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ASTRONAUT SELECTION AND TRAINING

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Title: ASTRONAUT SELECTION AND TRAINING Author: Wilson County Schools Last modified by: Lois Douglas Created Date: 1/21/2004 9:13:56 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ASTRONAUT SELECTION AND TRAINING


1
we are the future
2
we are the future
3
Selection
  • Mans scope of space exploration has
    broadened since the first U.S manned space flight
    in 1961. In 1959, NASA asked the U.S. military
    services to list their members who met specific
    qualifications. NASA required jet aircraft flight
    experience and engineering training. Height could
    be no more than 5 feet 11 inches because of the
    limited cabin space available in the Mercury
    space capsule. From there NASA choose seven men
    to be come the first astronauts.

Original Mercury 7 Astronauts
4
Selection

So You Want To Be An Astronaut
When the Space program began in 1959 there were
only seven people. They all were Caucasian males
who were (or had been) in the armed forces.
5
Selection

Today shuttle crews are comprised of Americans
from every race, creed, color, and gender.
6
Selection

The Odds
NASA chooses its astronauts from an increasingly
diverse pool of applicants that, looks like
America". The most exciting day for anyone who
wants to travel into space is the day he or she
is selected to be an astronaut candidate. Then
the real work begins!
7
Selection

College
In high school, it is particularly important for
the student to earn the best possible grades for
standardized test scores (SAT and/or ACT). It is
then time to make some decisions as to the
specific direction of study, such as,
engineering, biological or physical science, or
mathematics. The "minimum degree requirement" for
an astronaut is a bachelor's from an accredited
institution. Three years of related increasingly
responsible professional experience must follow
that degree. Most astronauts to date, however,
continued with career and/or education to the
post-graduate levels and were able to substitute
education for all or part of their work
experience requirement. Admittedly though, being
selected could be a couple years off at the very
least. In the mean time you'll need to eat and
pay the rent. Besides, more experience can only
bode well for the applicant in the long-term.
Many schools offer degrees in technical fields,
math, and science. Check with a guidance/college
counselor or a good college directory.
Whatever school you do attend--one aspect remains
the same--do the very best that you possibly can.
8
Selection

Internships/Co-ops
During university study, as soon as students
arrive on campus they should go to the
co-operative and recruitment offices to explore
the possibilities of an internship or work/study
position to gain vital experience necessary to be
marketable. Students who did not explore career
possibilities until their senior year could miss
this opportunity. This will also help you to
understand what the particular companies are
looking for in terms of hiring policies and
experience levels. These students are often
offered jobs either when their internship is
completed or upon graduation.
9
Selection

Tips to Succeed
To communicate--both written and verbally is also
vital to working in the Space program. To know
history is important to success--not only as an
astronaut but as a citizen. It is suggested that
every American should be--at the very
least--bilingual. Space is a multinational and
multicultural-cultural operation.
10
Selection

Selection Criteria
The ASB interviews each person and assigns them a
rating based on experience and potential,
motivation, ability to function as a member of a
team, communicative abilities, and adaptability.
If you are not a team player, you do not have a
position with NASA. A good attitude and open mind
will help you succeed.
11
Training and Preparation

Astronaut training is highly specialized and
requires the efforts of literally hundreds of
persons and numerous facilities. As manned space
flight programs have become more sophisticated
over the years so too has the complex and length
training process needed to meet the demands of
operating the Space Shuttle. Initial training for
new candidates consists of a series of short
courses in aircraft safety, including instruction
in ejection, parachute and survival to prepare
them in the event their aircraft is disabled and
they have to eject or make an emergency landing.
Pilots and mission specialist astronauts train in
high performance T-38 jet aircraft.
12
Training and Preparation

STS 105 Shuttle Mission Astronaut Patrick G.
Forrester, mission specialist, photographed in a
T-38 trainer jet, prepares for a flight at
Ellington Field near Johnson Space Center.
13
Training and Preparation

In the formal academic areas, the novice
astronauts are given a full range of basic
science and technical courses, including
mathematics, Earth resources, meteorology,
guidance and navigation, astronomy, physics and
computer sciences. Basic knowledge of the Shuttle
system, including payloads, is obtained through
lectures, briefings, text books and flight
operations manuals. Mockups of the orbiter flight
and mid-decks, as well as the mid-body, including
a full-scale payload bay, train future crew
members in orbiter habitability, routine
housekeeping and maintenance, waste management
and stowage, television operations and
extravehicular activities.
14
Training and Preparation

STS 115 Shuttle Mission The STS-115 crewmembers
are briefed by United Space Alliance (USA) crew
trainer Bob Behrendsen during a classroom session
of water survival training at the Johnson Space
Center (JSC).
15
Training and Preparation

Aircraft weightless training is conducted in a
modified KC- 135 four-engine jet transport.
Flying a parabolic course, the aircraft is able
to create up to 30 seconds of weightlessness when
flying a parabolic maneuver. During this rather
brief period of time, astronauts can practice
eating and drinking as well as use various kinds
of Shuttle-type equipment. Training sessions in
the KC-135 normally last from 1 to 2 hours,
providing an exciting prelude to the sustained
weightless experience of space flight.
16
Training and Preparation

