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The Classical Style in the Arts

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Chapter 5 The Classical Style in the Arts Conclusion Two aspects of Hellenistic culture: --cosmopolitanism --modernity The End Alexander 331 B.C.E ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Classical Style in the Arts


1
Chapter 5
  • The Classical Style in the Arts

2
The Classical Style
  • The quest for harmonious order was the driving
    force behind the revolution of the classical
    style . . . .
  • (Fiero 108)

3
The Classical Style
  • Clarity
  • Harmony
  • Proportioned order
  • (Fiero 108)

4
  • Humanism, realism, and idealism are hallmarks of
    Greek art. (Fiero 110)

5
  • Greek art is . . . humanistic not only because
    it observes fundamental laws derived from the
    human physique, but because it focuses so
    consistently on the actions of human beings.
    (Fiero 110)

6
Leonardo's Vitruvian Man, 1490
http//leonardodavinci.stanford.edu/submissions/cl
abaugh/history/leonardo.htmltop
7
Painting on Pottery
  • ca. 1200-700 BCE
  • The Geometric Period
  • ca. 700-480 BCE
  • The Archaic Period
  • 480-323 BCE
  • The Classical Period

8
The Geometric Period stylized motifs
http//www.uwm.edu/Course/mythology/0100/102.jpg
9
The Geometric Period, http//www.uwm.edu/Course/my
thology/0100/101.jpg
http//www.hellenic-art.com/pottery/geo2.htm
10
The Archaic Period
Black Figure In black-figure pottery, areas of
black, red and white are painted as a substrate
for the figures which, after firing, are enhanced
by incising the outlines into the red surface.
http//www.beloit.edu/arthist/historyofart/greek/
blackfigure.htm
"Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game," c. 530
bce. http//www.accd.edu/sac/vat/arthistory/arts13
03/Greek2.htm
11
Hercules with his hands on the lions neck
http//carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/GREECE/herkreps.ht
ml
12
ca. 510 BC Athena and Herakles
http//www.beloit.edu/arthist/historyofart/greek
/blackfigure.htm
13
The Classical Period red figure
Red Figure (c. 530-450 BC) negative version of
Black Figure. Red-figure pottery was made by
first painting the outlines of the figures, then
providing the details, then painting the grounds.
Because the brush is easier to control than an
engraving tool, red- figure vases tend to be more
detailed than black-figure
http//www.beloit.edu/arthist/historyofart/greek/
redfigure.htm
14
The Classical Period red figure
Heracles fighting the Nemean Lion. After ruining
all his weapons on the lion's impervious hide,
Heracles must choke the monster to death.
Afterwards he wears its skull as a helmet and its
skin for a cloak. ca. 490 b.c.http//www.museum.u
penn.edu/Greek_World/pottery_big-07.html
15
http//www.uwm.edu/Course/mythology/0100/107.jpg
16
The Classical Period white ground
  • (c. 450-400 BC) grave ornamentation
  • White-ground pottery was made by first painting
    the outlines of the figures, then providing the
    details, then painting the grounds in white. 
    (http//www.beloit.edu/arthist/historyofart/greek
    /whiteground.htm)

http//www.uark.edu/campus-resources/dlevine/Relig
ionImages.html
17
seated Apollo holding lyre, pouring libation.
Greek, 480-70 BCE
http//www.vroma.org/images/mcmanus_images/apolloc
up2.jpg
18
ca. 460 BC Women with funerary gifts
http//www.beloit.edu/arthist/historyofart/greek/
whiteground.htm
19
  • Greek Sculpture
  • (See student presentation)

20
http//www2.spsu.edu/cteacad/bseaboltx/2001/Greek/
sld009.htm
21
  • Contrapposto Italian word for "set against". A
    method developed by the Greeks to represent
    freedom of movement in a figure. The parts of the
    body are placed asymmetrically in opposition to
    each other around a central axis, and careful
    attention is paid to the distribution of weight.

