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Amazing Earth

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Title: Rocks and Minerals Author: Rebecca Franz Last modified by: Leander ISD Created Date: 2/21/2011 3:40:58 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Amazing Earth


1
Amazing Earth
2
Minerals
  • Naturally formed, nonliving solid material that
    have crystal structures found in the Earth.
  • Minerals make up more than 90 of the the Earths
    crust in rock and are used in important everyday
    items such as building materials, medicines and
    cosmetics.
  • Uses cement, building stones, and fireworks,
    fertilizer, abrasives, aircraft parts, cosmetics,
    toothpaste, jewelry and paint,

3
Color of minerals
  • Minerals come in all different colors

4
LusterMinerals can be shiny or dull
  • Metallic bright and reflective
  • Submetallic dull and reflective
  • Nonmetallic vitreous, silky, resinous, waxy,
    pearly, or earthy

5
Minerals have Streak - Its color in powdered
form.
6
Minerals can break Cleavage vs. Fractures
7
Mineral Hardness
  • Its resistance to being scratched.
  • Measured by the Mohs Hardness Scale
  • 1 Softest - Talc
  • 10 Hardest Diamond
  • Test Minerals

8
Other Special Properties of Minerals
  • Density
  • Magnetism
  • Fluorescence
  • Taste
  • Chemical Reaction
  • Optical Properties
  • Radioactivity

9
Below the Earth?
10
Planet Earth
  • Earths Layers

11
(No Transcript)
12
Crust
  • Earths thin outermost layer (4-7 miles deep).
  • Two parts
  • Continental Crust (land) - thick low density rock
    (granite).
  • Oceanic Crust (sea floor)- thin dense rock
    (basalt)

13
Lithosphere
  • Earths cool, outermost layer that consists of
    the crust and the rigid, uppermost part of the
    mantle.
  • Divided into huge pieces called Tectonic Plates
  • Tectonic plates move around on top of the
    asthenosphere (very hot, soft layer of the
    mantel).

14
Mantle
  • Earths thickest layer made of dense iron-rich
    super heated soft rock.
  • 1800 miles thick

15
Outer Core Volcanoes
16
Inner Core through seismic waves
17
Core
  • Earths innermost layer made of hot, dense iron
    and nickel.
  • Outer core - Liquid
  • Inner core - Solid

18
How do we know?
  • S waves
  • P Waves

P-wave (primary) is a sound wave that travels
through the earth. Compression/longitudinal
wave, like all sound waves are. You could also
call it a "push-pull" wave for how the particles
of the medium (Earth) oscillate, back and forth
in the same direction the wave is traveling.
The S-wave (secondary) is a transverse/shear
wave, for how the particles oscillate side to
side perpendicular to the direction the wave is
traveling. Like all waves, seismic waves speed
up or slow down as they enter substances of
differing DENSITIES. P-waves can travel
through liquid and solid materials S-waves can
only propagate through solids By analyzing the
times and directions seismic waves arrive at a
given seismograph, we can infer the densities,
and therefore liquid or solid nature of the
interior layers of the Earth.
http//www.digitalgeology.net/page7.html
19
S and P Waves
20
Crust, Mantle, and Core Song
21
Rocks
  • Solid mixtures of one or more minerals.
  • Classified by how they formed.
  • Three types of Rocks
  • Igneous
  • Sedimentary
  • Metamorphic

22
Three Types of Rock
23
Igneous Rock
  • Forms when hot liquid rock, or magma, cools and
    hardens.

24
Extrusive Igneous Rock
  • Forms on the Earths surface
  • Cools quickly
  • Contains very small crystals or none at all

25
Intrusive Igneous Rock
  • Forms when magma cools beneath the surface of the
    Earth
  • Cools very slowly, forms crystals and is usually
    very coarse

26
Sedimentary Rock
  • Forms when pieces of rocks or minerals called
    Sediment are compacted and or cemented
    together.
  • Forms at or near the surface of the Earth.
  • Consist of layers called strata.

27
Formation of Sediment
  • Uplift rising of the Earths crust.
  • Weathering the break down of rock into smaller
    pieces (sediment - sand, soils, gravel,etc..)
  • Physical vs. Chemical Weathering
  • Physical/mechanical - physical breakdown through
    direct contact of heat, water, ice, and pressure.
  • Chemical - chemical breakdown by water, acids,
    and other chemicals that change the chemical
    composition.
  • Erosion the movement of broken pieces of rock
    and sediment from one place to another by water,
    wind, gravity and other forces.

28
Formation of Sedimentary Rock
  • Compaction layered sediment is squeezed or
    compacted together until it hardens into new
    rock.
  • Cementation dissolved minerals in the water
    separates out to form a natural glue that binds
    sediments together.

29
Types of Sedimentary Rock
  • Clastic - Forms when rock or mineral fragments
    are cemented together and forms clasts
    (conglomerate and sandstone)
  • Chemical Forms when minerals crystallized out
    of a solution of minerals and water (Halite).
  • Organic Forms from the remains of living things
    (shells or skeletons) Limestone.

30
Metamorphic Roc
  • Forms when any rock is buried under the Earths
    surface and experiences a long period of heat and
    intense pressure (but does not reach its melting
    point).

31
The Rock Cycle
  • The continual process by which new rock is formed
    from old rock material

32
Rock CycleAnimation
33
Rock Cycle Vocabulary
  • Subsidence - rock moves down to lower levels of
    Earths surface.
  • Subduction - Rock subsides back down into the
    Earth.

34
More about the rock cycle
35
Location of Types of rocks
36
Erosion and Weathering
37
Beach Erosion
38
Oceans Effect on Land
  • Erosion makes beaches smaller. (waves carry sand
    and sediments away from the shore)
  • Deposition makes beaches larger. (waves drop
    sediments near the shore)

39
Types of Weathering
40
Glaciers
41
Streams of Rivers Shape Earth
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