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Elizabethan England


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Title: Elizabethan England

Elizabethan England
Elizabeth (1533-1603)
  • Became queen 1558
  • Creatively handled problems

Acceptance Problems
  • Ascension confusion/dispute
  • Legitimacy
  • Personal image (turned liabilities to assets)
  • Young (25)
  • Out of power stream during Mary Tudor's reign
  • Female
  • Virgin
  • Coronation
  • Visits to the Lords
  • "Good Queen Bess"

Money Problems
  • Lords support Elizabeth's visits
  • Stopped the wars
  • Promoted industry and trade
  • Privateers

Religious Problems
  • Protestant versus Catholic division
  • Reaction to undo all of Mary's acts
  • Parliament dissolved ties to Catholicism
  • Puritan zealousness

French Problems
  • England at war with France
  • Instigated by Mary Tudor
  • Elizabeth didn't worry about pride issue
  • Complication Mary, Queen of Scots married to
    French king

Scottish Problems
  • Independent (since 1314) and resentful Scotland
  • Mary Queen of Scots
  • John Knoxs religious movement
  • Husband, French king, dies and she returns to
  • Not well liked in Scotland (exiled Knox and
  • Married Darnley and had a son and then Darnley
  • Mary forced to abdicate (refuge in England)
  • James VI of Scotland

Spanish Problems
  • Rivalry with England
  • Philip II interference
  • Privateers
  • Battle with Spanish Armada (1588)

English Problems
  • Vision for the country
  • Merchants
  • Seafarers
  • Promotion of the Golden Age
  • Prosperity and leisure
  • Arts
  • Language
  • Drama

Shakespeare (1564-1616)
  • Born in Stratford-on-Avon
  • Married, 2 daughters
  • Moved to London
  • The Chamberlain's Men

Shakespeares Major Plays
1599 - Julius Caesar1599-1600 - As You Like
It1600-02 - Twelfth Night1600-O1 -
Hamlet1597-1601 - The Merry Wives of
Windsor1600-O1 - "The Phoenix and the
Turtle"1601-02 - Troilus and Cressida1602-04
- All's Well That Ends Well1603-04 -
Othello1604 - Measure for Measure1604-09 -
Timon of Athens1605-06 - King Lear1605-06 -
Macbeth1606-07 - Antony and Cleopatra1607-09 -
Coriolanus1608-09 - Pericles1609-1O -
Cymbeline161O-1I - The Winter's Tale161I - The
Tempest1612-13 - Henry VIII1613 - The Two Noble
  • 1588-93 - The Comedy of Errors1588-92 - Henry
    VI (three parts)1592-93 - Richard III1592-94 -
    Titus Andronicus1593-94 - The Taming of the
    Shrew1593-94 - The Two Gentlemen of
    Verona1593-94 - "The Rape of
    Lucrece"1593-1600 - "Sonnets"1588-95 - Love's
    Labor's Lost1594-96 - Romeo and Juliet1595 -
    Richard II1594-96 - A Midsummer Night's
    Dream1590-97 - King John1592 - "Venus and
    Adonis"1596-97 - The Merchant of Venice1597 -
    Henry IV (Part I)1597-98 - Henry IV (Part
    II)1598-1600 - Much Ado About Nothing1598-99
    - Henry V

Globe Playhouse, London
  • Wrote 37 plays between 1588 and 1613
  • About 1.5 per year
  • Directed and starred in the plays
  • Wrote 154 sonnets

New Words
  • Solidified the English language
  • Dante did the same for Italian
  • Luther and Goethe did the same for German
  • Used nouns as verbs
  • Over 2000 new words
  • critical, aggravate, assassination
  • monumental, castigate, countless
  • Obscene, forefathers, frugal, hurry
  • Majestic, homicide, summit, reliance
  • Coined Phrases

