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The French and Indian War


The French and Indian War Competing European Claims In the middle of the 18th century, France and England had competing claims for land in North America. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The French and Indian War

The French and Indian War
Was 1763 a "turning point" in
British-colonial relationships???
Competing European Claims
  • In the middle of the 18th century, France and
    England had competing claims for land in North
  • The French held trapping and trade routes in the
    Ohio Valley.
  • The English colonies were encroaching on French
    territory are the population grew.
  • They also competed over trade issues with the
    Native Americans in the disputed region.

North America in 1750
Competing European Claims
1754 ? The First Clash
The Ohio Valley
Fort Necessity Fort
Duquesne George Washington
Delaware Shawnee
The Battle of Fort Necessity
  • The French set up forts along to protect their
    fur trading interests.
  • Some of these forts conflicted with English
  • Virginia Governor Dinwiddie dispatched a young
    George Washington in 1753 to deliver a protest to
    the French. This protest was ignored.
  • The British sent a party to construct a fort on
    the site of modern Pittsburg.

Young George Washington
The Battle of Fort Necessity
A recreation of Ft. Necessity.
  • The force was driven off by the French who, in
    turn, constructed Fort Duquesne on the site.
  • The next year, Dinwiddie turned to Washington to
    expel the French from the site. Washington was
    quickly overwhelmed by superior French and Native
    American numbers.
  • Washington had to retreat to the hastily
    constructed Fort Necessity, which he had to
    surrender shortly there after. This incident was
    a prelude to the French and Indian War.

The Albany Congress
  • In 1754, war was inevitable.
  • The colonies sent delegates to Albany to discuss
    strategy for common defense.
  • They approved a document written by Benjamin
    Franklin promoting a substructure of government
    below British authority to govern the colonies.
  • The council would be comprised of elected
    representatives from each colony and headed by a
    President-General appointed by the crown.
  • The colonies were not ready for political union
    and it is unlikely that the British government
    would have supported the plan.

"Join or Die" (1754) published by Franklin is
considered the first political cartoon of the
From the Albany Plan of Union (1754)
From the Constitution (1787)
  • the Presidenthe shall take care that the laws
    be faithfully executed
  • the Presidentshall have power, by and with
    the advice and consent of the Senate, to make
    treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators
    present concur
  • Congress will regulate Commerce with foreign
    Nations, and among the several States, and with
    the Indian Tribes
  • Congress will raise and support ArmiesTo
    provide and maintain a Navy
  • The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect
    Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises
  • 9. That the assent of the President-General be
    requisite to all acts of the Grand Council, and
    that it be his office and duty to cause them to
    be carried into execution.
  • 10. That the President-General, with the advice
    of the Grand Council, hold or direct all Indian
    treaties and make peace or declare war with
    Indian nations.
  • 11. That they make such laws as they judge
    necessary for regulating all Indian trade.
  • 15. That they raise and pay soldiers and build
    forts for the defence of any of the Colonies
  • 16. That for these purposes they have power to
    make laws, and lay and levy such general duties,
    imposts, or taxes

1755 ? Br. Decides to Eliminate Fr. Presence in
No. Amer.
Gen. Edward Braddock ? evict the French from the
OH Valley Canada (Newfoundland Nova Scotia)
  • Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley, Acadia.
  • Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne ? by 1500
    French and Indian forces.

Only Br. Success ? expelled France
from Louisiana.
Braddocks Defeat
  • In July 1755, the British sent a force from
    Virginia to attack Fort Duquesne.
  • The heavy force was defeated by the smaller
    French force and their Native American allies.
  • Both the British commander, Braddock, and the
    French commander Beaujeu, were killed.
  • 23 year old George Washington won accolades for
    rallying the defeated British and preventing the
    battle from turning into a rout.
  • The first two years of fighting were
    characterized by humiliating defeats for the

1756 ? War Is Formally Declared!
Lord Loudouin
Marquis de Montcalm
Native American tribes exploited both sides!
The Seven Years War in Europe
  • The French and Indian War was essentially the
    North American theatre of a larger conflict, the
    Seven Years War, in Europe.
  • Britain, Prussia, and Hanover fought against an
    alliance of France, Austria, Saxony, Russia,
    Sweden and Spain.
  • Prime Minister Pitt of England provided subsidies
    to Prussia to fight in Europe and committed
    British troops and resources to winning the war
    against the French in North America.
  • The European phase of the war lasted from 1757 to

British-American Colonial Tensions
  • March in formation or bayonet charge.
  • Indian-style guerilla tactics.

Methods of Fighting
  • Br. officers wanted to take charge of
  • Col. militias served under own captains.

Military Organization
  • Drills tough discipline.
  • No mil. deference or protocols observed.

Military Discipline
  • Colonists should pay for their own defense.
  • Resistance to rising taxes.

  • Prima Donna Br. officers with servants
    tea settings.
  • Casual, non-professionals.

Fortunes Reverse
  • In 1757, expansion advocate William Pitt became
    the British Prime Minister and vowed to lead
    country to victory.
  • Pitt concentrated on
  • expelling the French from North America
  • buying the cooperation by the colonists by
    stimulating the North American economy with a
    massive infusion of British currency
  • buying the support of the Native Americans with
    promises of fixed territorial boundaries.

