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Evolution of Information Technology Infrastructure

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Title: Assessing an Organization's Capability to Implement Strategic Priorities: Preliminary Results Author: Jim Coakley Last modified by: COB Created Date – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Evolution of Information Technology Infrastructure


1
Evolution of Information Technology
Infrastructure
  • OEMBA Week 1

2
Definitions
  • IT Infrastructure physical facilities, services
    and management that support computing resources
  • Information Technology
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Telecommunications Networks
  • Database
  • IT personnel

3
Definitions
  • Information Systems Architecture the plan
    that aligns IT infrastructure with business needs
  • Help people effectively fulfill their information
    needs
  • Note that the term Information Architecture is
    now being used to describe process of designing
    web sites

4
Evolution of Information Technology
Infrastructure
Three Major Eras of the Computer Industry
Network Era
Micro-Computing Era
Ability to fill information needs
1990
Data Processing Era
1980
1960
Adapted from "Intranets and Middleware", HBR
397-118.
5
Internet
Mini/WAN
Mainframe
6
Data Processing Era
  • IT Infrastructure (legacy environment)
  • Hardware Mainframe with host-centric processing
  • Software Functional TPS, automation focus
  • Database Hierarchical or indexed files
  • Telecommunications very limited
  • IT Personnel technically oriented
  • Information Systems architecture?
  • Labeled each application with Acronym and mapped
    to functional area

7
Information Systems Architecture
Executive
Functional IS
EIS
Managerial
Management Information Systems
Hierarchical Database
Functional Transaction Processing Systems
Operations
8
Transaction Processing System (TPS)
  • Emerged in the early days of IS
  • Collect, store, and process transactions
  • Source documents are basis for input
  • Perform routine, repetitive tasks
  • Found in all functions of an organization
  • If they fail, the whole organization may suffer
  • Efficiency Focus
  • Automate structured decision processes

9
Management Information System (MIS)
  • Convert/use TPS data to support monitoring
  • Alert managers to problems or opportunities
  • Provide periodic and routine reports
  • e.g., summary reports, exception reports,
    comparison reports
  • Information overload
  • Starting toward an effectiveness focus
  • Provide structured information to support
    decision making

10
Database Structures
  • Hierarchical
  • Indexed sequential (hierarchical) approach
  • Good for 1M (parent-child) relationships
  • Biggest advantage Speed and efficiency of search
  • Problem
  • Data relationships must be explicitly defined
    when database is created, difficult to change

11
Hierarchical Database
12
Success of IT systems?
13
Micro-Computing Era
  • IT Infrastructure (PC environment)
  • Hardware PCs
  • Software Informating
  • Database Functional Relational
  • Telecommunications low-speed
  • Network Local Area Networks
  • IT Personnel technically oriented
  • Information Systems architecture?
  • End users creating own applications

14
Information Systems Architecture
Executive
EIS
Managerial
SSS
SSS
SSS
Management Information Systems
Relational Database
Functional Transaction Processing Systems
Operations
15
Relational Database Approach
  • Advantage
  • High flexibility can easily combine information
    from related tables
  • Disadvantage
  • Lower processing efficiency
  • Expensive
  • Still functional focus

16
Strategic Support Systems
db
db
db
db
  • Proliferation of desktop applications
  • Decision Support Systems
  • Provide information to support semi-structured
    decision making
  • Simons model Intelligence, Design, Choice
  • At least one of those stages is unstructured, and
    at least one is structured
  • Effectiveness focus
  • End-user development
  • Proliferation of localized supporting databases

17
Data Communications Hardware
  • Modem
  • Modulate demodulate

18
Telecommunications Media
  • Criteria that determine speed
  • Frequency cycles per second (baud). Hertz is
    one cycle per second. measure of speed. (assume
    send one bit per cycle)
  • Bandwidth difference between highest and lowest
    frequencies which can be transmitted. measure of
    capacity (pulse-code modulation)
  • Attenuation signal strength weakens as it
    travels over distance.
  • Interference EMI (electromagnetic) and RFI
    (radio frequency)

19
Media
  • Twisted Pair standard telephone lines
  • High availability
  • Lower speeds, poor security
  • Cable coaxial cable.
  • Less interference, higher bandwidth
  • Higher cost, low security

