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Building Behaviors

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Title: Slide 1 Author: MMAYO Last modified by: erin Created Date: 7/27/2012 12:55:10 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Building Behaviors


1
Building Behaviors
  • Vermont BI Conference 2012

2
Skill Building
  • Specifically teach behaviors and skills which are
    functional alternatives to challenging behaviors
  • Behaviors may be in the learners repertoire or
    may have to be shaped over time

3
What are behaviors that you might look to
increase?
  • List some positive behaviors to teach
  • Playground
  • Lunchroom
  • Classroom

4
Some Alternative Skills To Teach
  • On Task
  • Following class routine
  • Work completion
  • Making eye contact
  • Following directions
  • Gentle hands
  • Polite words
  • Self-calming
  • Taking good time-outs
  • Friendship skills
  • Complementing others
  • Greeting others
  • Asking for help
  • Manding
  • Personal space/boundaries
  • Specific problem solving skills

5
Encouraging Behavior Reinforcement
  • A behavior is followed by an event (consequence)
    which serves to strengthen that behavior
  • Behavior ? Consequence ? More Behavior
  • It is only reinforcement if the behavior
    increases consequently
  • Increases the probability of the behavior
    occurring again

6
Reinforcement
  • Types of Reinforcement
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Obtain a reward
  • What we typically use in behavior plans
  • Negative reinforcement
  • Avoid an aversive event
  • What often is maintaining avoidant/escape behavior

7
Reinforcement
  • OUR DAILY LIVES ARE FILLED WITH REINFORCERS FOR
    THE BEHAVIORS WE ENGAGE IN
  • Eating cookies tastes good
  • Working leads to a paycheck
  • Good grooming leads to compliments
  • Being with our loved ones gives us enjoyment and
    fulfillment
  • Watching a comedy makes us laugh
  • Taking an aspirin makes us feel better
  • Infant crying produces attention from a loving
    parent

8
Types of Reinforcers
  • Social
  • Activity
  • Token/Symbolic
  • Sensory
  • Tangible
  • Edible/Drink

9
SELECTING REINFORCERS
  • Learn your clients interests, activities, hobbies
  • How/where do they spend their time
  • What do they do a lot of
  • Ask the client
  • Ask parents
  • Trial and error

10
Reinforcer Assessment Activity
  • Interview neighbor
  • Identify possible reinforcers
  • Prioritize top three reinforcers

11
Increasing the Effectiveness of Reinforcement
  • Contingency- Is the reinforcer delivered
    willy-nilly or contingent on the performance of
    the target behavior?
  • Immediacy- How close in time is the R delivered
    after the behavior occurs?
  • Power- Use high quality reinforcers of sufficient
    size/value
  • Schedule or Timing of Reinforcement- regular or
    varied intervals, R every time or every 3rd or
    4th time.
  • Deprivation vs. Satiation

12
How immediate does reinforcement have to occur
following a behavior for it to be effective?
  • The more immediate, the stronger the effect.
  • This is especially true for individual with
    significant communication deficits.

13
Building Behavioral Momentum
  • Layering Of Reinforcement
  • Immediately
  • Throughout The Day
  • End Of Day
  • Throughout The Week
  • Vary High and Low Probability Demands

14
A Simple Example of layered reinforcement
  • BehaviorTalking out in class
  • Present ReinforcerAttention
  • Prosocial SkillsRaising hand to obtain attention

15
A Simple Example (cont.)
  • Reinforcement
  • Immediate
  • Call on child when hand is raised, specific
    praise
  • Throughout the day
  • Stars on chart for raising hand to get attention
    or
  • Sticker on chart after classes in which hand
    raising happens, specific praise

16
A Simple Example (cont.)
  • Reinforcement (cont.)
  • Throughout/End of day
  • Activity reward/privilege for earning a specific
    number of stars
  • End of week
  • Bigger activity reward for having a good week

17
Building Behavior
  • Differential Reinforcement
  • Consistently reinforce alternative or
    incompatible behaviors while withholding
    reinforcement for problematic behaviors
  • Discussed in depth in Decreasing Behaviors

18
Premack Principle
  • Grandmas Rule- You have to eat your peas before
    you get your dessert.
  • Have low preference activities happen before high
    preference activities (1st finish your math
    sheet, then recess)

19
Helpful hints for effective use of reinforcement
  • Set an easily achieved initial expectation for
    reinforcement.
  • Look at what the current performance.
  • You can fade reinforcement by expecting higher
    levels of performance before reinforcement.
  • reinforce abundantly, but dont give way the
    store.
  • Evaluate reinforcers frequently.

