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Risk Assessment 1

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Title: Risk Assessment 1 Author: Crispin Pierce Last modified by: Crispin Pierce Created Date: 10/11/2002 2:59:17 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Risk Assessment 1


1
Risk Assessment 1
Crispin Pierce, Ph.D. University of Washington
  • Thanks to Paul R. Harp, Ph.D., NH Department of
    Health Human Services, US EPA Air Quality
    Planning Standards Division, and the DOE Risk
    Assessment Information System.

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3
Hazard Identification
?
The hazard identification process determines
whether exposure to a chemical can increase the
incidence of a particular adverse health effect
and determines the likelihood of occurrence in
humans.
4
Exposure Assessment
5
Dose-Response Assessment
The dose-response assessment describes the
relationship between the magnitude of exposure
and the appearance and duration of adverse
effects.
6
Risk Characterization
  • Review toxicity and exposureassessment output
  • Quantify risks
  • Combine risks across all pathways
  • Assess present uncertainties
  • Consider site-specific human studies, if
    available
  • Summarize present baseline riskassessment
    characterization results

7
?
  • How would you sort out the incidence of disease
    related to toxicant exposure vs. the background
    incidence?
  • Should people who have both personal and
    occupational exposure to the same toxicants have
    different standards than those who dont? (e.g.,
    should smokers have lower occupational
    formaldehyde exposure limits?)

8
  • Should pregnant women be excluded from jobs where
    reproductive toxicant exposure occurs?

9
Perception of Risk
  • Activities Perceived as Higher Risk bythe United
    States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • Global warming
  • Indoor air pollution, including radon (high
    health risk)
  • Exposure to chemicals in consumer products (high
    health risk)
  • Surface water pollution (high ecological risk)
  • by the Public
  • Chemical waste disposal
  • Water pollution
  • Chemical plant accidents

10
  • Activities Perceived as Lower Risk by
  • the EPA
  • Hazardous waste sites - active and inactive
  • Underground storage tanks
  • the Public
  • Indoor air pollution
  • Exposure to chemicals in consumer products
  • Global warming

11
?
  • Should taxpayer dollars be spent on reducing the
    highest risks determined by experts (e.g., the
    EPA) or by the public?

12
Cancer vs. Non-Cancer Endpoints
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15
No (or Lowest) Observed Adverse Effect Level
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Modifying Factor
Additional UF between 1 and 10. Allows
professional assessment of additional uncertaintie
s not accounted for by the UF. Default is 1.
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22
?
  • How would you set exposure standards for
    simultaneous exposure to two chemicals that
    targeted the same organ?

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Weight of Evidence for Cancer Risk
31
?
  • In 1763, Reverend Edmund Stone effectively
    treated fever with the bark from willow trees.
    The effective ingredient turned out to be
    salicylic acid. This drug has been used in
    different forms since then, and has shown good
    efficacy and low toxicity in treating fever,
    pain, and arthritis. However, acetylsalicylic
    acid is teratogenic in mice, rats, and hamsters.
    How do you approach this controversy in deciding
    whether or not to approve this drug for use?

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