see the future
  • c) Can see new products
  • d) New objectives and goals
  • e) New competitors
  • f) Willingness to be active
  • g) Good attitude and value
  • h)Enthusiastic person
  • i) Creative and innovative can build business
    from nothing from small ideals into money
    business.

78
  • j). Adaptive to change when things are
    not going according to plan
  • k). Persistence does not give up easily
    on difficult things
  • l). Confident and willing to take a
    decision alone
  • m). Ready to take responsibility ,must be
    willing to do most of the job himself. Must not
    delegate too much.
  • n). Should not hold people accountable
    but must also be accountable to his job. Accept
    mistakes and final solution.

79
  • Transformational/charismatic leadership- leader
    who helps the organization and people to make
    positive change in the way they do things. He
    combines charisma, inspiration and intellect as a
    leader. He motivates and has ideas about things.
    He develops new visions for the organisation and
    mobilizes employees to accept and work towards
    the vision. Such leaders can turn a dying
    business in to living business
  • Charismatic leadership- he has the ability to
    lead or influence others based on personal
    charm, magnetism, inspiration, persuasion and
    emotion. Can lead a team of employees to achieve
    a task that they may not be willing to do.

80
  • Qualities of Leadership-
  • Skill
  • Technology
  • perception
  • knowledge
  • physique
  • Memory
  • Imagination
  • Determination
  • Endurance
  • Courage
  • Affability.

81
  •  
  • Lord Montgomery defines Leaders as one
    who can be looked up to, whose personal judgment
    is trusted, who can inspire and warm the heart
    of those he leads, gaining their trust and
    confidence and explaining what is needed in
    language which can be understood.

82
  • ActionCentred Leadership (Functional
    Leadership model)
  • Adairs 3 responsibilities of a Leader
  • 1. Task achievement
  • 2. Building and maintaining a team
  • 3. Satisfy and develop the individuals with
    the team
  • Task needs paradigm
    shift in all
  • Team needs - Balance needed
  • Individual needs combination of all
    these qualities result in Effective
    leader
  • But a leader must always be self-appraised.
  • To achieve tasks
  • To develop the team
  • To develop the individual

83
  • Task needs
  • Identify task and constraints
  • Establish priorities (resources available)
  • Decide on action
  • Briefing
  • Report on progress, monitor and ensure discipline
  • Review objectives and attainment and re-plan  
  • Team needs
  • Recognize success
  •  Involve team and share commitment with members
  • Consult and agree on standards and structure of
    team
  • Answer queries
  • Co-ordination and co-operation

84
  • Individual needs
  • Clarify aims with each person for acceptance
  • Assess each members skills and set targets
  • Advise , listen and enthuse
  • Assist, reassure, recognize effort and counsel,
  • Assess performance appraise, guide and train.

85

86
  • Contingency Theories
  • Fiedlers contingency Model (circumstances)
  • Position power
  • Task structure
  • Leader- member relations
  • Situation Leadership
  • Degree of task relationship
  • Follower readiness

87
  • Appropriate leadership style for each level
  • R1 Telling ---- Providing
    specific direction
  • R2 Selling ---- giving
    direction, willingness, supportive
  • R3 Participating ---- supportive
    style
  • R4 Delegating ---- little
    direction or support is needed.
  • Handys Contingency model
  • The manager
  • The work group
  • The task
  • The organizational environment

88
HOW TRANSFORMATION OCCURS INTO CHARISMATIC LEADER
  • A charismatic leader who lacks the skills of
    transformational leader should do the following
    to become a transformational leader.
  • Brain washing of the employees by encouraging
    them on their weakness and beyond .
  • Must raise employee awareness about the reward
    to the task
  • Must help the employees to go beyond minor
    satisfaction and go for major achievement

89
Characteristics of Transformation and
charismatic Leaders
  • 1. Vision Visionary leader is willing to die
    for his vision, mixed with passion, confidence,
    determination, self- motivation.
  • 2. Communication skills must know how to
    convince people with motivational words e. g.
    Obama must know how to communicate to employees
    through the right channel. Must know how to
    communicate on team basis as well as on the
    individual basis.
  • 3. Inspiration/ trust - Must have integrity, be
    trustworthy so the followers are ready to follow
    based on his values.