  • "Shakespeare had a huge vocabulary. In the
    collected editions of his works--the first folio
    that was published seven years after his
    death--there are 27,000 different, individual
    words. In the King James translation of the
    Bible, which was published twelve years earlier,
    there are 7,000 words."
  • --Excerpt from Professor Peter Saccio's course
    "Shakespeare The Word and The Action"

  • If you cannot understand my argument, and
    declare Its Greek to me, you are quoting
    Shakespeare if you claim to be more sinned
    against than sinning, you are quoting
    Shakespeare if you recall your salad days, you
    are quoting Shakespeare if you act more in
    sorrow than in anger, if your wish is farther to
    the thought, if your lost property has vanished
    into thin air, you are quoting Shakespeare if
    you have ever refused to budge an inch or
    suffered from green-eyed jealousy, if you have
    played fast and loose, if you have been
    tongue-tied, a tower of strength, hoodwinked or
    in a pickle, if you have knitted your brows, made
    a virtue of necessity, insisted on fair play,
    slept not one wink, stood on ceremony, danced
    attendance (on your lord and master), laughed
    yourself into stitches, had short shrift, cold
    comfort or too much of a good thing, if you have
    seen better days or lived in a fools paradise
    why, be that as it may, the more fool you, for it
    is a foregone conclusion that you are (as good
    luck would have it) quoting Shakespeare

  • if you think it is early days and clear out bag
    and baggage, if you think it is high time and
    that that is the long and short of it, if you
    believe that the game is up and that truth will
    out even if it involves your own flesh and blood,
    if you lie low till the crack of doom because you
    suspect foul play, if you have your teeth set on
    edge (at one fell swoop) without rhyme or reason,
    then to give the devil his due if the truth
    were known (for surely you have a tongue in your
    head), you are quoting Shakespeare even if you
    bid me good riddance and send me packing, if you
    wish I was dead as a door-nail, if you think I am
    an eyesore, a laughing stock, the devil
    incarnate, a stony-hearted villain, bloody-minded
    or blinking idiot, then by Jove! it is all one
    to me, for you are quoting Shakespeare.
  • Bernard Levin in The History of English by
    McCrum, et al

  • Reality versus Perception
  • Ghost
  • Claudius and mousetrap
  • His own self (philosophy major)

  • Motivations for action
  • Obedience
  • Revenge
  • Duty
  • What is a proper motivation?
  • Compare Hamlet versus Nephi

  • Death

Death in Hamlet
  • "'Tis sweet and commendable in your nature,
    Hamlet, to give these mourning duties to your
    father But, you must know, your father lost a
    father That father lost his ...'tis unmanly
    grief it shows a will most incorrect to heaven
    a heart unfortified, a mind impatient an
    understanding simple and unschooled for what we
    know must be and is common as any the most vulgar
    thing to sense...Fie! 'Tis a fault to heaven, a
    fault against the dead, a fault to nature..."
  • Claudius in Hamlet

Death in Hamlet
  • "To be or not to be, that is the question
    Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer the
    slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, or to
    take arms against a sea of troubles, and by
    opposing end them? To die, to sleep, no more and
    by a sleep to say we end the heartache, and the
    thousand shocks that flesh is heir to, 'tis a
    consummation devoutly to be wished. To die to
    sleep to sleep! Perchance to dream ay, there's
    the rub for in that sleep of death what dreams
    may come, when we have shuffled off this mortal
    coil, must give us pause...
  • Hamlet

  • Death
  • Nature of mankind

Nature of Mankind in Hamlet
  • "What a piece of work is a man! How noble in
    reason! How infinite in faculty! In form and
    moving, how express and admirable! In action, how
    like an angel! In apprehension, how like a god!
    The beauty of the world! The paragon of animals!
    And yet, to me, what is this quintessence of
  • Hamlet

Nature of Mankind in Hamlet
  • "Use every man after his desert, and who should
    scape whipping? Use them after your own honour
    and dignity the less they deserve, the more
    merit is in your bounty."
  • Hamlet

