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Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

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Title: Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood Author: KSU Last modified by: Administrator Created Date: 10/25/2001 3:02:13 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood


1
Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle
Childhood
2
Body Growth
  • girls are slightly shorter than boys from 6 to 8
    then trend reverses
  • girls have slightly more body fat
  • lowest portion of body growing the fastest during
    this time frame
  • between 6 and 12 years, all 20 primary teeth are
    replaced with permanent teeth

3
Physical Development
  • 9 10-year-olds beginning of growth spurt for
    girls
  • 11-year-olds beginning of growth spurt for boys
  • Growth is influenced by activity level,
    exercise, nutrition, gender, and genetic factors

4
Health Problems
  • common vision problem-myopia-nearsightedness
    nearly 25 children affected
  • Myopia is affected by heredity and experience
  • less ear infections-Eustachian tube becomes
    longer and narrower
  • malnutrition-prolonged affects can cause physical
    growth problems, low test scores, poor motor
    coordination, inattention and distractibility

5
Bedwetting
  • Nocturnal enuresis -bedwetting that occurs during
    the night
  • most cases cause is failure of muscular responses
    that inhibit urination or hormonal imbalance that
    permits too much urine to accumulate during the
    night
  • treatment-urine alarm special pants (underwear)

6
Obesity
  • Is defined as body weight that is more than 20
    above the average for a person of a given height
    and weight.
  • 15 of children are obese.
  • 70 of children who are obese at ages 10 to 13
    will continue to be seriously overweight as
    adults.
  • Obesity can lead to high blood pressure,
    diabetes, and other medical problems

7
Causes of Obesity
  • Genetic Factors a child with one obese parent
    has a 40 chance of becoming obese, and the
    proportion leaps to 80 if both parents are
    obese.

8
Causes for Obesity
  • Environmental Factors
  • The proportion of obesity has risen 54 since the
    1960.
  • Television viewing
  • Lack of exercise
  • Parental encouragement
  • Low-cost, high fat foods, and family stress
  • School food
  • Food as a reward system

9
Obesity
  • children that are obese have lower self-esteem,
    report feeling more depressed and display more
    behavioral problems than their peers
  • There is an increase in type II diabetes in
    children in recent years
  • Treatment for obesity should be a family program
    and focus on changing behaviors

10
(Nutrition and physical development during
middle childhood, continued)
  • Despite growing rates of obesity, American
    society places a strong emphasis on thinness.
  • Concern about weight increasingly borders on
    obsession in the United States (especially for
    girls)
  • Research indicates that a substantial number of 6
    year old girls worry about becoming fat
  • 40 of 9 10 year olds are trying to
    lose weight!
  • WHY? Mostly due to our societys preoccupation
    with being slim

11
Life expectancy affected?
  • Obesity
  • Hypertension, heart disease, diabetes
  • Stress
  • Too much pressure on children-school, sports,
    activities?
  • Lack of sleep
  • Children should get about 10-13 hours of sleep
    per night

12
Illnesses
  • higher range of illnesses during the first 2
    years of elementary school exposure to more sick
    children and immune system is still developing
  • Asthma-most frequent cause of school absence
  • boys, African American children and children that
    were low birth weight, smoking parents, parents
    that have had asthma and children that live in
    poverty have the greatest risk

13
Injuries
  • Common in middle childhood
  • auto and bicycle accidents very common
  • school-based safety programs are a must at this
    age
  • be careful of toy related injuries i.e.,
    skateboards, bicycles

14
Health during middle childhood Psychological
Disorders
  • It is important that psychological disorders
    not be ignored in school age children (which
    often occurs because symptoms are different than
    those of adults)
  • Childhood depression is one psychological issue
    often overlooked by teachers and parents.
  • 2-5 of school age children suffer from
    depression
  • For 1 depression is severe (express suicidal
    ideas)

15
Health during middle childhood Psychological
Disorders
  • All kids are sad sometimes. This is different
    than depression (depth of sadness, length
    distinguish)
  • Childhood depression is also characterized by the
    expression of exaggerated fears, clinginess, or
    avoidance of everyday activities.
  • In older children it may produce sulking, school
    problems, and acts of delinquency.