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91
PRINCIPLES OF RECRUITMENT, SELECTION AND
INDUCTION
92
PRINCIPLE OF RECRUITMENT, SELECTION AND INDUCTION
  • Recruitment - the generation of an applicant
    pool. Selection is the choice of specific
    individuals to join the organization.
  •  The Recruitment and selection process is
    concerned with choosing from a sample of
    applicants. The individuals, best suited for the
    jobs available.
  •  It is normally used to decide who shall enter
    the organization. Since the competitive edge of
    any organization is direct function of the
    quality of its human resource, the selection of
    the right caliber of staff, represents a
    significant aspect of the whole HR function.

93
  • Recruitment - general exercise - casting the
    wider net and at the right place for good
    solution.
  • Selection - process of making the choice -
    advert, outsourcing
  • Placement- generate accurate selection to place
    them into various departments/ vacancies.

94
Process of Recruitment
  • The Position
  • Qualification of applicant
  • Gender
  • Working experience
  • Appearance
  • Skills and expertise
  • Future potentials

95
  • Attraction
  • Salary (including bonus)
  • Perks (e.g. discount of goods, overalls,
    canteen services, other staff facilities)
  • Hours of work
  • Holidays
  • Good leadership
  • Welfare support
  • Safety precautions
  • Insurance

96
Purpose of Recruitment
  •  Inviting applicants is most cost effective way
    to form a pool of job applicants, potentially
    qualified to do a particular job.
  •  How Recruitment is done
  • Advertisement of vacancy
  • Short listing
  • Interviewing
  • Selection
  •  Ways of recruitment
  • Internal
  • External
  • Internal recruitment - getting candidates from
    within the organization (operation, Tactical and
    strategic) External - through external
    advertisement / oral

97
  • Advantages of Internal Recruitment
  • Saves cost
  • Motivation to work hard (employees)
  • Saves time
  • To tap from existing staff and their expertise
    experience, skill, knowledge (Not much training
    needed)
  •  Disadvantages of Internal Recruitment
  • Rivalry and conflict not palatable to
    organization
  • Unhealthy competition
  • Discourages hard work among employees
  • Leads to favouritism, criticism
  • Demotivation of employees

98
  • Advantages of External Recruitment
  • Resulting in change of management of the
    organization and its goals
  • Downsizing by reducing the numbers of employees
    to save cost (it also brings about stress)
  • Leading to bureaucracy / delays of job or
    completion of jobs.
  •  

99
 Advertising
  • The process of creating the awareness of a job in
    an organization to the general public.
  •  
  • Process of Advertising
  • Job title (specific)
  • The organization type (service or production)
  • The person required (person specification)
    experience, qualification, expectation)
  • The pay and benefits offered
  • Location of org.

100
  • Job requirement (whether it includes
    travelling)
  • Layout - attractive and interesting
  • Brief summary of the job (how you report)
  • Avoiding grammatical errors, spellings, typing,
    wrong telephone numbers)
  • Contact address including E-mail
  • Realistic closing date.

101
  •  External Recruitment Agencies
  • Government agencies
  • Private employment agencies
  • Selection, consultants to provide a shortlist
    of candidates. (direct contact candidates)
  • Advertising agencies to design and place
    advertisement (Note. Very expensive method)
  •  The Traditional Position or Approach
  • Whom do you know (contacts)
  • Perfect match
  • Academic Qualification
  • Experience
  •  The Emergent Approach
  • A focus on skills, intelligence, trainability and
    general conscientiousness. (ability to do or
    apply knowledge)

102
  • Selection Policy - (to be available) are you
    recruiting?
  • Fresh graduate always?
  • Experience?
  • Cream of the cream?
  • Trainable people?
  • Known as offering best salaries
  • Need for selection - what organizational
    problems are being identified to solve?)
  •  
  • Contemporary/General Approaches.
  • Use of Executive search consultants
  • In-house procedures
  • Old-boy network and personal recommendations

103
  • Selection Process
  • Receiving applicants-letters and forms,
    electronic CV's sorting out applications and
    short listing by
  • looking at CV's
  • Sending standard acknowledgement to applicants
  • Comparing applications with critical analysis
    in the job
  • Drawing an interview programme
  • Inviting the applicants for interview
  •  
  • Interview
  • Preparation (plan, set up interview panel)
  • Implementing interview plan
  • Follow up.