Nature of mankind in Hamlet
  • "What is a man, if his chief good and market of
    his time be but to sleep and feed? A beast, no
    more... Now, whether it be beastial oblivion, or
    some craven scruple of thinking too precisely on
    the event, a thought which, quartered, hath but
    one part wisdom and ever three parts coward, I do
    not know. Why yet I live to say, 'This thing's to
    do' sith since I have cause, and will, and
    strength, and means, to do't. Examples gross as
    earth exhort me... How stand I then, that have a
    father killed, a mother stained, excitements of
    my reason and my blood, and let all sleep while
    to my shame I see the imminent death of twenty
    thousand men that for a fantasy and trick of fame
    go to their graves like beds... O from this time
    forth my thoughts be bloody or be nothing worth."
  • Hamlet

  • Death
  • Nature of mankind
  • Personal responsibility

"Personal Responsibility"in Hamlet
  • "Give me your pardon, sir I have done you wrong
    But pardon't as you are a gentleman... Let my
    disclaiming from a purposed evil free me so far
    in your most generous thoughts, that I have shot
    mine arrow o'er the house, and hurt my brother."
  • Hamlet

Character Development in Hamlet
  • "How does Shakespeare create the roundness of
    character? By throwing light on new aspects of
    the person in successive relations. Polonius as
    a courtier is obsequious, as a royal adviser
    overconfident, as a father to his daughter
    callously blind, as a father to his son,
    endearingly wise. The grand result of this
    method, this multi-dimensional mapping, is that
    since Montaigne and Shakespeare, plays, novels,
    and biographies have filled the western mind with
    a galaxy of characters whom we know better than
    ourselves and our neighbors.
  • Barzun, Jacques, From Dawn to Decadence,
    Perennial, 2000, p141.

Personal Responsibility
  • "Give thy thoughts no tongue, nor any
    unproportioned thought his act. Be thou familiar,
    but by no means vulgar. The friends thou hast,
    and their adoption tried, grapple them to thy
    soul with hoops of steel but do not dull thy
    palm with entertainment of each new-hatched,
    unfledged comrade. Beware of entrance to a
    quarrel but, being in, bear 't that the opposed
    may beware of thee. Give every man thine ear, but
    few thy voice Take each man's censure, but
    reserve thy judgment. Costly thy habit as thy
    purse can buy, but not expressed in fancy rich,
    not gaudy for the apparel oft proclaims the
    man... neither a borrower or a lender be for
    loan oft loses both itself and friend, and
    borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry. This
    above all to thine own self be true, and it must
    follow, as the night the day, thou canst not then
    be false to any man.
  • Polonius in Hamlet

Ophelia Syndrome
Ophelia Syndrome
  • The situation
  • Ophelia was listening to advice from three
    conflicting sources
  • Hamlet (her sweetheart)
  • Laertes (her brother)
  • Polonius (her father)
  • The problem
  • The advice she received was conflicting
  • She decided to trust her father

Ophelia Syndrome
  • Polonius asked if she Ophelia believed
    Hamlet's affections were genuine, to which
    Ophelia respondd, I do not know my Lord, what
    should I think. Polonius answered, I'll teach
    you. Think yourself a baby.

Ophelia Syndrome
  • What happens?
  • Ophelia obeys her father and betrays Hamlet
  • Hamlet breaks off their relationship
  • Hamlet mistakenly kills her father
  • Hamlet leaves for England
  • Ophelia goes crazy and commits suicide

Ophelia Syndrome
  • The Ophelia Syndrome manifests itself in the
    university. The Ophelia writes copious notes in
    every class and memorizes them for
    examinations...The Ophelia wants to be a parrot,
    because it feels safe.... But eventually every
    discipline enters into the unknown, the
    uncertain, the theoretical, the hypothetical,
    where teachers can no longer tell students with
    certainty what they should think...."
  • Thomas G. Plummer (BYU Professor in
    German/Slavic Languages)

