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NATURA 2000 implementation in Bulgaria


NATURA 2000 implementation in Bulgaria Andrey Kovatchev Natura 2000 Expert, BALKANI Wildlife Society, Bulgaria Biogeographical seminar Bulgarian case Alpine ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: NATURA 2000 implementation in Bulgaria

NATURA 2000 implementation in Bulgaria
  • Andrey Kovatchev
  • Natura 2000 Expert, BALKANI Wildlife Society,

2002 - 2004
DEPA project - Green Balkans Federation NGO in
cooperation with the Ministry of Environment and
Budget 500 000 Euro Non systematic approach
field inventories of preliminary identified
territories (CORINE Biotops Sites, protected
areas, expert opinion) on 12.5 of the countries
territory Lack of division between pSCIs and
pSPAs. At the end based on best expert opinion
identified as potential NATURA 2000 sites on 34
of the countries territory. 16 of them studied.
1994 - 1996
Nature Parks
CORINE Biotops project
Map of potential NATURA 2000 sites at the end of
16 of the countrys territory studied by the end
of 2004.
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34 of the countrys territory coverage of all
potential sites.
2005 - 2006
Division of work on the designation of pSCIs and
  • Projects financed by Bulgarian Government
  • for inventory of pSCIs and coordination of this
    action with other projects Green Balkans
    Federation NGO, budget 700 000 EURO
  • for inventory of pSPAs and coordination of this
    action with other projects Bulgarian Society for
    the Protection of Birds (BirdLife Bulgaria),
    budget 150 000 EURO

Contribution of other projects with international
financing overall more than 2 500 000 EURO
2005 - 2006
  • Project of NGO coalition NATURA 2000 in Bulgaria
    public contribution, PIN MATRA
  • Projects of WWF DCP in Danube basin
  • GEF project Conservation of globally important
    biodiversity in the Rhodope landscape
  • Project Prime Butterfly Areas of Butterfly
    Conservation Europe (Wageningen) and National
    Natural History Museum, PIN MATRA program
  • Project of Forestry Institute of the Bulgarian
    Academy of SciencesInventory and strategy for
    protection of old growth forests in Bulgaria,
  • Development of Brown bear action plan,
    coordinated by BALKANI Wildlife Society, PIN
  • Development of Chamois Action Plan 2007 -2016,
    implemented by Bulgarian Biodiversity Foundation
  • Project of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences on new
    Bulgarian Red Data Book
  • A number of smaller projects

2005 - 2006
  • Till October 2006 - submitted scientific
  • for pSCIs covering 35 of countrys land
  • October November 2006 - working group initiated
    by NGOs
  • Participants NGOs, key experts, Ministry of
    Environment and Waters, Ministry of Agriculture
    and Forestry
  • Tasks to complete sufficient scientific list of
    pSCIs according to the criteria of Stage 2
  • Results Optimization of submitted documentation
    to 225 sites occupying 28,6 of countrys land

2005 - 2006
Comparison - version 20 October (35) and version
20 November (28,6)
NGOs submitted proposals - Green Balkans
Federation, BALKANI Wildlife Society, WWF DCP
Bulgaria, Center for Environmental Information
and Education, Association of Parks
2005 - 2006
NGOs submitted proposals - Bulgarian Society for
the Protection of Birds
Political process of designation of NATURA 2000
  • Delayed decision of the Council of Ministers
  • The decision on list of pSCIs and pSPAs is made
    on 15 February 2007 one and a half months
    after EU accession date
  • The decision is made available to public on 5
    March 2007.
  • The decision is to cut both list of sites leading
    to drastic insufficiencies in both lists.
  • The decision is justified on purely economic
    grounds. It stipulates future exclusion from
    borders of SPAs and SACs of all areas with
    development demands and spatial plans appeared to
    date of issuing of designation order.

