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Making peace


Title: Making Peace Author: swolin Last modified by: swolin Created Date: 1/22/2009 3:56:05 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Making peace

Making peace
  • Winners and Losers

From war to peace
  • 1917-1918
  • Allied blockade and battlefield losses take toll
  • Economic supply lines disrupted
  • Belligerents increasingly exhausted
  • Russia, Germany, Austria others increasingly
    short of men, materiel, foodstuffs
  • Willingness to fight sagging
  • Governments support legitimacy waning
  • Similar problems in France threats of mutiny

The Russian Revolution
  • Tsars government teetering
  • February revolution (1917)
  • Soviets (councils seize power in cities
  • Kadets then Social Democrats form provisional
  • Lenin and Trotsky engineer October Revolution
    in effect a coup detat
  • All power to the Soviets.
  • Bolsheviks seize power

A likely or unlikely revolution?
  • Orthodox Marxism predicts that revolution will
    occur at the highest phases of capitalism
  • Russia before the war was
  • An agrarian society
  • Barely beyond feudalism
  • Incipient industrialization
  • At best at the initial phases of capitalism

  • Takes voluntarist approach
  • Left to their own devices, workers develop trade
    union consciousness
  • but not the class consciousness needed to drive a
  • If revolution is to occur, a small conspiratorial
    organization must drive it -
  • Communist party acts as vanguard of the
  • Argues that capitalism is like a chain
  • breaks at its weakest link,
  • triggering revolution elsewhere

Before after the revolution
Some images
  • Bolsheviks sue for peace
  • Accept humiliating terms at Brest-Litovsk (1918)
    cede substantial territory
  • Civil war through 1920
  • White Russians
  • Foreign interventions
  • Internally
  • War communism
  • Problem What do you do when the world
    revolution you expect does not occur?

  • Fights on
  • breakthrough on western front, spring 1918
  • beaten back in counter-attacks
  • Kaisers grip increasingly tenuous
  • Frequent changes in government
  • Move toward constitutional monarchy (October
  • General strike
  • Revolutionary outbreaks
  • General staff sues for peace
  • Kaiser abdicates
  • Social Democrats take over

Central Europe
  • Collapse of Austria-Hungary
  • War winds down
  • Revolution breaks out in Hungary

Ending the war
  • Central powers collapse
  • Germany sues for peace
  • War ends with armistice
  • Fighting stops without total defeat or invasion
  • Germans hope to negotiate as equals
  • Allies intent on imposing peace
  • Meet in Paris to work it out

  • How to
  • Establish stable international order
  • Respond to national aspirations while not
    ignoring strategic considerations, claims based
    on history and promises made by allies
  • Provide security for France
  • Prevent resurgence of German militarism
  • Compensate victors for damage suffered

Negotiating the peace (1919-20)
  • Massive conference
  • 32 countries present,
  • Dominated by great powers
  • US, UK, France, Italy, Japan
  • Exclusion of Germany
  • Absence of neutrals
  • Absence of the Soviet Union
  • Multiple negotiations under way
  • Discussion of principles
  • Expert committees
  • Separate treaties concluded

The protagonists and their goals
  • Woodrow Wilson (U.S.) -- idealist who wanted to
  • Make the world safe for democracy
  • Establish a new international order via League
    of Nations
  • David Lloyd George (Great Britain)
  • Interest in restoring Britains global position
  • Georges Clemenceau( France) -- a realist
  • Aging cynic/ French nationalist
  • Interest in security for France
  • Reparations
  • Orlando - Italy
  • Interest in territorial gains
  • Japan interest in replacing Germany in China

Wilsons Fourteen Points (January 1918)
  • Open covenants openly arrived at
  • Freedom of the seas
  • Elimination of trade barriers
  • Arms reduction
  • Evacuation of occupied territories
  • National self determination for diverse peoples
  • Return Alsace Lorraine to France
  • Re-establish Poland
  • Self-determination for nationalities within
    Austria-Hungary, Ottoman empire
  • An international organization to keep the peace
    (League of Nations)

Treaty of Versailles -I
  • Negotiated by Britain, France, US
  • Imposed on Germany as diktat
  • Limitations on military
  • Dissolution of general staff
  • Volunteer army, max. 100,000
  • Severe limits on navy
  • Surrender of merchant fleet
  • Rhineland to be occupied for 15 years
  • Including demilitarized zone, 50 km from the
  • Presumption of German guilt
  • Reparations (amounts to be determined by separate
    Commission) to be paid for all losses and damages
    as a result of the war

Treaty of Versailles - II
  • Territorial changes (net loss 15)
  • Alsace Lorraine given back to France
  • Saar under French jurisdiction for 15 years
  • Boundary changes with Denmark, Belgium
  • Cede territory to map
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Poland
  • Danzig (Gdansk) as Free City in Polish corridor
    to sea
  • separates East Prussia from the rest of Germany
  • Loss of colonies (administered as mandates under
    League of Nations)

Eastern Europe
  • Austria cedes territory to Italy, Poland
    Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia
  • union with Germany forbidden
  • Hungary cedes territory to Romania, Serbia
  • Independent countries created, ostensibly
    embodying principle of self-determination map
  • Poland
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Yugoslavia
  • Hungary
  • Bulgaria
  • Romania
  • Baltic states

  • Loses territory under Treaty of Sevres
  • Rejects, fights back under Ataturk
  • Defeats Greek invasion of Smyrna
  • Treaty revised in light of changing geo-political

Problems with the peace
  • The League of Nations created, given tasks but
    not fully empowered
  • Lacks means to carry out tasks
  • Presumption that democracies would keep the peace
  • US fails to ratify Versailles or join the League

Numerous aggrieved parties
  • France feels inadequately protected
  • Anglo-American guarantees, but
  • US not involved, Britain reluctant
  • France instead becomes guarantor of countries
    surrounding Germany
  • Italy fails to gain objectives, feels hard done
  • Other minorities aspirations neither protected
    nor recognized
  • Slovaks
  • Hungarians..
  • Croats
  • Ethnic Germans outside Germany (including
  • Germany

Germany and the peace
  • Peace seen as imposed harsh both by
  • New regime (Socialists and Catholics)
  • Supporters of older order
  • Germany weakened, but
  • neither entirely
  • nor permanently
  • Reject war guilt clause
  • Reluctant to acknowledge defeat

Bottom line
  • A flawed peace?
  • Did it
  • Provide security?
  • Make the world safe for democracy?
  • Was it the best possible at the time?