EVA Extravehicular Activity
As much fun as it is just to go to space, being
able to go outside your spacecraft is even more
exciting. Before you can float out the door, you
must spend many hours learning how to do a
spacewalk.
17
Training and Preparation

EVA Extravehicular Activity
First, you must learn how to put on your 280
pound spacesuit. It will provide you with the
air you need to breathe, and keep your body at a
comfortable temperature.
18
Training and Preparation

EVA Extravehicular Activity
Because the suit is so large, you must practice
moving around while wearing it and learn how to
use tools with bulky gloves on your hands.You can
practice doing spacewalks in large pools.
Astronauts usually spend seven hours training
underwater for every hour they will spend
spacewalking during a mission.
19
Training and Preparation

EVA Extravehicular Activity
The NBL, as its called, is a huge pool filled
with 22.7 million liters of water. In fact, its
the worlds largest indoor pool.Being underwater
is similar to being in space, but not quite the
same. Youre not truly weightless like in space,
but are neutrally buoyant. That means an object
doesnt want to float to the surface or sink to
the bottom.
20
Training and Preparation

The Sonny Carter Training Facility provides
controlled neutral buoyancy operations to
simulate the zero-g or weightless condition that
is experienced by spacecraft and crew during
space flight. It is an essential tool for the
design, testing and development of the
International Space Station and future NASA
programs. For the astronaut, the facility
provides important pre-flight training for
extravehicular activities (EVA) and with the
dynamics of body motion under weightless
conditions.
21
Training and Preparation
Photography

22
Training and Preparation

Food Selection
A nutritious meal is important on a mission, just
as it is here on Earth. Crews select the food
they like, and have it approved by a
nutritionist.
23
Training and Preparation
Survival

Many emergency scenarios are practiced.
24
Training and Preparation

Remote Manipulator System
Astronaut Scott Altman, STS-106 simulates control
of the RMS for the Space Shuttle Atlantis.
25
Training and Preparation

Weight Training
Expedition One commander, Bill Shepherd, lifts
dumbbells during a workout in a gymnasium at the
Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Facility in Russia.
26
Training and Preparation

Medical
Training with an mannequin representing a subject
in need of emergency care.
27
Training and Preparation

Virtual Reality
Astronaut John B. Herrington, STS-113 mission
specialist, uses virtual reality hardware in the
Space Vehicle Mockup Facility.
28
Training and Preparation

Science Experiments
Learning how to do your science experiments is an
important part of training. Teams of experts and
hundreds of hours are required to ensure every
crewmember has the knowledge and skills needed to
perform their assigned experiments. The
researchers on Earth are depending on them.
29
Training and Preparation

Assignment
After you finish your initial training period as
an astronaut candidate, you will be given a
technical assignment. In that job, you will
support astronauts who are already in space and
those who are training to go. There you will
wait, sometimes for years, for the next most
exciting day of your life the day you are
assigned to a space flight.
30
Training and Preparation

Travel
Crewmembers may travel around the world training
for a mission, long before they begin orbiting
the earth.
31
Training and Preparation