List of SPAs excluded (red) and adopted
List of pSCIs excluded (red) and adopted (green)
Every week protests for NATURA 2000 in front of
the Council of Ministers
Soap opera
Coins to pay EU sanctions
Species left outside of NATURA 2000
Political umbrella
After 1 year of an NGO campaign almost all
proposed sites adopted in December 2007 and
submitted in EU SPAs and pSCIs
  • Number of other street protest for protection of
    NATURA sites and against different threats
  • Campaign within government letters, position
    papers, meetings with Ministers
  • Written statements and submission in Brussels,
    meetings with representatives of EU Commission
    and with the European Commissioner Stavros Dimas
    (April 2007)(with support of international
    networks)? - network so week that even
    biogeographical seminar could not be started

Overlapping between pSCIs (28,6) and SPAs
(23,4)together 34,5
Political process of designation of NATURA 2000
  • Final differences scientific proposal
    political decision (despite 1 year delay)
  • pSCIs missing site Rila buffer question
    lefto to be decided by the biogeographical
  • SPAs significantly reduced sites Pirin, Rila,
    Central Balkan, Rhodopi Zapadni and Kaliakra.
    Started in 2007 infringement procedure by the
    European Commission. In 2010 with the exception
    of Kaliakra (still pending) all sites finally
    designated in near original scientific borders by
    the Government in order to prevent appeal in the
    Court of justice.

Biogeographical seminar
  • Habitats Directive
  • Art. 4 (1) and Annex III Stage 1- National list
  • Art. 4 (2) and Annex III Stage 2 Assessment by
    the Commission in agreement with Member State
    (biogeographic seminars followed by bilateral
  • Formal requirement to select SCIs from a larger
    list of pSCIs (criteria in Stage 1 define broader
    set of zones)
  • Reality during biogeographical seminars to
    assess insufficiencies in the official Member
    state proposals and identify places for upgrading
    with new sites to achieve coherence

Biogeographical seminar
  • Preparation - the European Topic Centre on
    Biological Diversity (ETC/BD) (important to be
    lobbied by the NGOs)
  • official advisory scientific body, participating
    at the seminar
  • Preliminary technical and scientific analysis of
    the pSCIs
  • Preparation of the official documentation prior
    the seminars
  • a. The reference lists for each biogeographical
  • b. The Natura 2000 standard data forms of all the
    sites proposed by the Member States for the
    biogeographical region
  • c. Maps of sites proposed - each habitat/species
    per biogeographical region
  • d. A summary table - each habitat/species per
    biogeographical region ,
  • - the number of sites proposed by each Member
  • - the coverage (indicated by )
  • - Coherence analyses, first preliminary
    conclusions and comments

Biogeographical seminar
  • Criteria stage 2 for selecting SCIs (Annex III
    Habitats Directive)-
  • relative national value
  • migration routes of species
  • cross-border ecosystem (internal Community
  • total area of the site
  • number of habitats and species in the site
  • global ecological value (unique aspect of its
    features) of the site

Biogeographical seminar
  • Stage 2 - criteria in Hab. 97/2 rev. 4 18/11/97
  • Pre-selection phase 20-60 Rule
    (biogeographical region) applied during the
  • The habitats/species which occurrence is covered
    to an extent
  • higher than 60 are considered, in principle, as
    sufficiently represented
  • lower than 20 are considered, in principle, as
    insufficiently represented
  • between 20 and 60 are the subject of a
    case-by-case analysis
  • For priority, rare, endangered species and
    habitats lowest required threshold for coverage
    in the region is 60!

Biogeographical seminar
  • Hab. 97/2 rev. 4 18/11/97
  • Case by case "phase (biogeographical region)
  • Priority criterion - at least one priority
    habitat or species
  • Uniqueness criterion - containing the only
    significant example of a non priority habitat or
  • High-quality criterion - having a high national
    value for at least one non-priority habitat or
  • High-diversity criterion - containing a
    significant number of non-priority habitats
    and/or species
  • Network coherence criterion - playing a role to
    ensure the coherence (as well structural as
    functional) of the Natura 2000 Network -
    migration routes, ecological corridors, relic
    localisations, cross-border ecosystems, bordering
    a major protected area, restoration measures for
    at least one priority habitat or species
  • Safeguard clause criterion safeguarding
    sufficient coverage

Biogeographical seminar
  • The seminar
  • The seminars discuss
  • reference lists per biogeographical regions
  • the sufficiency of each species and habitat,
    according to the agreed reference lists
    separately for each biogeographical region