16
Children with Special Needs
  • Auditory impairments are sometimes accompanied by
    SPEECH IMPAIRMENTS, speech that is impaired when
    it deviates so much from the speech of others
    that it calls attention to itself, interferes
    with communication, or produces maladjustments in
    the speaker.
  • 3 to 5 of school-age children have speech
    impairments.
  • STUTTERING, a substantial disruption in the
    rhythm and fluency of speech is the most common
    speech impairment.

17
(Children with Special Needs, continued)
  • Some 2.3 million school-age children in the U.S.
    are officially labeled as having LEARNING
    DISABILITIES, difficulties in the acquisition and
    use of listening, speaking, reading, writing,
    reasoning, or mathematical abilities.
  • Some suffer from dyslexia, a reading disability
    that can result in the reversal of letters during
    reading and writing, confusion between left and
    right, and difficulties in spelling

18
Approaches to treating childhood depression
  • Drugs
  • Controversial
  • About 200,000 Prozac prescriptions written in
    1996 for kids aged 6-12 (a 300 increase over the
    previous year!)
  • Criticisms not approved for use with children
    and teens lack of long term effectiveness of the
    drug consequences to developing brains lead in
    for further drug use
  • SSRIs and suicide

19
ADHD
  • Diagnostic Criteria for inattentive type
  • Often does not give close attention to details or
    makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or
    other activities.
  • Often has trouble keeping attention on tasks or
    play activities.
  • Often does not seem to listen when spoken to
    directly.
  • Often does not follow instructions and fails to
    finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the
    workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or
    failure to understand instructions).
  • Often has trouble organizing activities.
  • Often avoids, dislikes, or doesn't want to do
    things that take a lot of mental effort for a
    long period of time (such as schoolwork or
    homework).
  • Often loses things needed for tasks and
    activities (e.g. toys, school assignments,
    pencils, books, or tools).
  • Is often easily distracted.
  • Is often forgetful in daily activities.
  • Six or more of the following symptoms of
    hyperactivity-impulsivity have been present for
    at least 6 months to an extent that is disruptive
    and inappropriate for developmental level

20
ADHD
  • Diagnostic Criteria for Hyperactive type
  • Hyperactivity
  • Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in
    seat.
  • Often gets up from seat when remaining in seat is
    expected.
  • Often runs about or climbs when and where it is
    not appropriate (adolescents or adults may feel
    very restless).
  • Often has trouble playing or enjoying leisure
    activities quietly.
  • Is often "on the go" or often acts as if "driven
    by a motor".
  • Often talks excessively.

21
  • Impulsivity
  • Often blurts out answers before questions have
    been finished.
  • Often has trouble waiting one's turn.
  • Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g.,
    butts into conversations or games).
  • Some symptoms that cause impairment were present
    before age 7 years.
  • Some impairment from the symptoms is present in
    two or more settings (e.g. at school/work and at
    home).
  • There must be clear evidence of significant
    impairment in social, school, or work
    functioning.
  • The symptoms do not happen only during the course
    of a Pervasive Developmental Disorder,
    Schizophrenia, or other Psychotic Disorder. The
    symptoms are not better accounted for by another
    mental disorder (e.g. Mood Disorder, Anxiety
    Disorder, Dissociative Disorder, or a Personality
    Disorder).

22
Treatments for ADHD
  • Drug therapy
  • Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta, Strattera
  • About 1 out of every 8 children may take some
    form of stimulant
  • Behavior therapy
  • Token economy
  • Self-reinforcement
  • Negative consequences

23
Overprescribing Ritalin?
U.S. doctors prescribe Ritalin for ADHD more
frequently. Some experts argue the drug is
overprescribed.
24
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
  • Diagnostic Criteria
  • A pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant
    behavior lasting at least 6 months, during which
    four (or more) of the following are present
  • often loses temper
  • often argues with adults
  • often actively defies or refuses to comply with
    adults' requests or rules
  • often deliberately annoys people
  • often blames others for his or her mistakes or
    misbehavior
  • is often touchy or easily annoyed by others
  • is often angry and resentful
  • is often spiteful or vindictive