http//www.msjc.edu/art/djohnson/art101/101lecture
9.html
22
http//www2.spsu.edu/cteacad/bseaboltx/2001/Greek/
sld011.htm
23
Myron, Diskobolos (Discus Thrower), 460-450
B.C.E. Marble copy of a bronze original, 5' high.
Museo delle Terme, Rome. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
24
Poseidon/Zeus, found in the sea off Cape
Artemision, c. 450 B.C.E. Bronze, 6'10 1/4".
National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Scala/Art
Resource, NY.
25
Warrior from Riace, c. 450 B.C.E. Bronze with
bone, glass paste, and copper inlay, 6 4/5" high.
Museo Nazionale, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
Scala/Art Resource, NY.
26
The caryatid porch of the Erechtheum, sourth
side, 421-407 BC, Acropolis, Athens. Scala/Art
Resource, NY.
27
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos, Roman copy of
Greek original of c. 350 B.C.E. Marble, 6' 8 3/4"
high. Musei Vaticani, Rome. Nimatallah/Art
Resource, NY.
28
  • Relief Plaques

29
Relief of birth of Aphrodite from the genitals of
Uranus, rising from the sea assisted by the two
Horae. Ludovisi Throne, ca 470-460 BC, Altemps
Museum, Rome. http//www.vroma.org/images/raia_ima
ges/ludovisi.throne.jpg
30
The so-called 'Mourning Athena'. Leaning on her
spear with the left hand, her body slightly
inclined forward, she bends her head and
contemplates the stele standing before her. This
latter may have been a stele marking out the
boundaries of the sacred precinct of the goddess,
or a list of casualties in war. Severe style. c.
460 BCE. Athens Acropolis Museum.
http//www.uark.edu/campus-resources/dlevine/Relig
ionImages.html
31
Lapith overcoming a centaur, south metope 27,
Parthenon, Athens, 447-438 BCE. Marble, height 4
ft. 5 in. http//ccwf.cc.utexas.edu/kallet/gree
ce/pictures.html
32
  • The centaurs were a fabulous race of half human
    and half horse creatures from untamed regions of
    Thessaly. They were invited to attend the wedding
    of the king of their neighbors, the Lapiths. In
    the midst of the wedding the centaurs became
    drunk and disorderly and attempted to abduct
    Hippodamia, the bride of Peirthoös. In the
    ensuing battle the Lapiths overcome the centaurs.
    The centaurs as both being half human and being
    in a state of drunkenness are clearly set off
    from the Lapiths. The wild ferocity of the
    centaur is here contrasted to the restrained
    expression of the Lapith. The popularity of this
    subject matter in Greek Archaic and Classical art
    can be explained by its theme of order or cosmos
    overcoming chaos and a series of related
    binaries reason and self-control overcoming
    immoderate passion, culture overcoming nature,
    civilization overcoming barbarism, human techné
    (technology) harnessing wild, animal forces of
    nature, and Greek defeating non-Greek.
  • http//employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/arth/arth200
    /politics/images_authority_2_greek.html

33
  • Greek Architecture

34
  • I call architecture frozen music. (Goethe)

35
Parthenon, Athens, 447-436 BCE
http//www.willamette.edu/cla/wviews/slides.cgi?p1
36
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37
http//lilt.ilstu.edu/drjclassics/sites/acropolis/
0075.htm
38
Varied Uses in History
  • 436 BCE Completed
  • Late 6th century Converted into a Christian
    church
  • 1458 Turned into a mosque
  • 1687 A Venetian shell exploded the gunpowder
    stored by the Turks in it.

(J. Glancey, The Story of Architecture, DK, 2000)
39
http//lilt.ilstu.edu/drjclassics/sites/acropolis/
acropolis.shtm
40
Athena Parthenos, c. 438 BC. Model of the lost
statue. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.http//www.
msjc.edu/art/djohnson/art101/101lecture10.html
41
Parthenon A Symbolic Temple
  • Represented all the core values that held the
    Greek civilization together
  • A place of gathering and worship
  • A Greek warship (the basis of Greek power)
  • A domestic loom (the root of every Greek
    household)
  • The people themselves
  • (J. Glancey, The Story of Architecture, DK, 2000)

42
Greek Warship
http//www.artsales.com/ARTistory/Ancient_Ships/im
ages/Greek_27.gif
43
A domestic loom
http//www.mythinglinks.org/WomenWeavingTLGAofM86
r50s6more.jpg
44
The Greek Orders
  • (1) Doric
  • (2) Ionic
  • (3) Corinthian