Biogeographical seminar
  • Criteria used during the biogeographical seminar
  • Simplified and reversed criteria of Hab. 97/2
    rev. 4 18/11/97 to answer the question - is the
    submitted list of pSCIs sufficient?
  • Pre-selection criterion 20-60 widely used
    (low coverage)
  • Geographical insufficiency/gap missing sites in
    certain area with proven distribution or at the
    border of natural distribution
  • Missing locality for rare species with few
  • Missing best/representative locality or several
    best/representative localities
  • Missing locality/site playing role of stepping
    stone bio-corridor ecological coherence (site
    should host species permanently in order to be
  • Not presented important variation (subtype,

Biogeographical seminar
  • Possible decisions on sufficiency
    habitats/species review
  • SUF (Sufficient) No further sites needed
  • IN MAJ (Insufficient major) No sites proposed at
    present. A major effort to designate sites is
  • IN MOD (Insufficient moderate). One or a number
    of additional sites (or maybe extension to sites)
  • IN MOD GEO - means that additional site(s) are
    required in certain region to eliminate
    geographical gap.
  • IN MIN (Insufficient minor) - habitat/species
    should be noted on sites already proposed for
    other habitats/species
  • CD (Correction of data) Data needs to be
  • Sci Res (Scientific reserve) A definite
    conclusion is not possible need to
    investigate/clarify a scientific issue

Biogeographical seminar
  • Participants
  • European Commission
  • ETC/BD
  • Independent experts invited by the Commission
  • National Governments and their experts
  • NGOs (through Habitats Forum)
  • Observers
  • Decisions consensus leaded by the chairmen from
    the Commission, input from the ETC/BD and
    independent experts crucial (lobby them!!)

Biogeographical seminar
  • NGOs - how to prepare prior seminars
  • Ensure good unofficial cooperation
    scientists/NGOs (scientists are not always in a
    position to say freely everything, but NGOs could
  • Establish good communication with the Commission
    and ETC/BD on the topic as soon as possible
  • Choose as fast as possible your representatives
    (knowledgable and trustable), 1-3 persons for the
    seminar through consensus
  • Lobby through European Habitats Forum members
    (WWF-European Policy Office, CEEWEB, BirdLife)
    and directly through the Commission to receive
    invitation for these persons
  • Prepare alternative NGOs assessments, shadow
    lists and reports and distribute them as early as

Biogeographical seminar
  • NGOs - how to prepare prior seminars
  • Make critical analyses of the Governmental
  • b. Revise reference lists they should be truly
    presented in the biogeographical region/ or
    missing species/habitats
  • c. For every or for most important habitat and
    species from the reference list
  • make an assessment of coverage and coherence of
    the official list
  • try to propose a shadow list of sites
  • prepare a report with maps (shadow list,
    localities of the species, habitats etc) and
    submit it to the secretariat of the convention
    and the ETC prior the seminar (as early as

Biogeographical seminar
  • NGOs shadow lists could be a
  • Complicated map - containing detailed NATURA 2000
    data base and border of sites (in some countries
    NGOs developed official proposals)
  • Simplified map - polygons (GIS or even GOOGLE
    EARTH) accompanied with a simple EXCEL table with
    a referent list of species and habitats for each
  • Or even a map of localities for particular
    species and habitats
  • The shadow list is our demand for enlarging the
    network there was no case in other EU countries
    NGOs to be satisfied by the Governmental proposal.


Biogeographical seminar
  • NGOs assessment of coverage
  • Number of localities covered
  • of distribution - simple overlapping with UTM
    grids or similar simplified methods
  • Maps of distribution
  • Deductive models of suitable habitats (for
    species) using free GIS layers

Biogeographical seminar Bulgarian case
  • Preparation by NGOs
  • Mapping species and habitats in 2006 and 2007
  • Forest habitats full forestry inventory (1 5
    000 scale) and assessment of the type of habitat
    by modeling of forestry data
  • Grasslands partial inventory and modeling in
    scale 1100 000 (CORINE Land Cover based)
  • Species distributional data available for most
    of the species (presence/absence) and deductive
    models of suitable habitats developed in scale
    1100 000 (problems old data or scarce data
    especially for invertebrates)
  • In 2007 critical reassessment of all network on
    systematic basis on the base of developed GIS


