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Biodiesel 101: Industry


Title: Biodiesel Report for the Technical Committee Author: Leland Tong Last modified by: Scott Created Date: 2/17/2003 8:40:52 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biodiesel 101: Industry

Biodiesel 101Industry Technical Overview
  • Presented by the National Biodiesel Board
  • September 2009

Topics Covered
  • Biodiesel Industry Overview
  • Biodiesel Attributes and Benefits
  • ASTM Biodiesel Fuel Specifications
  • BQ-9000 Program, Fuel Quality Pump Labeling
  • Biodiesel Use Handling
  • Biodiesel for Automotive Technicians
  • OEM Support for Biodiesel Blends
  • Information Resources

Biodiesel Industry Overview,Attributes Benefits
What is Biodiesel?
  • biodiesel, n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl
    esters of long chain fatty acids derived from
    vegetable oils or animal fats, designated B100.
  • biodiesel blend, n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel
    with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX,
    where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel.

FACT Making Biodiesel
  • (Catalyst)
  • 100 pounds 10 pounds 10 pounds
    100 pounds
  • Triglyceride Alcohol Glycerine
    Mono-Alkyl Esters
  • (Soy Oil) (Methanol)
  • Biodiesel is produced through a process called
  • Raw Oils and Fats are NOT Biodiesel!
  • Other Renewable Products are NOT Biodiesel
  • Must be long chain mono alkyl esters of fats/oils
  • Must meet ASTM D 6751 - Biodiesel (B100) spec
    in place since 2001, with new updates in Oct.

Written Definition
  • Eliminates
  • Coal Slurries
  • Raw Vegetable Oils and Fats
  • Non-Esterified Oils
  • Hydro-treated Oils and Fats
  • Proprietary Vegetable Oil / Ethanol blends
  • Blends With Diesel
  • Needed to secure auto, engine, and fuel injection
    equipment mfr. acceptance

Traditional Biodiesel Raw Materials
  • Oil or Fat Alcohol
  • Soybean Methanol
  • Corn Ethanol
  • Canola
  • Cottonseed Catalyst
  • Sunflower Sodium hydroxide
  • Beef tallow Potassium hydroxide
  • Pork lard
  • Used cooking oils

Potential New Sources
Brown Grease Etc.
National Biodiesel Board
Sustainable Biodiesel
  • U.S. biodiesel industry is committed to
    sustainable biodiesel production and opposes the
    use of non-sustainable agriculture practices
  • Biodiesel is produced from a wide variety of
    renewable resources in the U.S., including
    non-food sources such as recycled restaurant
    grease and surplus animal fat
  • Soybean oil based biodiesel uses only a fraction
    of the oil, leaving 80 of each bean for food
  • When soybean oil demand goes up for use in
    biodiesel, price for soybean meal for food comes
  • Visit for more

US Biodiesel Production
700 Million Gallons
National Biodiesel Board
Current Production Capacity 2.69 billion
gallons per year. BQ-9000 Producers Represent 70
- 80 of biodiesel production volume in U.S.
Additional Production Capacity Under Construction
427.8 million gallons / yr.
Biodiesel Infrastructure
  • Biodiesel and biodiesel blends are now available
    nationwide from more than
  • 1,600 Distributors and
  • 1,300 Retailers

Buying Biodiesel
  • Visit the NBB website at
    gbiodiesel/ or to view
    biodiesel retailers near you, by state, or along
    a route
  • NBB website also contains the complete listings
    of all NBB member producers, distributors, and
    BQ-9000 certified companies

Why Biodiesel?
Diesel Industry Research
  • JD Power Associates predicts that Diesels
    share of Light Vehicle Sales will increase from
  • USA Car Rise from 3.8 in 2008 to 10.0 by 2015
  • USA Truck Rise from 12.2 in 2008 to 21.7 by

Consumer Research (September 2009)
  • New Public Opinion Research by Moore Information
  • 80 of respondents stated they were Very Likely
    or Somewhat Likely to use biodiesel in their
    vehicle if they were able
  • 73 said they would consider purchasing a diesel
    passenger car if it could use biodiesel and if
    biodiesel was a recommended or approved fuel by
    the engine manufacturer
  • 67 would support the extension of the Biodiesel
    Tax Incentive
  • 75 would support a biodiesel requirement in the
    Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS-2)