20
Helpful hints for effective use of reinforcement.
  1. Use contingent attention and descriptive praise
  2. Gradually decrease frequency of reinforcement
    over time
  3. Gradually shift from contrived to naturally
    occurring reinforcers

21
Functional communication training
  • Teaching appropriate communicative behavior to
    replace problem behaviors
  • Teaching strategies paired with differential
    reinforcement is used
  • Think of examples where you have or could have
    used FCT

22
Token Economies
  • Behavior change system with 3 components
  • Specify target behavior(s) What they are earning
    tokens for
  • Tokens that participant(s) receive for emitting
    target behaviors- What kind (stickers, check
    marks, coins..)
  • A menu of back-up reinforcer items that
    participant(s) exchange for their earned tokens
    (What are they earning, how many tokens will they
    need to get it)

23
Examples of Token Systems
24
Examples of Token Systems
25
Examples of Token Systems
Tokens embedded in data sheet
26
Examples of Token Systems
27
Level systems
  • Type of token economy in which participants move
    up/down between different levels which are
    associated with different privileges and
    different amounts of independence and
    expectations

28
Contingency contracts
  • A document that specifies a contingent
    relationship between a specific behavior and a
    specific reinforcer.
  • 3 major components
  • A description of the task (who, what, when, how
    well)
  • A description of the reward (who, what, when, how
    much)
  • Task record (a place to record task completion)

29
Contingency Contracts
  • Reward side of behavioral contract must be as
    specific and complete as the task side
  • WHO the person that will be judging task
    completion and control delivery of the reward
  • WHAT is the reward
  • WHEN specifies the time that the reward can be
    received by the person earning it
  • HOW MUCH is the amount of reward that can be
    earned
  • Task the task side of the contract consists of
    four parts
  • Who is the person who will be performing the task
    and getting the reward
  • What is the task or behavior the person must
    perform
  • When identifies the time that the task must be
    completed
  • How well tells the specifics of the task

30
Contingency Contracts
  • GUIDELINES
  • Contracts must be fair
  • Contracts must be clear
  • Contracts must be honest

31
Group contingencies
  • A common consequence (usually a reward) is
    contingent on the behavior of one member, one
    part, or the whole of a group.
  • Ex paw prints at Vergennes Elementary
  • Independent Group Contingency same reinforcement
    and behavior expectation, only those that achieve
    the goal get R
  • Dependent Group Contingency whole group recieves
    R based on the behavior of an individual or
    small group
  • Interdependent Group Contingency all individuals
    in group must meet expectations for all to
    receive R

32
What skills are needed to be able to learn new
behaviors from these methods?
  • Imitation- being able to copy a model either
    verbally or behaviorally
  • Following verbal directions (not just compliance,
    but also auditory discrimination and receptive
    and expressive language skills.
  • What do you do if a student doesnt have these
    skills?
  • They will need specific programming to teach
    those skills
  • You can use shaping and chaining

33
Teaching New Skills Shaping
  • Shaping is the process of systematically and
    differentially reinforcing successive
    approximations to a terminal behavior. Shaping is
    used in many everyday situations to help learners
    acquire new behaviors. (p.421)
  • Cooper, J.O., Heron, T.E., Heward, W.L. (2007)
    Applied Behavioral Analysis (2nd Ed.) Upper
    Saddle River, NJ Pearson Education

34
Examples of behaviors that can be taught through
shaping
  • Signing more
  • Vocalizations
  • Note this technique is not often use alone, but
    is often a component of teaching, but is often
    paired with other techniques or a way to teach
    small components of larger behaviors. It can be
    especially helpful when teaching students who
    have weak imitation skills or limited verbal
    behaviors.

35
Differential Reinforcement and Shaping
  • The process of reinforcing target responses
    behaviors and not reinforcing other responses.
  • Game time Chose someone to be it and send them
    out of the room. The rest of the people decide
    what behavior they want to shape it to do. Keep
    it simple, like jumping or tapping the table.
    Decide how to reinforce the person when they are
    doing the target behavior. Let it back in the
    room and teach them to do the behavior through
    shaping.

36
Task analysis and behavior chains
  • A behavior chain, simply, is a chain of behaviors
    that all link up to reach a end result. Each
    behavior link is the cue for the next behavior
    and causes a stimulus change that becomes the
    reinforcement for the previous behavior.
  • Example Brushing teeth
  • End result clean teeth and task completion
  • Analysis of a link in the chain
  • Turning the water on. This causes the water to
    run which reinforces the action of turning the
    handle on the faucet. Seeing the water running is
    a visual cue for the next step of wetting the
    toothbrush.

37
Task Analysis
  • Breaking a complex skill or chain of behaviors
    into smaller teachable units
  • Should be individualized according to age, skill
    level, and prior experience with the task.
  • Created by
  • Observing competent individuals perform the task
  • Consultation with an expert
  • Performing and analyzing the task oneself

38
Task Analysis
  • Practice
  • Break off into groups of 3-4
  • Select a task and student from the hat
  • As a group, create a task analysis for that
    skill.
  • Try completing that skill by following the
    directions, adjust if needed.

39
Assessing the learners ability to perform the
action
  • Single opportunity method
  • Assess of the learners ability to perform the
    behaviors in the task in the correct order. Cue
    them to start and once an error is made, all
    subsequent steps are marked as incorrect
  • Multiple opportunity method
  • Assesses the learners ability to perform each
    behavior in the task regardless of success with
    the previous task.
  • Complete at least 3 trials

40
Teaching with chaining
  • Forward chaining
  • The task is taught in its naturally occurring
    order.
  • Total-task chaining
  • The task is taught at each step for every
    session.
  • Backward chaining
  • The task is initially completed by the instructor
    except for the final behavior in the chain. When
    the learner masters the final step, instruction
    moves to the next-to last step.