25
Treatments for ODD
  • Drug therapy
  • Ritalin appears to work well with those who have
    also been diagnosed with ADHD
  • Strattera-non-stimulant ADHD med
  • Divalproex (mood stabilizer for those who are
    prone to violence)
  • Omega-3 and Vitamin E combo research is a bit
    iffy on this

26
Treatment for ODD
  • Behavior therapy
  • Parent management
  • Give effective timeouts
  • Avoid power struggles
  • Remain calm and unemotional in the face of
    opposition
  • Recognize and praise your child's good behaviors
    and positive characteristics
  • Offer acceptable choices to your child, giving
    him or her a certain amount of control
  • Establish a schedule for the family that includes
    specific meals that will be eaten at home
    together, and specific activities one or both
    parents will do with the child
  • Limit consequences to those that can be
    consistently reinforced and if possible, last for
    a limited amount of time

27
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Piagets Concrete Operational Stage
  • 7 to 11 years
  • thought process is more logical, flexible and
    organized that in early childhood
  • Able to see beyond here and now
  • Less egocentric
  • Can see cause and effect relationships

28
Conservation
  • children can conserve at this stage-one of the
    most important developments
  • clear evidence of operations-mental actions that
    obey logical rules
  • Decentration-focus on several aspects of problem
    at once and relate to them
  • Reversibility-the ability to mentally go through
    the series of steps in a problem and then reverse
    the direction returning to the starting point

29
(No Transcript)
30
Decentering Reversibility
31
  • Child achieves conservation of
  • Number Age 6 to 7
  • Mass Age 7 to 8
  • Length Age 7 to 8
  • Area Age 8-9

32
At the beginning of the concrete operational
stage, kids reason that the 2 cars on these
routes are traveling the same speed even though
they arrive at the same time. Later, they realize
the correct relationship between speed distance.
33
Hierarchical Classification
  • now can group objects into hierarchies of classes
    and subclasses
  • collections are common in middle childhood
  • Seriation-order items in length and weight and
    height
  • Transitive inference-ability to perform seriation
    mentally

34
Spatial Reasoning
  • 7 to 8 years-mental rotations-align selfs frame
    to match that of a person in a different
    orientation identity left and right for
    positions that they do not occupy
  • 8 to 10 years-can give clear, well-organized
    directions for how to get from one place to
    another using mental walk strategies.

35
Limitations of Concrete Operational Thought
  • Children still need concrete information for the
    most part
  • abstract concepts are still difficult
  • Horizontal decalage-conservation problems in
    certain ordernumber first than length than mass
    than liquid

36
Information Processing in Middle Childhood
  • During middle childhood, short-term memory
    capacity improves significantly.
  • META-MEMORY, an understanding about the processes
    that underlie memory emerge and improve during
    middle childhood.
  • Children use control strategies, conscious,
    intentionally used tactics to improve cognitive
    functioning.
  • Children can be trained to use control strategies
    and improve memory.

37
Language Development During Middle Childhood
  • Vocabulary continues to increase during the
    school years.
  • School-age children's mastery of grammar
    improves.
  • Children's understanding of syntax, the rules
    that indicate how words and phrases can be
    combined to form sentences, grows during
    childhood.
  • Certain phonemes, units of sound, remain
    troublesome (j, v, h, zh).
  • One of the most significant improvements
    metalinguistic awareness

38
  • Early on, children may be talking to each other,
    but not about the same subject
  • Later, they develop the ability to actually
    communicate with another child that has meaning

39
Reading
  • Stage
  • 0 recognize letters/sounds
  • 1 sound out words
  • 2 reading becomes easier, but there is not as
    much understanding of the meaning
  • 3 reading becomes more meaningful
  • 4 can understand multiple points of view

40
When are kids ready for school?
  • Recent research suggests that age is not a
    critical indicator of when children should start
    school.
  • Some research suggests that delaying childrens
    entrance into school based on age may actually be
    harmful!
  • Developmental readiness is a better measure
    (family support, etc.)
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