104
  • Methods of Selection.
  • Preparation includes short listing from pool of
    applicants.
  • Scheduling - giving enough time
  • Reviewing CV's prior to interview date
  • Why he left previous job
  • Check referee e.g. (applicant's background)
  • Issue circular to all departments

105
  • Process of Interview
  • Welcome candidate with introductions
  • Begin with self introduction
  • Candidates to do most of talking
  • Interviews to listen and put down notes
  • Give them opportunity to ask questions
  • Questions to be clear and unambiguous
  • Avoid leading questions e.g. You will be right,
    will you?
  • End on positive note.
  • HR's concern relates to candidate's overall fit
    into the organization and his/her contribution to
    corporate goals. Functional department, unit or
    project team's concern is ability to execute
    requisite tasks.

106
  •  
  • Likely Questions to ask.
  • Did you leave school in 1989? (open)
  • Did you get your professional qualification in
    1992 and then decide that it was time to get a
    better job.
  • What made you dislike your first job why was
    that? (Probing)
  • How good are you in making difficult decisions
    (hypothetical)
  • What would you do if your speed boat capsized
    on the ocean? (probing question)
  • What exactly was your contribution to the
    success of the project? ( Probing)

107
  • Donts of Interviewing.
  • Don't keep the applicants waiting
  • Don't allow any interruption
  • Don't interview without preparation and
    planning
  • Don't ask tricky leading questions or too many
    closed questions (eg.yes, no, I don't know)
  • Don't lose control of the interview
  • Don't fail to give the candidates information
    on the job.
  • Don't display bias or prejudice
  • Don't talk too much
  • Don't allow candidate to gloss over important
    points

108
Do's
  • . Give yourself sufficient time
  • Plan the interview in order to structure
    properly
  • Create the right atmosphere
  • Start with open questions - establish
    informal/friendly relationship
  • Encourage candidates to talk
  • Analyze his career to reveal his/her strengths,
    weakness and interests.
  • Make judgment about the factual information
    received about candidate's experience
  • Keep control over content and timing of
    interviews

109
After Interview
  • Access the outcome of interview
  • Do a reference check
  • Keep records
  • Inform candidate
  • Prepare a written offer of employment

110
Types of Tests Validity OF Tests
(Justification)
  • Intelligence Test - Must be able to
    differentiate between satisfactory and
    unsatisfactory performance on the Job
  • Personality Test - Aware of 3 types of validity
    Content, construct and criterion validity e.g.
    content- typing Test
  • Psychomatic Test - Psychological (personality
    test)

111
Types of Tests Validity OF Tests
(Justification)
  • Ability Test - Construct - observing various
    behaviors of applicants as Related to tab
  • Aptitude Test - Criterion - Predictability of
    work behaviors e.g. relation between test score
    and performance.
  • Attainment - Validity - compare post -
    employment (1 yr) evaluation . With interview
    test result equal to success

112
INDUCTION PROGRAM
  • Induction is the process of introducing new
    employees into the organization. It is the method
    of helping employees to cope with a new job with
    a strange organization and also giving them the
    basic information they need to settle down
    quickly and happily and start work thereby
    encouraging him/her to stay.

113
  •  Aims of induction
  • -Allowing new blood into the organization
  • -To encourage the new employee to become
    committed to the organization
  • -To familiarize the new employee the job to
    quickly dispel the feeling of the being out of
    place in the organization.
  •  
  • Reasons for induction
  •  Induction program must be designed to fit the
    characteristics of the job and of its
    organizational context.

114
  • Process of induction - Induction training /
    courses and procedures
  • Disciplinary and grievance procedures
  • Trade union membership and collective bargaining
    arrangement
  • Staff purchase arrangements and other "perks"
  • Traveling and transport arrangement and allowance
  • Medical and welfare facilities
  • Canteen facilities
  • Health and safety arrangement
  • Education and training policies
  • Pay arrangements
  • Promotion practice and opportunities
  • Open forum

115
  • DEPARTMENTAL INDUCTION
  • All departments conduct induction for their newly
    employed staff within that department
  •  ROLES
  • Department manager -welcome new employees to the
    department.
  •  
  • Supervisors - Explaining the job to the new
    employee and providing support during the initial
    period
  •  
  • Fellow workers - Making the new employee feel
    welcome and comfortable in the work group
  •  
  • Personnel staff - Explaining condition of
    employment very early in the employment of the
    new comer
  •  
  • Training staff - Designing inductions courses or
    other training aids relevant to the need of new
    employees

