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Information Systems System Analysis 421

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Title: Information Systems System Analysis 421


1
Information Systems System Analysis 421
2
Introductions
  • David J. Lee
  • Who I Am
  • Course Content
  • Course objectives
  • Course syllabus
  • Who You Are
  • System Analysis
  • What it is and how it fits in the SDLC

3
Who Am I!
  • David J. Lee
  • Vital statistics
  • Home number 630-655-1619
  • Work number 847-646-3105
  • EMAIL - DLEE_at_Kraft.Com
  • Kraft Foods 24years of true business systems
    experience
  • College of DuPage/ Illinois Benedictine College -
    8years of teaching experience
  • Business Systems Classes
  • Why am I teaching!
  • Enjoy the classroom
  • Keeps me current with technology

4
Teaching Style
  • Present via overheads
  • Encourage classroom discussions
  • Bring in real life business situations
  • Create a positive, fun learning environment
  • Tell the students what I am going to tell them,
    I will tell them and I will tell them what you
    told them

5
Course Objectives
  • Become knowledgeable business users of computer
    resources as opposed to knowledgeable technicians
    of data processing and computer programming
  • Understand the tools used and steps required to
    implement good business systems
  • Understand the importance of the team in
    developing good business systems
  • Learn how to prepare corporate documents
    necessary to build good business systems
  • Very important systems class
  • Have fun and learn

6
Think Outside the Box
7
The Workforce In the USA
8
Course Syllabus
  • Grading
  • Mid Term 25
  • Final exam 25
  • Class Participation 05
  • System Analysis Project 45
  • Project start up (22.5)
  • Software Requirement Specifications (22.5)

9
Class Project
  • Initial project statement
  • Knowledge acquisition
  • Current system review
  • Interview preparation
  • Plan
  • Schedule
  • Inputs, processing, outputs
  • Problem areas
  • Process improvements

10
Class Project
  • Project start up
  • Initial project information gathering worksheet
  • Client alignment form
  • Team alignment
  • Project description
  • Current situation
  • Business objective
  • Project scope
  • Client alignment meeting
  • Risk analysis
  • Cost benefit
  • Project duration

11
Class Project
  • Software Requirement Specifications
  • Context diagrams
  • Data flow diagrams
  • Entity relationship diagrams
  • Requirement documents
  • Interview

12
Who You Are
  • Name
  • Phone number and E-Mail address
  • Favorite Kraft product
  • Educational Background
  • Work Background
  • Job description, title, years of experience
  • Why are you taking this class

13
Learning Objectives
  • Definition of a System
  • Describe four types of information systems
  • Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
  • Management Information Systems (MIS)
  • Decision Support Systems (DSS)
  • Expert Systems (ES Discuss the modern approach to
    systems analysis and design
  • Describe the organizational roles involved in
    information systems development
  • Describe the information systems development life
    cycle (SDLC)
  • Discuss alternatives to the systems development
    life cycle
  • Discuss the role of computer-aided software
    engineering (CASE) tools in systems development

1.2
14
Definition of a System
  • A set of components that interact to accomplish
    some common purpose, specific results
  • Systems are all around us
  • Economic system
  • Brain
  • Registration
  • Business ( People, facilities, equipment,
    material)
  • Subsystems - Systems contained within a larger
    organization (Kraft Foods gt Sales, Operations,
    etc.
  • Information System - means by which data flows
    from one person or department to another

15
Business Information Systems
  • Serves all systems of a business linking the
    components together in such a way that they
    effectively work toward the same purpose

Information Systems
Economic Resources People Money Material Machine
Information
Organizational Processes Production Marketing Fina
nce Sales Other
Goods and Service Products Services Payments Info
rmation
Input
Processing
Output
16
Types of Systems
  • Transaction processing systems - the most
    fundamental system in an organization - aimed at
    improving the routine business (I.E. order
    management, accounts receivable, payroll)
  • Management systems - Assist managers in making
    decisions and problem solving (I.E. Sales
    reporting, Summary reporting, etc.)
  • Decision Support - Data and tools are provided to
    the end users - decisions are not of a recurring
    nature
  • Expert System
  • New systems

17
Types of Information Systems
  • Transaction Processing Systems
  • Business transactions are events that serve the
    mission of the business.
  • Transaction processing systems are information
    system applications that capture and process data
    about (or for) business transactions. They are
    sometimes called data processing systems.
  • Examples?