20
Wireless Media
  • Microwave
  • Towers spaced 30 miles apart (line of sight)
  • Easier than trenching wires into dirt
  • Susceptible to interference
  • Satellite
  • Eliminates line-of-sight issue
  • Propagation delay
  • HF (high frequency)/RF (radio frequency)
  • Use for short range (within warehouse)

21
Methods to Direct Data
  • Circuit Switching
  • Telephone
  • Two-way connection established

22
Local Area Network
  • Connects PCs together
  • Peer-to-peer
  • Server-based
  • File server
  • Distance restrictions
  • Between 1000 and 5000 feet
  • Why?

23
LAN
  • Protocol
  • Control line access and collision avoidance
  • Types -- broadcast
  • Bus with CSMA/CD
  • Token
  • Common LAN Protocols
  • Ethernet Bus with CSMA/CD
  • Token Bus
  • Token Ring

24
Figure 6.4 The five main network typologies.
25
Figure 6.4 (Continued)
26
Success of IT Systems?
27
Client/Server Era
  • IT Infrastructure (distributed computing
    environment)
  • Hardware PCs and Servers
  • Software Facilitating
  • Database Distributed Relational and centralized
    warehouse
  • Telecommunications high-speed
  • Network Client/Server, Distributed Middleware
  • IT Personnel technically skilled, business
    oriented
  • Information Systems architecture?
  • Enterprise-wide applications

28
Types of Systems
Executive
EIS
Managerial
Cus
Sup
Support Systems
Management Information Systems
Corporate-wide Database
Enterprise wide TPS (ERP)
Operations
29
Specialized Support Systems
  • Office automation
  • IS for office employees
  • Extension of Office
  • Document tracking, communication, scheduling,
    etc.

30
Specialized Support Systems (contd)
  • Expert Systems
  • Knowledge-base integrated with DSS
  • Most are rule-based systems that process facts,
    not numbers
  • Credit evaluation
  • Cisco tech support

31
LANs
  • New LAN Protocols
  • Ethernet Bus with CSMA/CD
  • Token Bus
  • Token Ring
  • FDDI
  • Fiber Distributed Data Interface
  • Token Ring on fiber
  • Fast Ethernet (100 mbps)
  • Gigabit Ethernet

32
Actual Network
  • Need to connect LANs together
  • Gateway
  • Translate protocols
  • Bridge
  • Same protocol
  • Router
  • Routes messages between same protocol
  • Switch
  • Point-to-point
  • Hub
  • Broadcast

33
Wide Area Network
  • What is it?
  • How connect?
  • Leased Lines
  • Satellite
  • Other options
  • VAN
  • Private, data-only network managed by third party
  • Virtual Private Network
  • Run WAN over internet (tunneling)

34
Wide Area Network contd
  • Types of transmission
  • Circuit switching
  • Packet switching
  • Frame relay
  • Faster, less expensive
  • Does not perform error correction
  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode
  • Seamlessly and dynamically switch voice, data and
    video at up to 2.5 GBPS
  • Uses uniform cells (53 by 8) eliminating need for
    protocol conversion

35
Distributed Processing
  • Terminal-to-host
  • All processing performed by host
  • Thin client
  • File Server
  • All processing performed by client
  • Fat client
  • Server merely allows sharing of files
  • Client/Server
  • Processing split between client and host

36
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37
Database Approaches
  • Centralized
  • All data in one location
  • Promotes maintenance and security
  • Subject to single point of failure
  • As size of database grew, performance suffered
  • Broadband still emerging, very expensive

38
Database Approaches
  • Distributed data management
  • Get data closer to applications
  • Replicated
  • Complete copies in multiple locations
  • Significant overhead
  • Partitioned
  • Each location has portion of database

39
Online Transaction Processing
db
Client/Server
db
db
db
  • Transactions used to interact with a relational
    client-server database
  • For each transaction, OLTP typically deals with a
    small number of rows from the tables
  • The transactions are typically highly structured,
    repetitive and have predetermined outcomes
  • E.g., orders, changing customer address, etc.