Fortunes Reverse
  • The greatly fortified force devastated the
    Cherokee to the South and began capturing
    strategic French forts and cutting off their
    supply lines.
  • The British conquered Quebec in 1759.
  • In 1760, they captured Montreal.
  • In the final years of the war, the British
    defeated the French Navy and took French colonies
    in the Caribbean.
  • The French Empire in North America came to an

French Defeat Treaty of Easton
  • The Treaty of Easton, signed in 1758, essentially
    sealed Frances fate.
  • In the treaty, the British promised the Six
    Iroquois Nations to stop settlements west of the
    Alleghenies in exchange for their neutrality in
    the war.
  • This caused the French to abandon Fort Duquesne
    and, by 1760, Detroit and Montreal, the last two
    French strongholds in North America, had fallen.
  • This was the end of major fighting in North

The Treaty of Paris
  • The 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the French and
    Indian War.
  • The French transferred its claims west of the
    Mississippi to Spain and ceded its territory east
    of the Mississippi to the British.
  • The Treaties of Easton and Paris limited
    colonization to the Eastern seaboard.

1763 ? Treaty of Paris
France --gt lost her Canadian possessions, most of
her empire in India, and claims to lands east of
the Mississippi River.
Spain --gt got all French lands west of the
Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida
to England.
England --gt got all French lands in Canada,
exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and
commercial dominance in India.
Pontiac's Rebellion
  • Native Americans quickly grew disenchanted with
    the British.
  • The British exhibited little cultural
    sensitivity, traded unfairly, and failed to stop
    encroachments on Indian land.
  • This unrest culminated in a rebellion by Pontiac,
    a Native American leader who united various
    tribes with the goal of expelling the British.
  • The uprising lasted from 1763 to 1766.
  • Massacres and atrocities occurred on both sides
    most notably, British General Jeffrey Amherst
    gave the Native Americans blankets infested with

Chief Pontiac Address to Ottawa, Huron, and
Pottawatomie Indians (May 5, 1763)
  • It is important that we exterminate from our
    lands this nation which seeks only to destroy us.
    You see as well as I do that we can no longer
    supply our needs, as we have done from our
    brothers, the French. The English sells us goods
    twice as dear as the French do, and their goods
    do not last.
  • When I go to see the English commander and
    say to him that some of our comrades are dead,
    instead of bewailing their death, as our French
    brothers do, he laughs at me and at you. If I
    ask for anything for our sick, he refuses with
    the reply that he has no use for us.
  • Are we not men like them? What do we fear?
    It is time.

The Royal Proclamation of 1763
  • Violent incidents such as Pontiac's Rebellion
    prompted the English crown to attempt to mandate
    an end to encroachments on territory promised to
    the Indians.
  • Settlers were not to establish themselves west of
    the Proclamation Line.
  • The effort was unsuccessful and is viewed by many
    to be a leading cause of the Revolutionary War.

Effects of the War on Britain?
1. It increased her colonial empire in the
2. It greatly enlarged Englands debt.
3. Britains contempt for the colonials
created bitter feelings.
Therefore, England felt that a major
reorganization of her American Empire was
Effects of the War on the American Colonials
1. It united them against a common enemy for
the first time.
2. It created a socializing experience for
all the colonials who participated.
3. It created bitter feelings towards the
British that would only intensify.
Rethinking Their Empire
Br. Gvt. measures to prevent smuggling
  • 1761 ? writs of assistance
  • James Otis case
  • Protection of a citizens private property must
    be held in higher regard than a parliamentary
  • He lost ? parliamentary law and custom had
    equal weight.

George Grenvilles Program, 1763-1765
1. Sugar Act - 1764
2. Currency Act - 1764
3. Quartering Act - 1765
4. Stamp Act - 1765
Theories of Representation
Real Whigs
Q-gt What was the extent of Parliaments
authority over the colonies??
OR Limited?
Q-gt How could the colonies give or
withhold consent for parliamentary
legislation when they did not have
representation in that body??
Stamp Act Crisis
Loyal Nine - 1765
Sons of Liberty began in NYC Samuel

Stamp Act Congress 1765 Stamp Act
Declaratory Act 1766
Townshend Duties Crisis 1767-1770
1767 ? William Pitt, P. M. Charles
Townshend, Secretary of the Exchequer.
  • Shift from paying taxes for Br. war debts
    quartering of troops ? paying col. govt.
  • He diverted revenue collection from internal
    to external trade.
  • Tax these imports ? paper, paint,
    lead, glass, tea.
  • Increase custom officials at American ports
    ? established a Board of Customs in Boston.

Colonial Response to the Townshend Duties
1. John Dickinson ? 1768 Letters from
a Farmer in Pennsylvania.
2. 1768 ? 2nd non-importation
movement Daughters of Liberty
spinning bees
3. Riots against customs agents John
Hancocks ship, the Liberty.
4000 British troops sent to Boston.
For the first time, many colonists began calling
people who joined the non-importation movement,
Photo and Text Citations
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washington/case.07/07e.jpg Slide 3
french-indian-war.jpg Slide 4 http//www.georgewa Slide
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eb/avalon/amerdoc/albany.htm http//
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b/1/1f/350px-FortDuquesne.jpg Slide 13
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ages/h598.html Slide 15 http//
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