18
Types of Information Systems
  • Management Information Systems
  • Management Information Systems supplement
    transaction processing systems with management
    reports required to plan, monitor, and control
    business operations.
  • A management information system (MIS) is an
    information system application that provides for
    management-oriented reporting, usually in a
    predetermined, fixed format.

19
Types of Information Systems
  • Decision Support Systems
  • Decision Support Systems are concerned with
    providing useful information to support the
    decision process.
  • A decision support system (DSS) is an information
    system application that provides its users with
    decision-oriented information whenever a decision
    making situation arises. When applied to
    executive managers, these systems are sometimes
    called executive information systems.
  • A DSS is designed to support unstructured
    decisions.

20
Types of Information Systems
  • Decision Support Systems
  • A DSS provides one or more of the following types
    of support to the decision maker
  • Identification of problems or decision making
    opportunities (similar to exception reporting).
  • Identification of possible solutions or
    decisions.
  • Access to information needed to solve a problem
    or make a decision.
  • Analysis of possible decisions, or of variables
    that will impact a decision. Sometimes this is
    called what if analyses.
  • Simulation of possible solutions and their likely
    results.

21
Types of Information Systems
  • Decision Support Systems
  • A DSS can utilize a Data Warehouse.
  • A data warehouse is a read-only, informational
    database that is populated with detailed,
    summary, and exception information that can be
    accessed by end users and managers with DSS tools
    that generate a virtually limitless variety of
    information in support of unstructured decisions.

22
Types of Information Systems
  • Expert Systems
  • Expert Systems are an extension of the decision
    support system.
  • An expert system is an information system
    application that captures the knowledge and
    expertise of a problem solver or decision maker,
    and then simulates the thinking of that expert
    for those who have less expertise.
  • Expert systems are implemented with artificial
    intelligence technology, often called expert
    system shells.

23
Types of Information Systems
  • Office Information (Workflow) Systems
  • Office Information Systems are concerned with
    getting all relevant information to all those who
    need it.
  • Office information systems support the wide range
    of business office activities that provide for
    improved work flow and communications between
    workers, regardless of whether or not those
    workers are physically located in an office.

24
Types of Information Systems
  • Office Information (Workflow) Systems
  • Office information systems may use the following
    technologies
  • Electronic forms technology
  • Work group technology
  • Electronic messaging technology
  • Office automation suite technology
  • Imaging technology
  • Lotus Notes is the most common example of
    software for this

25
Introduction to System
  • Information Systems Analysis and Design
  • Complex process whereby computer-based
    information systems are developed and maintained
  • Application Software
  • Result of systems analysis and design
  • Designed to support specific organizational
    functions or processes

1.5
26
Introduction to System
  • Software engineering processes have been
    developed to assist in analysis and design
  • Methodologies
  • Comprehensive, multi-step approaches to systems
    development
  • Techniques
  • Processes that are followed to ensure that work
    is well thought-out, complete and comprehensible
    to others on the project team
  • Tools
  • Computer programs to assist in application of
    techniques to the analysis and design process

1.6
27
Introduction to System Analysis
  • Information Systems Analysis and Design
  • A method used by companies to create and maintain
    systems that perform basic business functions
  • Main goal is to improve employee efficiency by
    applying software solutions to key business tasks
  • A structured approach must be used in order to
    ensure success

1.7
28
Approaches to Systems Development
  • Systems Analyst performs analysis and design
    based upon
  • Understanding of organizations objectives,
    structure and processes
  • Knowledge of how to exploit information
    technology for advantage

1.8
29
Approaches to Systems Development
  • Three key components of an information system
  • Data
  • Data Flows
  • Processing Logic
  • Data vs. Information
  • Data
  • Raw facts
  • Information
  • Derived from data
  • Organized in a manner that humans can
  • understand.