40
Network Era
  • IT Infrastructure (distributed computing
    environment)
  • Hardware PCs and Servers
  • Software Facilitating, enterprise-wide
  • Database Distributed Relational
  • Telecommunications high-speed
  • Network Middleware
  • IT Personnel still technical, but business
    awareness

41
High Speed Telecommunications
  • ISDN
  • Worldwide digital protocol using existing
    twisted-pair telephone lines
  • Transmit voice, video and data up to 1.5 Mbps
  • Dedicated Lines
  • T1 (1.5 Mbps) and T3 (45 Mbps)
  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
  • Seamlessly and dynamically switch voice, data and
    video
  • Speeds range from 155 Mbps to 2.5 Gbps
  • Uses uniform cells (53 by 8) eliminating need for
    protocol conversion

42
Introduction of Middleware
  • Software that makes it possible for systems on
    different platforms to communicate with each
    other.
  • Allows applications to talk to each other
  • Consistent Application Program Interface (API)
  • Code application to talk to middleware, not
    underlying resources
  • Upgrade/modify underlying resources without
    needing to modify applications

43
Middleware Technologies
  • There were 3 basic types of middleware
  • Transaction Processing Monitor (TP)
  • Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
  • Message-Oriented Middleware (MOM)

44
Transaction Processing Monitor (TP)
  • TP system

Transaction request
Clients
TP Monitor
Data
Transaction Processing
45
TP Monitor (contd)
  • TP is used to build on-line transaction
    processing (OLTP) systems by coordinating and
    monitoring the efforts of separate applications.
  • TP can provide the following
  • Control transaction applications
  • Provide business logic/rules
  • Database updates

46
Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
  • Building distributed applications

47
Characteristics of RPC
  • Request/reply communication
  • Synchronous Vs Asynchronous
  • Location/platform transparency
  • Allows applications on separate machines to
    interact without focusing on
  • The operating system
  • Communications hardware protocol
  • Programming language

48
Message-Oriented Middleware (MOM)
  • Functions similar to RPC
  • Provides asynchronous communication between
    client server applications
  • There are two types
  • Publication/Subscription (Pub/Sub)
  • Message Queuing

49
Pub/Sub Vs. Message Queuing
  • Pub/Sub

Message
Publishing Service
Subscribers
50
Pub/Sub Vs. Message Queuing (contd)
  • Message Queuing

Message
Receiving Application
Queue
51
DBMS Applications
  • With advent of high-speed, distributed
    architectures, expanded our use of database
    beyond capturing and storing transaction data
  • Knowledge Discovery

52
Knowledge Discovery
  • What is it
  • Process of extracting useful knowledge from
    volumes of data
  • Supported by three technologies
  • Massive data collection
  • Multiprocessor computing
  • Data mining

53
Massive Data Collection
  • Business problem
  • Difficult for larger organizations to analyze
    organizational data from multiple sources
  • Even with enterprise-wide applications, tend to
    have distributed database
  • Solution ? Data warehouse

54
Data Warehouse
  • Collection of data in support of decision making
    process that is
  • Subject-oriented organized by entity, not
    application
  • Integrated stored in one place, even though it
    originated from a variety of sources
  • Crosses functional boundaries of an organization
  • Time-variant represents a snapshot at one point
    in time
  • Nonvolatile data is read-only
  • Typically very large

55
Issues with Traditional RDBMS as DW
  • Difficult for user to understand the DB structure
    and report information from it.
  • Slow retrieval due to complex relations

56
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57
Multidimensional Database
  • OLTP not good when doing analysis of the database
    poor performance
  • OLAP on-line analytical processing
  • Data stored in arrays similar to tables
  • Dimensions are the edges of the cube
  • Represent views of business data
  • Sales Example product, geography, time
  • Intersection represents sales of specific
    product, to customers in specific market, on
    certain date
  • Look for relationships among business elements in
    database form basis for the cubes

58
Advantages of OLAP
  • All hierarchical or aggregated values can be
    pre-calculated in the cube rather than accessing
    the Warehouse
  • Major reduction in query time
  • Each cube makes business sense
  • Not normalized data structures