Biodiesel Performance
  • Biodiesel blends can be used in any diesel engine
    without modification
  • High Cetane (avg. over 50)
  • Performance essentially the same as diesel in
    horse-power, torque, towing capability and fuel
  • High Lubricity, even in blends as low as 1-2
  • Ultra Low Sulfur avg2 ppm
  • Reduces HC, PM, CO in existing diesel engines

B5 is the official fuel of the 2009 Volkswagen
Jetta TDI Cup Racing Series.
Benefits of Biodiesel
  • Environment
  • Decreases greenhouse gas emissions
  • 78 Lifecycle Carbon Reduction
  • 4.56 1 Positive Energy Balance
  • According to results from new study by University
    of Idaho and U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • Compression Ignition Platform (i.e. diesel)
    30-40 more efficient than Spark Ignition (i.e.
    gasoline, CNG, propane)
  • In 2008 alone, biodiesels contribution to
    reducing greenhouse gas emissions was equal to
    removing 980,000 passenger vehicles from
    Americas roadways

Benefits of Biodiesel
  • Energy Security
  • Renewable, domestic resource
  • New fuel, new refining capacity
  • Reduces dependence on foreign oil
  • Biodiesel produced in the U.S. in 2008 displaced
    38.1 million barrels of crude oil
  • U.S. Industry Goal 5 on-road displacement by
    2015 1.85 BGY (met in various blend levels)
  • On road diesel 38 BGY
  • 5 ¼ of diesel equivalent refined from Persian
    Gulf Crude or about the amount imported from Iraq

National Biodiesel Board
Benefits of Biodiesel
  • Green Jobs/Economic Growth
  • Creates jobs and stimulates rural and urban
  • In 2008 the U.S. biodiesel industry supported
    51,893 jobs in all sectors of the economy
  • Added 4.287 billion to the nations Gross
    Domestic Product
  • Generated 866.2 million in tax revenue for
    federal, state and local governments

Legislative Incentives for Biodiesel
  • Federal Excise Tax Credits
  • Incentive for Biodiesel Producers / Blenders
  • 1.00 per gallon credit against excise tax on
    first use vegetable and animal oils
  • EPACT Credits
  • Incentive for Fleets for B20 Use Least cost
  • CAFÉ Credits
  • Incentive for Automakers for B20 approval
  • Federal Clean Diesel Tax Credits
  • Incentive for Consumers - 250 - 3400

Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS-2) Energy
Independence and Security Act as Enacted
Federal Legislation Volume Requirements
State Biodiesel Legislation
  • 42 states have now legislatively adopted the ASTM
    D6751 specifications for biodiesel 
  • 7 states have passed biodiesel mandates 
  • Two are currently in effect (MN WA)
  • Five will be in effect as of July 1, 2010
    (LA, MA, NM, OR, PA).   

American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM)
Biodiesel Specifications and Fuel Quality
ASTM Status
  • ASTM D6751 is the approved standard for B100 for
    blending up to B20, in effect since 2001
  • Performance-based standard Feedstock and Process
  • ASTM has approved D6751 for B100 use only for up
    to B20 in the final blend
  • Higher blends upon consultation with the OEM
  • European EN14214 specs are for neat B100 use
  • Not feedstock neutral, based on rapeseed only
  • This is why D6751 has different limits for some
    properties compared to the European Specs
  • i.e. D6751 stability is 3 hours, EN14214 is 6

New and Updated Biodiesel Standards
  • After more than 6 years of research and
    development, 4 major biodiesel specification
    ballots were issued, voted on, passed, and
    released by ASTM for public use as of October
  • Changes to B100 Blends Stock, ASTM D6751
  • Add up to 5 biodiesel in Petrodiesel, D975
  • Add up to 5 biodiesel in Heating Oil, D396
  • New standard for on/off road blends B6 to B20,

ASTM Status
  • D975 (on/off road diesel) and D396 (heating oil)
    both allow up to 5 biodiesel
  • Performance based for engines
  • No changes to properties of D975 and D396
  • B100 must meet D6751 prior to blending
  • B5 is now fungible with diesel fuel, just like
    other components that can be used to make D975
  • No pump labels are required for B5 and lower
    blends, its just normal diesel
  • Voluntary labels are OK

ASTM Status
  • D7467 B6 to B20 for on/off road diesel engines
  • Not applicable for heating oil
  • Designed so that if B100 meets D6751 and
    petrodiesel meets D975, B6 to B20 blends will
    meet their specifications
  • Important quality control is at B100 level

