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## Basic Pacing Concepts Part II

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### Title: Basic Pacing Concepts Author: JackRabbit Last modified by: Medtronic, Employee Created Date: 7/30/1998 3:49:38 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basic Pacing Concepts Part II

1
Basic Pacing ConceptsPart II
2
Electrical Concepts
3
Every Electrical Pacing Circuit Has the
Following Characteristics

• Voltage
• Current
• Impedance

4
Voltage
• Voltage is the force or push that causes
electrons to move through a circuit
• In a pacing system, voltage is
• Measured in volts
• Represented by the letter V
• Provided by the pacemaker battery
• Often referred to as amplitude

5
Current
• The flow of electrons in a completed circuit
• In a pacing system, current is
• Measured in mA (milliamps)
• Represented by the letter I
• Determined by the amount of electrons that move
through a circuit

6
Impedance
• The opposition to current flow
• In a pacing system, impedance is
• Measured in ohms
• Represented by the letter R (W for numerical
values)
• The measurement of the sum of all resistance to
the flow of current

7
Voltage, Current, and Impedance Are Interdependent
• The interrelationship of the three components can
be likened to the flow of water through a hose
• Voltage represents the force with which . . .
• Current (water) is delivered through . . .
• A hose, or lead, where each component represents
the total impedance
• The nozzle, representing the electrode
• The tubing, representing the lead wire

8
Voltage and Current Flow

Spigot (voltage) turned up(high current drain)
Spigot (voltage) turned low(low current drain)
9
Resistance and Current Flow
Normal resistance

Low resistance
High current flow
High resistance
Low current flow
10
Ohms Law is a Fundamental Principle of Pacing
That
• Describes the relationship between voltage,
current, and resistance

V I X R I V / R R V / I
x
11
When Using Ohms Law You Will Find That
• If you reduce the voltage by half, the current is
also cut in half
• If you reduce the impedance by half, the current
doubles
• If the impedance increases, the current decreases

12
Ohms Law Can Be Used to Find Amounts of Current
Passing Through Pacemaker Circuitry
• If Voltage 5 V
• Impedance 500 W
• What will the current be?
• I V/R
• I 5 V 500 W 0.010 Amperes
• 0.010 x 1000 10 mA

13
In This Example, the Voltage is Halved
• If Voltage 2.5 V
• Impedance 500 W
• Current ?
• I V/R
• V 2.5 V 500 W 0.005 Amperes
• 0.005 x 1000 5 mA

14
In This Example, the Impedance is Reduced By Half
• If Voltage 5 V
• Impedance 250 W
• Current ?
• I V/R
• I 5 V 250 W 0.020 Amperes
• 0.020 x 1000 20 mA

15
Impedance Changes Affect Pacemaker Function and
Battery Longevity
• High impedance reading reduces battery current
drain and increases longevity
• Low impedance reading increases battery current
drain and decreases longevity
• Impedance reading values range from 300 to 1,000
W
values greater than 1,000 ohms

16
Lead Impedance Values Will Change Due to
• Insulation breaks
• Wire fractures

17
An Insulation Break Around the Lead Wire Can
Cause Impedance Values to Fall
• Insulation breaks expose the wire to body fluids
which have a low resistance and cause impedance
values to fall
• Current drains through the insulation break into
the body which depletes the battery
• An insulation break can cause impedance values to
fall below 300 W

Insulation break
Decreased resistance
18
A Wire Fracture Within the Insulating Sheath May
Cause Impedance Values to Rise
• Impedance values across a break in the wire will
increase
• Current flow may be too low to be effective
• Impedance values may exceed 3,000 W

Increased resistance
19
Stimulation
20
Stimulation Process
Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 0
Transmembrane Potential (Millivolts)
Phase 3
Threshold
Phase 4
21
Stimulation Threshold
• The minimum electrical stimulus needed to
consistently capture the heart outside of the
hearts refractory period

Capture
Non-Capture
VVI / 60
22
Two Settings Are Used to Ensure Capture
• Amplitude
• Pulse width

23
Amplitude is the Amount of Voltage Delivered to
the Heart By the Pacemaker
• Amplitude reflects the strength or height of the
impulse
• The amplitude of the impulse must be large enough
to cause depolarization ( i.e., to capture the
heart)
• The amplitude of the impulse must be sufficient
to provide an appropriate pacing safety margin