116
  • QUESTIONS FOR ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • 1. Discuss the process of recruitment to the
    point of selecting the best candidate for the new
    job, giving the reasons for recruitment in an
    organization and show the importance of induction
  •  
  • 2. State the acceptable behavior of an
    interviewer and those that should avoid and state
    likely questions to ask during interview
  •  
  • 3. Discuss how you think recruitment and
    selection issus impact on corporate profitability

117
INDUCTION PROGRAMME
  • A. History of the organization
  • B. Vision and mission
  • C. The new employee role
  • D. Job description
  • E. Logistical issues
  • F. Industry information
  • G. Organizational structure
  • H. Terminology
  • I. Company standards of performance, rules
  • J. Compensation issues
  • K. Health and safety

118
 INTRODUCE THE PROCEDURES
  • HR manual - Distribute corporate literature
  • What are the advantages of a well executed
    orientation program?
  • 1. Elimination of induction crisis
  • 2. Facilities' that deepen the learning curve
  • 3. Employee quickly decides whether this is the
    place for me

119
PLACEMENT
  • Relevant when you do speculative / selective,
    dependent on
  • 1. Proper assessment of potentials
  • 2. Department and personal needs
  • 3. A well structured training programme

120
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
  • Training is a planned process which modifies
    attitude, knowledge or skill behavior through
    learning experience to achieve effective
    performance in an activity or range of
    activities. Its purposes, in the work situation
    are to develop the abilities of the individual
    and to satisfy the current and future needs of
    the organization as defined by Manpower service
    commission UK (1981)

121
  •  
  • Training as an element of HRD, must emerge from
    a Human Resource Development Policy and plan. Too
    often Training is taken as just another usual
    organizational activity which must be undertaken
    whether necessary or not. Perhaps because workers
    expect to see it as a reward or just because it
    is spelt out in CBAs

122
  • Training is done by
  • 1. The line manager
  • 2. Training consultants
  • 3. Training development officer

123
PROCESS OF TRAINING and Development
  • 1. Training needs analysis
  • 2. Matching the individual vs. org. needs
  • 3. Training method (appropriate)
  • 4. Post-training evaluation and monitoring
  •  
  • TRAINING COMPONENT
  • 1. Needs assessment
  • 2. Organizational
  • 3. Task, job career
  • 4. Individual

124
2. TECHNIQUES OF NEEDS ASSESSMENT
  • - Carrying out HR Audit (exposes employee to
    training. Classification into age, gender,
    education Experience and promotion ability)
  • What are the needs?
  • Questionnaires - finding out from employee
  • Data on performance appraisal
  • Organizational survey
  • Expanding - opening new branches
  • Contracting - developing new products.
  • Changing focus - whether current skills are to
    meet needs.

125
3. DESIGNING TRAINING PROGRAMME
  • Drawing of program
  • Skills and knowledge
  • Objectives
  • Target audience
  • Mythology
  • Venue (in house, external)
  • Duration
  • Resources needed
  • Cost (budget)

126
ACTION DESIGN
  • Needs met and review
  • - Needs identified
  • - Try models designed
  • - Class Lecture
  • - Field work on job.
  • -Packaged
  • - Appropriate programme
  • Tailored - client specifics
  • - aimed at Objectives/ specific needs

127
Evaluating organisation costs
  • -Assessing the benefits of training
  • Measure monetary benefits (inputs) as opposed to
    outputs)
  • Has it been worth it (Time, money spent?)
  • Does it merit the cost?
  • Assess the content of Training. In terms of your
    needs, org. and individual.
  • Does it address the performance gap
    (post-training evaluation)
  • Reaction (post delivery - feelings )
  • Immediate - how trainees react to the programme
    i.e. Delivery, logistics
  • Outcomes (performance)
  • Critique has the delivery resulted in any change
    in job, performance, attitude and behavior?