41
Chaining Exercise
  • Pair off
  • Each pair will be assigned a picture to
    teach/learn (Already broken into steps) through
    chaining.
  • Decide which method of chaining to use
  • Decide how to teach steps (modeling, verbal
    direction, shaping, hand over hand)
  • Decide reinforcement method
  • Take turns being the teacher and student.

42
Things that effect behavior Motivational
Operations
  • A motivational operation (MO) is something that
    changes either the value of a reinforcer OR
    changes the frequency of a behavior. Also
    referred to as establishing operations.
  • It is very important to be aware of MOs when
    implementing behavior plans.
  • Often these are the things that are out of your
    control that may be effecting how effective your
    supports are and the students behavior.

43
The effects of MOs Reinforcement Smarties
  • MO that increases the value of Smarties
  • Hunger, less Smarties available, new commercials
    on TV about Smarties, you are the only source of
    Smarties, its new and novel
  • MO that decreases the value of Smarties
  • Satiation, Smarties freely available, toothache,
    Smarties not cool anymore, illness, flooded with
    sugary snacks, overuse of this reinforcer

44
The effects of MOs Behavior eating lunch
  • MOs that increase the frequency of behavior
  • Hunger, favorite meal is being served, more food
    available, more choices
  • MOs that decrease the frequency of behavior
  • Not hungry, preferred food isnt available, other
    activities are competing with lunch (loud
    conversations), toothaches, illness, had a giant
    Arizona Ice Tea at snack

45
Things that effect behavior Setting Events
  • Setting events are things that can impact
    behavior and treatment efficacy that are not
    directly related to the target behaviors or your
    interventions
  • Related to MOs, setting events are things that
    may be out of your control, but are important to
    be aware of.
  • Examples Illness, how the morning went, injury,
    social interactions, past performance, sleep
    patterns

46
Antecedent interventions
  • Changing the conditions, environments,
    expectation to change the likelihood of the
    behavior to occur
  • Important to know the functions of behavior to
    choose the most effective intervention
  • Go over examples p487

47
Antecedent Techniques Examples
  • Eliminate the cue for the problem behavior
  • Provide cues for alternative prosocial behaviors
  • Reduce the motivation for the reinforcer
    maintaining the challenging behavior
  • Increase the motivation for the reinforcer
    maintaining the alternative, more desirable
    behavior

48
Antecedent Techniques Examples
  • Modify the environment to increase the
    consistency and predictability of expectations
  • Maximize opportunities for choice and control
  • Modify curriculum/expectations to maximize
    independent success

49
Non-contingent reinforcement
  • Reinforcement delivered on a schedule and not
    contingent on behavior
  • May decrease problem behaviors because the
    reinforcment they were seeking is now available
    freely and frequently
  • Think of an example where this might be effective

50
Consistent Cueing Procedures
  • Obtain attention first
  • State cue/direction using only a few words known
    to be in the students repertoire
  • Wait for client to respond---avoid repetitive
    verbal cues
  • Monitor cooperation
  • Praise/reinforce cooperation

51
Antecedent Strategy Visual Supports
  • Establish attention
  • Receive the whole message
  • Understand the whole message
  • Remember the whole message
  • Reduce anxiety, frustration, and confusion
  • Increase flexibility
  • Increase independence
  • Reduce arguments about what to do (or not to do)
  • Teach life long skills (planners, directions,
    schedules)

52
Examples of Visual Supports
  • Visual timers
  • Calendars
  • Lists
  • Stop/go/wait signs
  • Charts
  • Schedules
  • Photographs
  • Activity choice sheets
  • Graphic organizers
  • Contingency maps
  • Social stories
  • Comic strip conversations

53
Advance Verbal Cues
  • With or without visual prompts
  • When to use
  • Novel activities
  • Difficult social interactions
  • Ending a preferred activity/Transitions
  • Restate contingency/expectation before demand is
    given
  • (In 5 minutes the bell will ring to come in
    from recess. Remember, if you go in when the bell
    rings, I can give you a token.)

54
Priming/Rehearsal
  • Practicing the skill before the student is
    expected to perform that skill in a natural
    opportunity
  • Creates a chance to practice in a safe setting
  • Reminds them of the skill
  • Creates behavioral momentum
  • Before morning meeting The question of the day
    is What is your favorite food? Lets
    practiceIll be the teacher.

55
Self-Relaxation
  • Implement in regular training, at precursor level
    and/or after an incident
  • Reduces arousal levels- may decrease
    dysregulation leading to less problematic
    behavior
  • Some portable techniques
  • Walking quietly
  • Deep breathing
  • Muscle tension and relaxation exercises
  • Attention focusing exercises

56
ACTIVITY
  • Practice Progressive Muscle Relaxation
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vHFwCKKa--18
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vAy4UQckBX58
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