The Facts
Your 18 months of training will include
approximately 300 hours learning about the
systems ,300 hours learning to do spacewalks, 60
hours of medical training, 150 hours of science
experiments, 150 hours of language training, and
150 hours of robot arm training.
32
Types of Astronauts
Space Shuttle Crew Positions
Commander/Pilot Astronauts Pilot astronauts
serve as both space shuttle commanders and
pilots. During flight, the commander has onboard
responsibility for the vehicle, crew, mission
success, and safety of flight. The pilot assists
the commander in controlling and operating the
vehicle and may assist in the deployment and
retrieval of satellites using the remote
manipulator system (RMS), referred to as the
robot arm or mechanical arm.
33
Types of Astronauts
Space Shuttle Crew Positions
STS 111 Shuttle Mission Astronaut Paul S.
Lockhart, pilot, looks over a checklist while
performing a task at the commander's station on
the forward flight deck of the Space Shuttle
Endeavour.
34
Types of Astronauts
Space Shuttle Crew Positions
Mission Specialist Astronauts Mission specialist
astronauts have overall responsibility for
coordinating shuttle operations in the following
areas Shuttle systems, crew activity planning,
consumables usage, and experiment/payload
operations. Mission specialists are trained in
the details of the Orbiter onboard systems, as
well as the operational characteristics, mission
requirements/ objectives, and supporting
equipment/systems for each of the experiments
conducted on their assigned missions. Mission
specialists perform extravehicular activities
(EVAs), or space walks, operate the remote
manipulator system, and are responsible for
payloads and specific experiment operations.
35
Types of Astronauts
Space Shuttle Crew Positions
STS 110 Shuttle Mission Astronaut Rex J.
Walheim, STS-110 mission specialist, anchored to
the mobile foot restraint at the end of the
International Space Stations (ISS) Canadarm2,
works in tandem with astronaut Steven L. Smith
(out of frame), mission specialist, during the
first scheduled session of extravehicular
activity (EVA).
36
Types of Astronauts
Space Shuttle Crew Positions
Payload Specialist Astronauts Payload
specialists are persons other than NASA
astronauts (including foreign nationals) who have
specialized onboard duties they may be added to
shuttle crews if activities that have unique
requirements are involved and more than the
minimum crew size of five is needed. Although
payload specialists are not part of the Astronaut
Candidate Program, they must have the appropriate
education and training related to the payload or
experiment. All applicants must meet certain
physical requirements and must pass NASA space
physical examinations with varying standards
depending on classification.
37
Types of Astronauts
Space Shuttle Crew Positions
STS 109 Shuttle Mission Astronaut John M.
Grunsfeld, payload commander, peers into the crew
cabin of the Space Shuttle Columbia on March 4,
2002. Grunsfeld's helmet visor, with the
sunshield now in place, displays mirrored images
of the Earth's hemisphere and the Space Shuttle
Columbia's aft cabin.
38
FAQ
  • What is the best college or university to
    attend?
  • NASA cannot recommend one college or university
    over another, or specify which schools might best
    prepare an individual for the Astronaut Candidate
    Program. However, please remember that the
    college or university you attend must be an
    accredited institution.  
  • How much will I make as an astronaut?
  • Salaries for civilian Astronaut Candidates are
    based upon the Federal Government's General
    Schedule pay scale for grades GS-11 through
    GS-13. The grade is determined in accordance with
    each individual's academic achievements and
    experience. Currently a GS-11 starts at 51,799
    per year and a GS-13 can earn up to 95,977 per
    year.
  • Will NASA send a child into space?
  • While NASA appreciates the enthusiasm young
    people have shown in wanting to take part in the
    Space Program, there are no plans at this time to
    send children into space. Maybe one day this will
    be possible, but it will most likely be far in
    the future when space travel becomes an everyday
    occurrence. NASA has many programs that allow
    children to become involved with NASA and learn
    more
  • about space.

39
FAQ
  • What is the best degree field to choose?
  • Among the academic fields considered qualifying
    for Astronaut Candidate positions, we would not
    recommend one over another or specify which might
    be more appropriate in the future. You should
    choose a field of study that is of interest to
    you this will ensure that, whatever course your
    career takes, you will be prepared to do
    something that is personally satisfying.  
  • Are there age restrictions?
  • There are no age restrictions for the program.
    Astronaut candidates selected in the past have
    ranged between the ages of 26 and 46, with the
    average age being 35.
  • Is flying experience necessary?
  • Although flying experience is only a requirement
    for the Pilot Astronaut Candidate, it is also
    beneficial for the Mission Specialist Astronaut
    Candidate. The Pilots selected have had military
    pilot training. The Mission Specialists with
    flying experience have attained it either in the
    military or through private lessons.

40
A View of Earth
41
A View of Earth
City Lights of the Northeastern Seaboard of the
U.S. were captured with a 35mm camera by one of
the STS-98 astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle
Atlantis. The nighttime scene shows the bright
lights of several major cities that span a
distance from Connecticut (left middle) to states
south of Virginia (right middle).
42
A View of Earth
The STS-113 crewmembers used a 35mm still camera
to record this image of Mt. Etna Volcano erupting
on the island of Sicily. The oblique,
south-looking view shows Mt. Etna's dark ash
plume rising above the general altitude of storm
clouds over the Mediterranean Sea at sunset on
Dec. 14, 2002.
43
A View of Earth
The STS-113 crewmembers used a 35mm still camera
to record this image of a mid latitude storm
system. The counter-clockwise swirl shows that
this is a northern hemisphere storm. The storm
was northeast of the Mediterranean Sea, covering
the Balkans and western Turkey.
44
A View of Earth
Spiral Eddies off the East Coast Spiral eddies
spun off the inner edge of the Gulf Stream are
revealed by sunlight reflecting off a slick
formed by a very thin oily film, produced by
marine organisms. Thicker oil slicks produced by
petroleum products do not spread evenly across
the sea surface but clump up in patches.
45
A View of Earth
Malaspina Glacier, on the southeastern coast of
Alaska shows how the ice spreads out on the
unconfined flats, these black stripes are pulled
sideways into zigzags. During the ice ages, many
glaciers grew so large they flowed down the
entire length of the valleys, becoming vast
sheets of ice on the continental plains below.
46
A View of Earth
This image shows the United States of America at
night. Notice the different populated areas and
how they are lit.
47
Credits
Andrew Gaskill Wilson Central High School Earth
Crew Andrew is a senior at Wilson Central High
School and belongs to the Wilson Central Wildcat
Band as a student conductor, National Honor
Society and Earth Crew. His future plans include
going to Middle Tennessee State University to
major in Aerospace Engineering.
48
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