59
Slice and Dice an OLAP Cube
60
Multidimensional Database (contd)
  • Data marts
  • Scaled-down version of a data warehouse that
    focuses on a specific area
  • e.g., a department, a business process

61
Massive Data Analysis
  • Data mining
  • Provides a means to extract patterns and
    relationships
  • Example Analyze sales data to identify products
    that may be attractive to a customer
  • Amazon.com buyer suggestions
  • Two capabilities
  • Automated prediction of trends and behaviors
  • Automated discovery of previously unknown
    patterns
  • Example Shopping cart analysis

62
Massive Data Analysis
  • Characteristics of Data Mining
  • Relevant data in large database
  • Typically has client/server architecture
  • Tools integrated with spreadsheets to support
    analysis
  • Data Mining Tools
  • Neural computing
  • Intelligent agents
  • Association Analysis

63
Internet Era
  • IT Infrastructure (Web-enabled)
  • Hardware PCs, Servers, Browsers
  • Software Web extensions
  • Database Distributed Relational
  • Network Use IP-based standards
  • Telecommunications broadband
  • IT Personnel Business analysts, technical
    specialties

64
Business use of the InternetElectronic Commerce
  • E-business
  • Subset of e-commerce
  • Transactions between business partners
  • B2C Internet
  • B2B Extranet
  • B2E Intranet

Enterprise
Supplier/ Customer
Individual
Extranet
Internet
Intranet
65
What is the Internet?
  • Global network of LANs
  • How did Internet evolve?
  • Originated in 1969, restricted to government,
    research and education (Arpanet)
  • WWW released in 1992
  • In 1993
  • Ban on commercial use lifted
  • Mosaic released
  • Growth (different data depending on source)
  • 3 million in 94
  • 40 million in 97
  • 100 million in 98

66
What are the underlying technologies?
  • Packet Switching
  • .X25 standard uses packets of 128 bytes
  • Each packet travels independently through network
  • Protocols TCP/IP
  • Internet Protocol destination address
  • Each computer has its own IP address
  • Domain name system (DNS)
  • Transmission Control Protocol breaks
    information into data packets

67
Backbone
68
What is WWW?
  • Application that uses the internet
  • Set a standards for storing, retrieving,
    formatting and displaying information via
    client/server architecture
  • HTML standard language
  • Connection
  • Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
  • Hypertext transport protocol (http)
    communication protocol to transfer pages
  • ftp File Transfer Protocol

69
What are Pull and Push technologies?
  • Pull technology
  • Individual browsers
  • Offline browsers retrieve at specified time
  • Search engines
  • Metasearch engine enter search in multiple
    engines
  • Push technology
  • Pointcast based on profile, sends pages
  • Also used to distribute software updates
  • Filters limit content

70
Broadband Communications
  • High-speed connections
  • Distinguish upstream and downstream
  • 56K modem has upstream of 31.2 and downstream of
    56
  • For Internet use, need higher downstream rates
  • Three options
  • DSL
  • Cable Modem
  • Satellite

71
Cable Modem
  • Send and receive data over the coaxial cable used
    in cable television system

72
Advantages of Cable Modem
  • Speed
  • The fastest home Internet connection speeds
    possible
  • Up to 30 mbps (megabits per second)
  • Ease of setup
  • As simple as installing regular cable
  • Call local provider for setup
  • Low cost
  • ATT_at_Homes monthly service charge is 39.95 in
    most markets

73
Disadvantage
  • Must have cable
  • Speed dependent on number of users
  • High installation fee

74
DSL - Digital Subscriber Lines
  • Brings high bandwidth information to homes or
    small businesses over ordinary telephone lines
  • Can use telephone and PC on the same line and at
    the same time

75
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76
Advantages
  • Speed --
  • Individual connections will provide from 512 Kbps
    to 1.544 Mbps downstream and about 128 Kbps
    upstream
  • These are not shared (as in cable modem)
  • Carries voice conversations and data connections
    at the same time

77
Disadvantages
  • Restricted availability
  • Higher cost for higher speeds

78
Satellite Technologies
  • A device used to transmit and receive signals
    from a satellite transponder

79
How does it work?
80
Advantages
  • Speed
  • 400 Kbps downstream, upstream through modem
  • Internet and TV on one dish
  • Can be used in remote areas
  • Easy to install