Ophelia Syndrome
  • Teachers also become accustomed to their role as
  • They focus on telling students how to think in a
    particular situation
  • They give exam questions and other assignments
    that require memorized answers or are solutions
    to problems that have exact solutions

Ophelia Syndrome
  • Steps for overcoming the syndrome (for students)
  • 1. Seek out and learn from great teachers,
    regardless of what they teach.
  • 2. Dare to know and trust yourself.
  • 3. Learn to live with uncertainty.
  • 4. Practice dialectical looking for alternates
  • 5. Foster idle thinking.
  • 6. Plan to step out of bounds in thinking
    patterns. Thomas Plummer (BYU)

In other words, be creative!!
  • No one can make you feel inferior without your
  • Eleanor Roosevelt (quoted in Charles Chic
    Thompson, What a Great Idea, 1992, 29)

  • Honorable Man Destroyed by a Character Flaw and
    by an evil subordinate
  • Ultimate Tragedy

Other works by Shakespeare
  • Macbeth
  • Romeo and Juliet
  • Henry V
  • Julius Caesar
  • Taming of the Shrew
  • Sonnets

Romeo and Juliet
  • Romeo.
  • To Juliet. If I profane with my unworthiest
  • This holy shrine, the gentle fine is this,--
  • My lips, two blushing pilgrims, ready stand
  • To smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss.
  • Juliet.
  • Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand too much,
  • Which mannerly devotion shows in this
  • For saints have hands that pilgrims' hands do
  • And palm to palm is holy palmers' kiss.
  • Romeo.
  • Have not saints lips, and holy palmers too?
  • Juliet.
  • Ay, pilgrim, lips that they must use in

  • Romeo.
  • O, then, dear saint, let lips do what hands do
  • They pray, grant thou, lest faith turn to
  • Juliet.
  • Saints do not move, though grant for prayers'
  • Romeo.
  • Then move not while my prayer's effect I take.
  • Thus from my lips, by thine my sin is purg'd.
  • Kissing her.
  • Juliet.
  • Then have my lips the sin that they have took.
  • Romeo.
  • Sin from my lips? O trespass sweetly urg'd!
  • Give me my sin again.

Sonnet 29
  • When in disgrace with fortune and mens eyes
  • I, all alone, beweep my outcast state,
  • And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries,
  • And look upon myself and curse my fate,
  • Wishing me like to one more rich in hope,
  • Featured like him, like him with friends
  • Desiring this mans art and that mans scope,
  • With what I most enjoy contented least.
  • Yet in these thoughts, myself almost despising,
  • Haply I think on thee, and then my state
  • Like to the lark at break of day arising
  • From sullen earth sings hymns at Heavens gate,
  • For thy sweet love remembered such wealth
  • That then I scorn to change my state with kings.

Sonnet 18
  • Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
  • Thou art more lovely and more temperate
  • Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
  • And summer's lease hath all too short a date
  • Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
  • And often is his gold complexion dimm'd
  • And every fair from fair sometime declines,
  • By chance, or nature's changing course untrimm'd
  • But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
  • Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st
  • Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
  • When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st
  • So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
  • So long lives this, and this gives life to

Sonnet 116
  • Let me not to the marriage of true minds
  • Admit impediments. Love is not love
  • Which alters when it alteration finds,
  • Nor bends with the remover to remove.
  • O no! it is an ever-fixed mark,
  • That looks on tempests and is never shaken
  • It is the star to every wandering bark,
  • Whose worth's unknown, although his height be
  • Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and
  • Within his bending sickle's compass come
  • Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,
  • But bears it out even to the edge of doom.
  • If this be error and upon me proved,
  • I never writ, nor no man ever loved.