Impact of Blended Specs
  • More large fleets are using B20
  • More than 50 of U.S. OEMs now support B20 or
    higher blends in at least some of their
    equipment several more are preparing to extend
    full B20 support to their customers
  • Biodiesel blends are the only non-petroleum
    diesel substitute to have officially sanctioned
    ASTM specifications
  • Quality is further improved, fuel specs can be
    enforced by regulatory bodies (supported by NBB)
  • Biodiesel companies have made process changes in
    order to meet D6751

Why Support B20?
  • Consumers and Fleets want the option to use B20
    blends to reduce their environmental impacts with
    optimal vehicle performance
  • Stringent ASTM specifications (ASTM D7467) are
    now in place and being enforced for B6-B20
    blends, providing OEMs and consumers with greater
    production controls and quality assurance
  • Multiple recent studies by NREL, SAE and others
    indicate no adverse impacts on engine
    performance, parts wear or emissions with use of
    B20 in new engine technologies
  • EPACT Credits Incentive for Fleets for B20
    Use Least cost option for EPACT compliance
  • CAFÉ Credits Incentive for Automakers for B20
  • State Mandates and Incentives are driving
    consumers toward use of higher biodiesel blends
  • The Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS-2) should also
    encourage the sale and use of B20 blends
  • Differentiate your company with a green
    competitive advantage

Signs of QualityBQ-9000 Quality Program and New
Biodiesel Pump Labeling Requirements
Biodiesel Pump Labeling
  • Section 205 of the Energy Independence and
    Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires the Federal
    Trade Commission (FTC) to enact and distribute
    labeling requirements for biodiesel and
    biomass-based diesel pumps.
  • The labeling requirements became effective on
    December 16, 2008.
  • NBB has created labels consistent with this
    ruling, which can be found and ordered at

Biodiesel Pump Labeling
  • No Label Required
  • Fuel blends containing no more than five percent
    biodiesel and no more than 5 percent
    biomass-based diesel and that meet ASTM D975.
  • Labels Required
  • Fuel blends containing more than five but no more
    than 20 percent biodiesel or biomass-based
  • Fuel blends containing more than 20 percent
    biodiesel or biomass-based diesel.
  • Separate Labels for Biodiesel (Blue Labels) and
  • Biomass-Based Diesel (Orange Labels)

BQ-9000 Program
  • Biodiesel Industrys equivalent to an ISO 9000
    program for biodiesel production distribution
    companies as well as testing labs
  • BQ-9000 works hand-in-hand with the ASTM
    specifications for biodiesel
  • Quality Control System covers biodiesel
    manufacturing, sampling, testing, blending,
    storage, shipping, distribution
  • ASTM Grade Fuel, BQ-9000 Companies

BQ-9000 Status
  • Since 2005, there has been a substantial increase
    in interest in the NBBs BQ-9000 Quality Program
  • There are now three BQ-9000 designations
  • Producer (make it to spec)
  • Marketer (buy spec, keep it in spec, blend it
  • Certified Laboratories (test it to ensure it is
    in spec)
  • We now have 53 total companies BQ-9000 certified
    (33 producers, 20 marketers)
  • 70-80 of the biodiesel volume in the U.S. is now
    made by BQ-9000 producers, and more
    certifications are in process
  • Many OEMs are now either requiring or strongly
    encouraging BQ-9000

Biodiesel Use Handling
Biodiesel Use Handling
  • Refer to the Biodiesel Use Handling Guidelines
    available on the Biodiesel Training Toolkit and
    at http//

Guidelines for Biodiesel Use
  • Ensure the biodiesel meets the ASTM specification
    for pure biodiesel (ASTM D 6751) before blending
    with petrodiesel.
  • Purchase biodiesel and biodiesel blends from
    companies that have been registered under the
    BQ-9000 fuel quality program.
  • Ensure your biodiesel blend supplier provides a
    homogenous product.
  • Avoid long term storage of B20 and higher blends
    to prevent degradation. Biodiesel should be used
    within six months.
  • Prior to transitioning to B20, it is recommended
    that tanks be cleaned and free from sediment and
    water. Check for water and drain regularly if
    needed. Monitor for microbial growth and treat
    with biocides as recommended by the biocide

Guidelines for Biodiesel Use
  • Biodiesel and biodiesel blends have excellent
    cleaning properties. Fuel filters on the vehicles
    and in the delivery system may need to be changed
    more frequently upon initial B20 use after that,
    system runs cleaner with no issues.
  • Be aware of the biodiesel blends cold weather
    properties and take appropriate precautions. When
    operating in winter climates, use winter blended
    diesel fuel. Make sure the biodiesel blend cloud
    point is adequate for the geographical region and
    time of year the fuel will be used.
  • Perform regularly scheduled maintenance as
    dictated by the engine operation and maintenance