24
Pulse Width Is the Time (Duration) of the Pacing
Pulse
• Pulse width is expressed in milliseconds (ms)
• The pulse width must be long enough for
depolarization to disperse to the surrounding
tissue

5 V
1.0 ms
0.5 ms
0.25 ms
25
The Strength-Duration Curve
• The strength-duration curve illustrates the
relationship of amplitude and pulse width
• Values on or above the curve will result in
capture

Stimulation Threshold (Volts)
Capture
0.5
1.0
1.5
Duration Pulse Width (ms)
26
Clinical Usefulness of the Strength-Duration Curve
• Adequate safety margins must be achieved due to
• Acute or chronic pacing system
• Daily fluctuations in threshold

2.0
1.5
Stimulation Threshold (Volts)
1.0
Capture
.50
.25
0.5
1.0
1.5
Duration Pulse Width (ms)
27
After Patient Safety, the Second Most Important
Goal in Programming is to Extend Battery Life
• The best way to extend the service life of a
battery is to lower voltage settings while
• Amplitude values greater than the cell capacity
of the pacemaker battery require a voltage
multiplier, resulting in decreased battery
longevity

28
Factors That Affect Battery Longevity Include
• Amplitude and pulse width setting
• Percentage paced vs. intrinsic events
• Rate responsive modes programmed ON

29
Electrode Design May Also Impact Stimulation
Thresholds

30
• Fibrotic capsule develops around the electrode

31
• Steroid eluting leads reduce the inflammatory
process and thus exhibit little to no acute
stimulation threshold peaking and low chronic
thresholds

Porous, platinized tip for steroid elution
Silicone rubber plugcontaining steroid
Tines forstablefixation
32
• Effect of Steroid on Stimulation Thresholds

0
3
6
Pulse Width 0.5 msec
33
General Medtronic Pacemaker Disclaimer INDICATIONS
Medtronic pacemakers are indicated for rate
adaptive pacing in patients who may benefit from
increased pacing rates concurrent with increases
in activity (Thera, Thera-i, Prodigy, Preva and
Medtronic.Kappa 700 Series) or increases in
activity and/or minute ventilation
(Medtronic.Kappa 400 Series). Medtronic
pacemakers are also indicated for dual chamber
and atrial tracking modes in patients who may
benefit from maintenance of AV synchrony. Dual
chamber modes are specifically indicated for
treatment of conduction disorders that require
restoration of both rate and AV synchrony, which
include various degrees of AV block to maintain
the atrial contribution to cardiac output and VVI
intolerance (e.g., pacemaker syndrome) in the
presence of persistent sinus rhythm. 9790
Programmer The Medtronic 9790 Programmers are
portable, microprocessor based instruments used
to program Medtronic implantable
devices. 9462 The Model 9462 Remote Assistant is
intended for use in combination with a Medtronic
implantable pacemaker with Remote Assistant
diagnostic capabilities. CONTRAINDICATIONS Medtro
nic pacemakers are contraindicated for the
following applications        Dual chamber
atrial pacing in patients with chronic refractory
atrial tachyarrhythmias.        Asynchronous
pacing in the presence (or likelihood) of
competitive paced and intrinsic rhythms.
Unipolar pacing for patients with an implanted
cardioverter-defibrillator because it may cause
unwanted delivery or inhibition of ICD
therapy.        Medtronic.Kappa 400 Series
pacemakers are contraindicated for use with
implantation. WARNINGS/PRECAUTIONS Pacemaker
patients should avoid sources of magnetic
resonance imaging, diathermy, high sources of
ablation to avoid electrical reset of the device,
inappropriate sensing and/or therapy. 9462 Operati
on of the Model 9462 Remote Assistant Cardiac
Monitor near sources of electromagnetic
interference, such as cellular phones, computer
monitors, etc. may adversely affect the
performance of this device. See the appropriate
technical manual for detailed information
regarding indications, contraindications,
warnings, and precautions.  Caution Federal law
(U.S.A.) restricts this device to sale by or on
the order of a physician.
34
Contraindications, Warnings, and Precautions for