81
Disadvantages
  • Slower than DSL or cable modem

82
Who controls access to consumer?
  • Cable Modem vs DSL
  • Cable Industry Cable modems
  • TCI
  • Time Warner
  • Comcast
  • ATT
  • Owned cable reaching 25 million homes
  • Now focusing on wireless
  • Baby Bells
  • Digital Subscriber Lines

83
Web-based Solutions
  • Early attempts to incorporate WWW into
    inter-organizational systems
  • Static, state-less web pages
  • Complicated navigation
  • Not connected to underlying data
  • Page not dynamically updated when data changes

84
Object Request Broker (ORB)
  • Like RPC, ORB involves synchronous communication
    and location/platform transparency.
  • Unlike RPC, which uses standard programming
    methods, ORB uses object-oriented programming
    methods.

85
ORB (contd)
  • Distributed objects
  • Object encapsulate data and processes that
    affect data
  • Example communicate with customer
  • Invoke email
  • Two standards
  • Common Object Request Broker Architecture (COBRA)
  • Component Object Model (COM)

86
ORB (contd)
  • ORB architecture

ORB
activate service
locate service
establish connection
Remote Service (object)
Client
communicate
87
Advantages of ORB Middleware
  • Anonymous interaction among applications
  • Integrate new client/server applications with
    existing legacy, mission-critical applications
  • Easier development environment
  • Reduce cost
  • Improve time-to-market of applications
  • Enables distributed data environment
  • Enables dynamic web applications

88
Disadvantages of ORB Middleware
  • Switching costs are high
  • Upgrade from previous Middleware solutions
  • Requires high technical expertise
  • Tend to outsource
  • Lengthy deployment time

89
Unresolved Issues with ORB
  • Security
  • Scalability
  • Related to network capacity
  • Rapidly changing technologies

90
Web Services
  • IT Infrastructure (Application Service Providers)
  • Hardware Web-based Servers, Browsers
  • Software Object-Oriented
  • Database Distributed Relational, XML Wrappers
  • Network Use IP-based standards
  • Telecommunications wireless
  • IT Personnel Business Partners, technical
    specialties

91
Web Service Components
Dictionary definewhat it is and howit works
WS Directory
Directory
UDDI
UDDI/WSDL
XML/SOAP/HTTP
WS Client
Protocols for exchanging information
WS Provider
92
Web Service Components
ApplicationServer
Secure TCP/IPConnections
WS Registry (UDDI, WSDL)
SOAP/HTTP
JDBC
J2EE
Web Services
EnterpriseApplication
Enterprise Integration Server (SOAP processor)
SOAP/HTTP
Service Requests
ODBC
SOAP/HTTP
.Net
93
Wireless
  • Wireless Application Protocol
  • Web page display standard for PDAs
  • Distinguish WAN and LAN
  • Multiple competing technologies for WAN
  • CDMA code-division multiple access
  • GSM global system for mobile communication
  • iDEN ntegrated dispatch enhanced network, which
    is used by Nextel
  • TDMA time division multiple access (TDMA).
  • Each of these has their 2.5/3G track, and the
    acronyms will morph accordingly. For example,
    GPRS is the next evolution of GSM 1X is the
    evolution of CDMA.

94
Wireless
  • Distinguish WAN and LAN (contd)
  • Closer to standards for LAN
  • Wi-Fi 802.11 families
  • (b) wireless ethernet. 11 mbps
  • (a) proposed standard. 54 mbps on 5 Gig radio
    band
  • (g) works in b band, but delivers a speed
  • Bluetooth
  • Connect devices to PC within 30 feet

95
Summarize
  • Internet era
  • Graphic-oriented, point-and-click, browser-based
    applications
  • Networks using IP-based standards
  • Company applications accessible via internet
  • Applications developed to run on IP-based
    networks
  • Provides market externalities large, lasting
    market for application software, so developers
    willing to make significant investments

96
Summary contd
  • Impact of current economic downturn?
  • Delayed efforts to shift operations onto Internet
  • Gartner Group still expects B2B e-commerce to
    reach 3.6 trillion by 2003
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