Biogeographical seminar Bulgarian case
  • The documentation prepared by the NGOs in 2008
  • Analyses of coverage made for most of species and
  • b. A report for 23 species and 9 habitats for
    which network was regarded to be insufficient for
    biogeographical region concerned. Maps and GIS
    accompanied every individual report.
  • c. Reports sent to the ETC in 10 April 2008, 2
    months prior to the seminar included in the
    preliminary official analyses of the ETC
  • d. BG RO NGO preparation meeting in the end of
    April 2008.
  • e. Biogeographical seminars for BG and RO June
    2008. NGO participation 3 experts (through
    European Habitats Forum)

Biogeographical seminar Bulgarian case
Continental region - coverage within the official
list of sites 54.5 NGO assessment of
sufficiency Insufficient Moderate
Low coverage priority habitat with less than 60
coverage in the region. Geographical coherence
There are no sites in the area of Surnena Sredna
Gora Mountain.
Biogeographical seminar Bulgarian case
Alpine region - coverage within the official list
of sites 39 NGO assessment of sufficiency
Insufficient Moderate
Low coverage glacial relict, endangered species
Geographical coherence There are no sites in
the area of Rila Mountain (missing site Rila
Biogeographical seminar Bulgarian case
Alpine region - coverage within the official list
of sites 67,25. NGO assessment of sufficiency
Insufficient Moderate
  • Justification of the NGO assessment
  • Missing sites of high quality Missing high
    quality site Rila buffer
  • Geographical coherence Low coverage of the
    species in Rila Mountain region only about 30
    of the population is covered by the submitted
    sites. Almost all summer habitats of the species
    in the Mountain are outside the protection as
    these sites are mostly encompassing alpine belt.
  • Ecological coherence Missing site "providing
    bio-corridor habitats


Biogeographical seminar Bulgarian case
Continental and Alpine regions - coverage within
the official list of sites 49
NGO assessment of sufficiency Insufficient
  • Geographical coherence edge of distribution

of the species along the Struma and Mesta
Rivers. Lack of pSCIs in Surnena Sredna
Gora Mountain.
  • Ecological coherence stepping stones along river
    valley of Struma River


Biogeographical seminar Bulgarian case
Example of NGOs BG-RO cross-border analyses
(sent to the ETC and Commission in May 2008)
map of sites
Biogeographical seminar Bulgarian case
Example of NGOs BG-RO cross-border analyses
(sent to the ETC and Commission in May 2008)
list of species in cross - border sites
      Krajmorska Dobrudzha(130) Padurea Hagieni Cotul Vaii (157)
Plant 2125 Potentilla emilii-popii D
Plant 2253 Centaurea jankae  
Plant 2327 Himantoglossum caprinum  
Invert 1060 Lycaena dispar  
Invert 1078 Callimorpha quadripunctaria  
Invert 1083 Lucanus cervus
Invert 1087 Rosalia alpina  
Invert 1088 Cerambyx cerdo  
Invert 1089 Morimus funereus  
Invert 4027 Arytrura musculus   Missing in the national reference list
Invert 4033 Erannis ankeraria Missing in the national reference list
Amp/Rep 1219 Testudo graeca
Amp/Rep 1279 Elaphe quatuorlineata  
Mammal 1302 Rhinolophus mehelyi  
Mammal 1304 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum  
Mammal 1305 Rhinolophus euryale  
Mammal 1310 Miniopterus schreibersi
Mammal 1335 Spermophilus citellus
Mammal 2609 Mesocricetus newtoni
Mammal 2633 Mustela eversmannii
Mammal 2635 Vormela peregusna  

Biogeographical seminar Bulgarian case
Results despite high of the network number of
moderate and minor insufficiencies and correction
of data, as well as scientific reserves
State of progress in reaching sufficiency for the
Habitat Directive Annex I habitats and Annex II
species, June 2008
Biogeographical seminar Bulgarian case
December 2008 DG Env. - decision for adoption BG
sites as SCIs
  • Thank you for your attention
  • Andrey Kovatchev
  • BALKANI Wildlife Society