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Effective Classroom Practice Academic Success

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Effective Classroom Practice Academic Success & Task Difficulty MO SW-PBS Center for PBS College of Education University of Missouri * Have you ever had a student ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Effective Classroom Practice Academic Success


1
Effective Classroom Practice Academic Success
Task Difficulty
  • MO SW-PBS

Center for PBS College of Education University of
Missouri
2
CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL POSITIVE
BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
Tier 3 Tertiary Prevention Specialized
Individualized Systems for Students with
High-Risk Behavior
Tier 2 Secondary Prevention Specialized
Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior
Goal Reduce intensity and severity of chronic
problem behavior and/or academic failure
Goal Reduce current cases of problem behavior
and/or academic failure
Tier 1 Primary Prevention School-/Classroom-Wi
de Systems for All Students, Staff, Settings
Goal Reduce new cases of problem behavior
and/or academic failure
3
Social Competence Academic Achievement
SW Positive Behavior Support
OUTCOMES
Supporting Decision Making
DATA
Supporting Staff Behavior
SYSTEMS
PRACTICES
Supporting Student Behavior
4
Effective Classroom Practices
  • Classroom
  • Expectations Rules
  • Procedures Routines
  • Continuum of strategies to acknowledge
    appropriate behaviors
  • Continuum of strategies to respond to
    inappropriate behavior
  • Active supervision
  • Multiple opportunities to respond
  • Activity sequence Offering choice
  • Academic success Task difficulty

5
Newcomer, 2008
6
Newcomer, 2008
7
Academic Success Task Difficulty
8
What is Modifying Task Difficulty?
  • Modifying instruction or providing accommodations
    to ensure the student experiences higher levels
    of academic success.
  • (Kern Clemens, 2007)

9
Why Consider Task Difficulty?
  • Task difficulty is one of the primary curricular
    variables that can set the occasion for problem
    behaviors in the classroom.
  • Any mismatch between student ability and task
    difficulty is potentially problematic.
  • (Gunter, Denny, Jack, Shores, Nelson, 1993)

10
Why Consider Task Difficulty?
  • Exposure to tasks that are too difficult result
    in lower rates of on-task behavior and increased
    rates of disruptive and other problem behaviors.
  • (Gickling Armstrong, 1978 Umbreit, Lane,
    Dejud, 2004)

11
Proper Instructional Level
  • Seatwork assignments that contain 70 - 85 known
    elements
  • Reading assignments 93 - 97 known elements
  • (Gickling Armstrong, 1978 Umbreit, Lane,
    Dejud, 2004 )

12
Why Consider Modifying Task Difficulty?
  • Increases promotes
  • on-task behavior
  • task completion
  • task comprehension
  • appropriate class-wide behavior
  • (Gickling Armstrong, 1978 Kern Clemens,
    2007)

13
Strategies for Modifying Task Difficulty
  • Change Amount of Work
  • Change Amount of Time
  • Change Student Output
  • Reduce Reading/Writing Demand
  • Peer Support
  • Scaffolding
  • (Simmons Kameenui, 1996 Vaughn, Duchnowski,
    Sheffield, Kutash, 2005)

14
1. Change Amount of Work
  • Put fewer problems on a worksheet
  • Highlight, in a color, the problems for the
    student to complete
  • Have the student cover all tasks except the one
    she is working on at the time
  • Break up assignment into smaller parts.

15
2. Change Amount of Time
  • Have shorter work periods with other assignments
    in between.
  • Provide physical breaks between difficult tasks.
  • Provide alternative times for students to
    complete their work.

16
3. Change Student Output
  • Provide students with a choice between oral or
    written answers.
  • Allow students to dictate answers to a peer,
    teacher, or paraprofessional or tape record
    answers to tests or assignments.
  • Allow students to video or take pictures to
    produce journals or compose essays.

17
4. Reduce Reading/Writing Demand
  • Include illustrations on worksheets describing
    how to complete tasks
  • Highlight and underline important words in
    instructions and texts
  • Create Guided Notes that highlight key points.
  • Permit students to use outlining software to
    facilitate planning

18
5. Peer Support
  • The academic tasks involved should be
    well-structured and the responses required should
    be simple rather than complex.
  • Different students should be involved in the
    tutoring so that the student with problems is not
    always the one being tutored.
  • Establish and teach the procedures for peer
    tutoring sessions.
  • (Miller, 2005)

19
5. Peer Support
  • Classwide Peer Tutoring
  • http//www.specialconnections.ku.edu
  • Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS)
  • http//www.cec.sped.org

20
6. Scaffolding
  • What is scaffolding?
  • Personal guidance, assistance, and support that a
    teacher, peer, materials, or task provides a
    learner until he or she can apply new skills and
    strategies independently.
  • (Simmons Kameenui, 1996)

21
How Do We Scaffold Instruction?
  • First, the teacher models how to perform a new or
    difficult task.
  • Second, the teacher and students work together to
    perform the task.
  • Third, students work with a partner or a small
    cooperative group to complete the task.
  • Fourth, the student independently completes the
    task.
  • (Ellis Larkin, 1998)

22
Practice Addressing Task Difficulty
  1. Read the classroom vignettes (Handout).
  2. Determine which strategy would be most effective
    and efficient for each vignette. (Use
    Addressing Task Difficulty Strategies.)
  3. Share your responses with a shoulder partner.

Handouts 2) Modifying Task Difficulty
Vignettes, 3) Modifying Task Difficulty Strategies
23
Addressing Task Difficulty in Your Classroom
List several of the activities students complete in your classroom. Identify ways you could address task difficulty in your classroom Change Amount of Work Change Amount of Time Change Student Output Reduce Reading/Writing Demand Peer Support Scaffolding
1.
2.
3.
4.
HO4 Modifying Task Difficulty in Your Classroom
24
References
  • Ellis, E. S., Larkin, M. J. (1998). Strategic
    instruction for adolescents with learning
    disabilities. In B. Y. L. Wong (Ed.), Learning
    about learning disabilities (2nd ed., pp.
    585-656). San Diego, CA Academic Press
  • Gickling, E. E., Armstrong, D. L. (1978).
    Levels of instructional difficulty as related to
    on-task behavior, task completion, and
    comprehension. Journal of Learning Disabilities,
    11, 559-566.
  • Gunter, P. L., Denny, R. K., Jack, S. L., Shores,
    R. E., Nelson, C. M. (1993). Aversive stimuli
    in academic interactions between students with
    serious emotional disturbance and their teachers.
    Behavioral Disorders, 19, 265-274.

25
References
  • Kern, L. and Clemens, N.H. (2007). Antecedent
    strategies to promote appropriate classroom
    behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 44(1),
    65-75.
  • Miller, M. (2005). Using peer tutoring in the
    classroom Applications for students with
    emotional/behavioral disorders. Beyond Behavior,
    15(1), pp. 25-30.
  • Simmons, D. Kameenui, E. J. (1996). A focus on
    curriculum design When children fail. Focus on
    Exceptional Children, 28(7), pp. 1-16.
  • Umbreit, J. Lane, K. L., Dejud, C. (2004).
    Improving classroom behavior by modifying task
    difficulty Effects of increasing the difficulty
    of too-easy tasks. Journal of Positive Behavior
    Interventions, 6(1) 13 - 20.
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