Biodiesel Cold Flow
  • Cold flow properties of petrodiesel fuel vary
  • One MUST be aware of the cold flow properties of
    both the biodiesel AND the petrodiesel
  • With blends of 20 and below, petrodiesel is
  • Once prepared, blends of B5 or less do not appear
    to be appreciably different from the base

Biodiesel for Automotive and Diesel Technicians
Diesel Technicians Training
  • New Automotive Technicians Online Training
    Program provided by NBB
  • Visit http// for more
    information or to register for an upcoming
    training session

Online Training Program
Education and Outreach to Diesel Technicians
The training seminars we provide answer these
  • Understand why your customers want biodiesel
  • Answer general questions about biodiesel that
    your customers may ask you
  • Understand the importance of fuel quality and the
    BQ-9000 program
  • Be able to discern issues between normal diesel
    problems and poor quality biodiesel imposters or
    out-of-spec biodiesel when they hit your shop

Training Also Covers Vehicle Fleet Maintenance
on Biodiesel Blends
  • Fuel Quality and Parameters
  • Fuel Filtration system and OEM Maintenance
  • Lubricity
  • Exhaust Aftertreatment operation maintenance
  • Additional Emissions Controls
  • Engine oil lubrication system and maintenance
  • Non-Fuel Related maintenance reminders

How Does Biodiesel Affect Emissions
Aftertreatment ?
  • Fuel System
  • Concern over deposits and corrosion addressed by
    ASTM specifications
  • Engine Emissions
  • Lower HC and Particulate Matter
  • NOx emissions depend on duty cycle
  • Aftertreatment hardware / durability
  • Easier DPF regeneration
  • Studies at NREL / ORNL show no adverse effects on
    hardware durability, engine performance or

B20 vs. Diesel In the shop
  • With in spec B20 and lower, the issues you can
    expect to see in your shop are the same as you
    will see with petrodiesel
  • Except
  • Expect to see less lubricity related issues
  • Expect to see less problems with after-treatment
  • Filter related issues are likely normal diesel
    issues or out of spec or imposter biodiesel
  • Less black smoke from exhaust!

OEM Support for Biodiesel Blends
OEM Warranty Statements and Biodiesel
  • All major U.S. OEMs support at least B5 and lower
    blends, provided they are made with biodiesel
    meeting ASTM D 6751
  • More than 50 of U.S. manufacturers support B20
    or higher blends in at least some of their
  • Several more are completing testing and
    progressing toward support for B20 now that new
    ASTM standards for B6-B20 blends have been
    published (ASTM D7467)
  • Most are also recommending use of a BQ-9000

OEM Biodiesel Blend Approvals
  • Expected to enter the U.S. diesel market (2010),
    blend TBA
  • Acura, Honda, Hyundai, Mahindra, Mini Cooper,
    Nissan, Smart Car, Subaru, Toyota
  • Approve B5
  • Audi, BMW, Detroit Diesel, Freightliner, Isuzu,
    Kubota, Mack, Mercedes, Volkswagen, Volvo

OEM Biodiesel Blend Approvals
  • Approve B20 or higher on at least some models
  • Arctic Cat, Buhler, Case Construction Equipment,
    Case IH, Caterpillar, Cummins, Chrysler
    (Dodge Ram Sprinter - Fleets Only), Ford (for
    2011 F-Series trucks), General Motors (SEO for
    fleets only), Hayes Diversified Technologies,
    John Deere, Navistar/International, Perkins,
    Toro, Yanmar
  • Approve B100
  • Case IH (approx. 50 of models), Fairbanks Morse,
    New Holland, Tomcar

For the Latest OEM Updates
  • Visit http//
  • for a complete listing of OEM position
    statements on biodiesel, as well as the current
    U.S. Diesel Vehicles List

NBB Resources
  • News Releases Information Resources
  • Technical Library, Spec Sheets Videos
  • OEM Warranty Positions on Biodiesel
  • U.S. Diesel Vehicle List
  • Listing of BQ-9000 Certified Companies
  • Listing of BioTrucker retail sites
  • Biodiesel merchandise, literature, pump labels
    and more!

Thank You!
  • For more information or future training
    opportunities, contact
  • Jennifer Weaver
  • OEM Outreach Education Program Specialist
  • For the National Biodiesel Board
  • Email
  • Or Call NBB at 1-800-841-5849
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