1.29
30
Approaches to Systems Development
  • Data
  • Understanding the source and use of data is key
    to good system design
  • Various techniques are used to describe data and
    the relationship amongst data
  • Data Flows
  • Groups of data that move and flow through the
    system
  • Include description of sources and destination
    for each data flow
  • Processing Logic
  • Describe steps that transform data and events
    that trigger the steps

1.30
31
Approaches to Systems Development
  • Process-Oriented Approach
  • Focus is on flow, use and transformation of data
    in an information system
  • Involves creating graphical representations such
    as data flow diagrams and charts
  • Data are tracked from sources, through
    intermediate steps and to final destinations
  • Natural structure of data is not specified
  • Disadvantage data files are tied to specific
    applications

1.31
32
Approaches to Systems Development
  • Data-Oriented Approach
  • Depicts ideal organization of data, independent
    of where and how data are used
  • Data model describes kinds of data and business
    relationships among the data
  • Business rules depict how organization captures
    and processes the data

1.32
33
Organizational Responsibilities in Systems
Development
  • Systems Analysts work in teams
  • Project Based
  • Includes
  • IS Manager
  • Programmers
  • Users
  • Other specialists
  • Characteristics of Successful Teams
  • Diversity of backgrounds
  • Tolerance of diversity
  • Clear and complete communication
  • Trust
  • Mutual Respect
  • Reward structure that promotes shared
    responsibility

1.33
34
Organizational Responsibilities in Systems
Development
  • IS Manager
  • May have a direct role in systems development if
    the project is small
  • Typically involved in allocating resources to and
    overseeing system development projects.
  • Systems Analyst
  • Key individuals in the systems development
    process

35
Organizational Responsibilities in Systems
Development
  • Programmers
  • Convert specifications into instructions that the
    computer understands
  • Write documentation and testing programs
  • Business Managers
  • Have power to fund projects and allocate
    resources
  • Set general requirements and constraints for
    projects

1.35
36
Organizational Responsibilities in Systems
Development
  • Other IS Managers/Technicians
  • Database Administrator
  • Involved in design, development and maintenance
    of databases
  • Network and telecommunications experts
  • Develop systems involving data and/or voice
    communications
  • Human Factors Specialists
  • Involved in training users and writing
    documentation
  • Internal Auditors
  • Ensure that required controls are built into the
    system

1.36
37
Organizational Responsibilities in Systems
Development
  • Skills of a Successful Systems Analyst
  • Analytical
  • Understanding of organizations
  • Problem solving skills
  • System thinking
  • Ability to see organizations and information
    systems as systems
  • Technical
  • Understanding of potential and limitations of
    technology
  • Management
  • Ability to manage projects, resources, risk and
    change
  • Interpersonal
  • Effective written and oral communication skills

1.37
38
System Project
  • A system project is a planned worked effort,
    requiring the commitment of resources, which
    produces products to satisfy a defined customer
    need within a give period of time
  • Clear customer
  • Definable scope of work
  • Product of deliverable
  • Defined beginning and end

39
Systems Development Life Cycle
  • Set of steps/activities that analysts, designers
    and users carry out to develop and implement
    information systems
  • Key to project success - methodical approach to
    developing systems
  • Different organizations, different number of
    steps, if you look close, it is the same process
    defined differently

40
Systems Development Life Cycle
  • Kraft
  • Project startup
  • Analysis
  • System design
  • Development and test
  • Implementation
  • Maintenance

Accenture Project,Development
Planning Systems Design Installation Production
Systems
41
Systems Development Life Cycle
  • Series of steps used to manage the phases of
    development for an information system
  • Consists of six phases
  • Project Identification and Selection
  • Project Initiation and Planning
  • Analysis
  • Design
  • Implementation
  • Maintenance
  • Phases are not necessarily sequential
  • Each phase has a specific outcome and deliverable
  • Individual companies use customized life cycles

1.41
42
Systems Development Life Cycle
  • Project Identification and Selection
  • Two Main Activities
  • Identification of need
  • Prioritization and translation of need into a
    development schedule
  • Helps organization to determine whether or not
    resources should be dedicated to a project.
  • Project Initiation and Planning
  • Two Activities
  • Formal preliminary investigation of the problem
    at hand
  • Presentation of reasons why system should or
    should not be developed by the organization

1.42
43
Systems Development Life Cycle
  • Initial project information
  • Confirm project approval
  • Risk analysis
  • Development strategy
  • Work plans
  • Cost benefit analysis
  • Project alignment