Shakespeares Environment and Motivation
  • Earning a Living (Profit)
  • Love of the Language/Drama
  • Duty to Friends

King James Version of the Bible
  • Helped in defining English language
  • Wycliffe version (1378)
  • Tyndale version (1526)
  • King James version
  • Translation method

Tyndale's Contributions
  • Phrases
  • The powers that be
  • My brother's keeper
  • The salt of the earth
  • A law unto themselves
  • Words invented
  • Jehovah
  • Passover
  • Atonement
  • Scapegoat

  • extracted The edition of the English New
    Testament published at Worms in 1526 by Tyndale
    must be regarded as a landmark in the history of
    the English Bible. Tyndale was influenced by the
    Luther version of the Bible in both concept and
    phrasing. Tyndale had to invent many religious
    words and phrases because no previous religious
    discussions and writings had been in English but,
    rather, were in Latin.
  • McGrath, In the Beginning, 2002, 73-77

  • extracted Perhaps the most bizarre scheme
    devised by the English Catholic Church to
    stifle the new Tyndale translation involved a
    Bishop who met a book merchant in Antwerp and
    mentioned how anxious he (the Bishop) was to burn
    as many of Tyndale's New Testaments as possible.
    The merchant informed the Bishop that, for a
    price, he would be able to get hold of as many
    copies as the Bishop liked. The merchant then
    informed Tyndale of the deal. Tyndale printed an
    extra run of books which he sold to the merchant
    and the merchant sold to the Bishop. The deal
    worked. The Bishop burned the books and Tyndale
    got the profits so that he could print more
  • From McGrath, In the Beginning, Anchor, 2002,

Hebrew idioms were used in the King James Version
(and just translated literally)
  • "to lick the dust" (Psalm 729)
  • "to fall flat on his face" (Numbers 2231)
  • "to pour out one's heart" (Psalm 628)
  • "the land of the living" (Job 2813)
  • "under the sun" (Ecclesiastes 13)
  • "sour grapes" (Ezekiel 182)
  • "from time to time" (Ezekiel 410)
  • "pride goes before a fall" (Proverbs 1618)
  • "the skin of my teeth" (Job 1920)
  • "to stand in awe" (Psalm 44)
  • "to put words in his mouth" (Exodus 415)
  • "to go from strength to strength" (Psalm 847)
  • "like a lamb to the slaughter" (Isaiah 537)

Some Variations on Hebrew Idioms
  • "rise and shine" (from Isaiah 601)
  • "to see the writing on the wall" (from Daniel
  • "a fly in the ointment" (from Ecclesiastes 101)

Some Greek Influences
  • "the salt of the earth" (Matthew 513)
  • "a thorn in the flesh" (2 Corinthians 127)
  • "the powers that be" (Romans 131)
  • "and it came to pass" (Mark 19 and over 400
  • "the scales fell from his eyes" (based on Acts

Thank You
Death in Hamlet
  • "O that this too solid flesh would melt, thaw and
    resolve itself into a dew! Or that the
    Everlasting had not fixed his canon 'gainst
    self-slaughter! O God! O God! How weary, stale,
    flat, and unprofitable seem to me all the uses of
    this world! Fie on 't! Ah, fie!"
  • Hamlet

Sonnet 12
  • When I do count the clock that tells the time,
  • And see the brave day sunk in hideous night
  • When I behold the violet past prime,
  • And sable curls, all silvered o'er with white
  • When lofty trees I see barren of leaves,
  • Which erst from heat did canopy the herd,
  • And summer's green all girded up in sheaves,
  • Borne on the bier with white and bristly beard,
  • Then of thy beauty do I question make,
  • That thou among the wastes of time must go,
  • Since sweets and beauties do themselves forsake
  • And die as fast as they see others grow
  • And nothing 'gainst Time's scythe can make
  • Save breed, to brave him when he takes thee

The conflict
  • Should you think according to how you are taught
    to think?
  • Or
  • Should you think creative thoughts that are
    different from what you have been taught?

The conflict in education
  • The education system emphasizes learning by
  • The education system emphasizes logics (linear
  • The education system has killed imagination
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