128
TRAINING DEVELOPMENT
  • As part of HRD - need HRD plan and methods for
    the job
  •  
  • THE JOB DESCRIPTION
  • Performance objectives, Job Analysis, peer -
    superior sub Data interview with job incumbent.
  • Methods for the individual
  • Appraisal Data
  • Training Policies
  • Career Aspirations

129
NATIONAL TRAINING POLICIES
  • Youth Training schemes
  • Employer Initiatives
  • Placement schemes
  • Vocations Training
  • Continuing Development (Professional training)
  •  
  • CAREERS IN ORGANISATION
  • Organizational structure determines what is
    possible.

130
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
  • Definition of Training
  •  
  • Training is a learning experience in the sense
    that it takes a relatively permanent change in
    the individual that will improve his or her
    ability to perform on the job. Training can
    involve the changing of skills, knowledge,
    attitude or social behavior. It may mean changing
    what employees know how they work, their attitude
    towards or their interactions with their
    co-workers or their superior.
  •  
  • For purpose training will be presented as it
    applies primarily to operate employees in an
    organization

131
  • Education
  •  
  • Education has been defined as activities which
    aim to develop knowledge, skills, moral values
    and understanding required in all aspect of life
    rather than knowledge and skill relating only a
    limited sphere of activity. It encompasses the
    concept of why things happen, rather than simply
    how they happen (or can be made to happen. This
    can help to make skills transferable. Education
    is also about the wider knowledge underpinning
    process and procedures and their contexts. It is
    therefore, a key element of development and
    closely associated with professional development.

132
  • Learning
  • Learning is the process by which individuals
    acquire the knowledge, skills and
    behavior/attitudes which they use to deal with
    all aspects of life. The study of learning is a
    whole subject itself, but managers need to
    understand certain aspects of the process in
    order to enable others learn and develop. It
    underpins the way in which effective training and
    education is provided and a misunderstanding of
    the process involved can easily render such
    provisions ineffective.

133

Differences between education and Training
Characteristics of the Learning process Education Training
Objectives More intangible objectives geared To the needs of individual and to Society in general Specific behavioral objectives to Make workers more effectors
Time scale General a long term process Can be very short term especially When concerned with acquisition Of specific skill
Content Widely drawn content Often very narrow content Specific to the employees workers situation.
134
  • Development is seen as any learning activity
    directed towards future needs rather than present
    needs, and which is concerned more with career
    growth than immediate performance. Focus
    directed towards organizations future man power
    requirement b) on the growth needs of the
    individual in the work place.
  • E.g. of development needs. The need for managers
    to be able utilize the facilities offered by
    micro computers in the operating of the business.
    The need for replacing senior staff with
    potential candidate From within the organization
    and the need for preparing employees to accept
    change.

135
HOW WE LEARN
  • Learning Theories
  • Operant ConditioningDeveloped by skinner (1953)
    researched into rats their behavior can change
    using negative and positive reinforcement
    (giving food rewards) given to them to promote
    responses. Negatives (taking the food away) when
    applied, the rats displayed non compliant
    behavior.

136
METHODS OF TRAINING
  • Orientation/Induction Training
  • On the job Training
  • Off-the -job training. a. internships, b.
    apprenticeship -both mix classroom try and on the
    job experience.
  • On-the -job-Training
  • Simulation learning under realistic conditions
    away from office/work
  • Formal Training ---classroom and conferences
    training lectures i.e. Seminars, courses,
    lecture presentation

137
System Approaches to Training
  • Training Needs Assessment (Setting Training
    Object)
  • Training Needs Analysis /Identification
    organizational needs task analysis/
    identification individual analysis by
    questionnaires, job knowledge tools, skills test,
    attitudes surveys, replacing result of critical
    accident , data from assessment center.

138
MODEL OF TRAINING SYSTEM
  • Determining Training Needs
  • ?
  • Identifying Training Objectives
  • ?
  • Developing Criteria (Objectives)
  • ?
  • Pre-testing Training
  • ?
  • Implementation
  • ?
  • Selecting Training Methods
  • ?
  • Arranging for Training (programmed)
  • ?
  • Contracting for Training
  • ?
  • Monitoring Training

139
Evaluation
  • Comparing Training outcome against criteria
    (objective
  • Organizational Needs Analysis
  • Grievance
  • Accident rewards
  • Observations
  • Exit interviews
  • Complaints from customers
  • Equipment utilization figures
  • Training committees observation
  • Waste /scr
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