44
Systems Development Life Cycle -Analysis
  • Understand the System
  • Data gathering
  • Interview, observe, gather written documents
  • Data analysis
  • Charts, narratives, DFD, ERD
  • System prototypes
  • User view of the system
  • Preliminary plans
  • Testing
  • Roll out
  • Training

45
SDLC - Physical design
  • Technical prototype
  • System architecture
  • Physical data model
  • Software specifications
  • Screens, reports, flows
  • Batch flows
  • Screen flow diagrams
  • Recovery plan
  • Performance and Capacity
  • Plans
  • Unit, system and integration testing
  • Training
  • Rollout

46
SDLC - Development and test
  • Build test and production environments
  • Develop code/application
  • Develop user acceptance plan
  • Conduct testing (unit, system, acceptance and
    integration)
  • Conduct pilot training class

47
SDLC - Implementation
  • Develop production turnover plan
  • Conduct conversion from old system to new system
  • Develop installation plan
  • Conduct pilot implementation

48
System Development
  • Traditional process
  • Project startup 05
  • Projd defn/log 15
  • Physical design 10
  • Dvlp/test 60
  • Implementation 10
  • New process
  • Project startup 10
  • Projd defn/log 20
  • Physical design 15
  • Dvlp/test 45
  • Implementation 10

Why the change????????????
49
System Development Life Cycle
  • General guidelines for Project phases
  • Single project or phase should cover less than
    six months
  • Can not go to the next phase unless you can
    estimate the work effort
  • Without a committed client there is no project
  • Allows for checkpoints
  • This class will work on the beginning phases

50
System Cost to Correct Error
51
(No Transcript)
52
Traditional Development Process
53
Alternative Development Process
  • Tools to aid and improve the system process
  • Tools and Techniques to Address those Problems
  • Parallel
  • Rapid Application Development
  • Rapid Prototype
  • JAD
  • Case
  • Phased Development
  • Spiral Development
  • Package Systems

54
Parallel
55
RAD
  • Rapid Applications Development is the merger of
    structured techniques with prototyping techniques
    and JAD to accelerate systems development.
  • Iterative JAD or structured modeling and
    prototype development.
  • Can be best of both worlds

56
Rapid Prototyping
  • Build a quick and dirty system to test concepts,
    demonstrate to the user, and get feedback
  • Use that feedback to build real system
  • Must still do some pre-design analysis
  • Users may want to keep the prototype
  • Bottom up coding instead of top down

57
Rapid Prototyping
58
Joint Application Design
  • Joint Application Design (JAD)
  • Users, Managers and Analysts work together for
    several days
  • System requirements are reviewed
  • Structured meetings
  • Group problem solving techniques are used to
    brainstorm ideas and negotiate solutions
  • Integrated approach leads to more buy in and
    better managerial commitment
  • Developed by IBM in the 1980s
  • Supports the analysis stage only

59
CASE
  • Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools
  • Facilitate creation of a central repository for
    system descriptions and specifications
  • Tools that automate the SAD process
  • Toolkit is set of tools for one stage
  • Workbench is set of tools across stages
  • Includes
  • Analysis, design, specification tools
    prototyping tools, DBMS systems, 4gls, code
    generators, visual environments, etc.

60
Process and Deliverables
61
Why do Projects fail!
  • Roles and responsibilities not clearly defined
  • Project factors not balanced
  • Success Client expectation schedule budget
  • Project did not maintain 3X3 alignment
  • Managing client expectations
  • Poor project communication
  • Poorly run project - project management is a core
    competency of any IS organization

62
Summary
  • Information systems analysis and design
  • Process of developing and maintaining an
    information system
  • Modern approach to systems analysis
  • Process-Oriented
  • Data-Oriented

1.62
63
Summary
  • Four types of information systems
  • Transaction Processing (TPS)
  • Management Information Systems (MIS)
  • Decision Support (DSS)
  • Expert Systems (ES)

1.63
64
Summary
  • Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
  • Project Identification and Selection
  • Project Initiation and Planning
  • Analysis
  • Design
  • Implementation
  • Maintenance

1.64
65
Summary
  • Alternatives to Systems Development Life Cycle
  • Prototyping
  • Rapid Application Development (RAD)
  • Joint Application Design (JAD)
  • Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools

1.65
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