45
Doric Referred to as "basic order."  Most plain
of orders.  Emphasis on stability and
grace.  Massive and weighty.  Serious and
masculine. http//www.msjc.edu/art/djohnson/art10
1/101lecture10.html
http//www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/greek/
doric1.jpg
46
Doric entablature
http//www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/greek/
doric2.jpg
47
Doric NYC Custom House, 1834
http//www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/greek/
doric-nycustom.jpg
48
Taiwan Provincial Museum, Taipei
49
Fu Yard, NTU, Taipei
50
Ionic Fairly fluid style. Strong Near Eastern
influence. Light and graceful  http//www.msjc.ed
u/art/djohnson/art101/101lecture10.html
http//www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/greek/
ionic1.jpg
51
http//www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/greek/
ionic2.jpg
52
Ionic entablature
http//www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/greek/
entablat.jpg
53
Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens, c. 421
- 405 BC
http//www.msjc.edu/art/djohnson/art101/101lecture
10.html
54
The Erechtheum, Akropolis, Athens. 421 - 405 BC
http//www.msjc.edu/art/djohnson/art101/101lecture
10.html
55
Ionic University of Virginia, 1819-26
http//www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/greek/
ionic-uva.jpg
56
(No Transcript)
57
Corinthian Complex, organic decoration Capitals
usually composed of curly shoots and leaves of
the acanthus plant Suggest delicacy and
femininity Became the standard capital for Roman
architects http//www.msjc.edu/art/djohnson/art10
1/101lecture10.html
http//intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/order2.jpg
58
Corinthian entablature
http//www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/greek/
corinthian1.jpg
59
University of Virginia, 1819-26
http//www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/greek/
corinthian-uva.jpg
60
The New York Public Library, New York City
http//ah.phpwebhosting.com/a/DCTNRY/p/pallad/
61
  • The three types of columns were developments of
    the Egyptian columns, which symbolized bunches of
    reed tied together. The capitals of Greek columns
    were, again, representations of natural forms, as
    in the rams horns of the Ionic or the stylized
    acanthus leaves of the Corinthian.

(J. Glancey, The Story of Architecture, DK, 2000)
62
  • The Hellenic Age
  • (800 BCE - 323 BCE)
  • The Hellenistic Age
  • (323 BCE - 30 BCE)
  • The Greco-Roman Age
  • (30 BCE - 476 CE)

63
  • The Rise of Macedonia

64
Philip II
  • 359-336 BCE
  • 338 BCE Defeated Athens.
  • Greek city-states lost independence.

65
Alexander
  • 336-323 B.C.E.
  • Greeks ? the Sacker of Cities
  • Romans ? Alexander the Great

66
Alexander
  • 331 B.C.E. Defeated the Persian army.
  • Contributions Spread Greek civilization from
    the Aegean to the Indus River.

67
Empire of Alexander the Great 336-323 BCE
http//arapahoe.littletonpublicschools.net/Portals
/7/Social20Studies/Crosby/WesternCiv/Unit2/Unit2
02.520Hellenistic20Empire20Map.ppt
68
The Battle of Issos or Battle of Alexander and
the Persians. Mosaic copy from Pompeii of a
Hellenistic painting of c. 315 BC.
http//www.msjc.edu/art/djohnson/art101/101lectur
e10.html
69
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70
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71
(No Transcript)
72
http//www.msjc.edu/art/djohnson/art101/101lecture
10.html
73
http//www.msjc.edu/art/djohnson/images/art20101
20images/chapter205/alexandercoin.jpg
74
  • Alexander the Great was depicted in Greek coinage
    as ram-headed, (Arabic Zul-Qarnain, Lord of two
    horns) indicating he was regarded as a living
    deity while yet a man.

http//khidr.org/gaffar.htm
75
http//wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/262/268
312/art/figures/KISH_03_66.gif
76
Hellenistic Kingdoms
  • Ptolemaic Egypt
  • Seleucid Persia
  • Antigonid
  • Macedonia-Greece

77
  • Philosophy of the Hellenistic Age

78
Hellenistic Philosophy
  • Skepticism Cynicism
  • Epicureanism Stoicism

79
Hellenistic Philosophy
  • All of them placed the personal needs and
    emotion of the individual over and above the good
    of the community

80
Skepticism
  • All knowledge is derived from sense perception
    and therefore must be limited and relative.
  • Happiness results from suspension of judgment.
  • Ideal escape from the world

81
Cynicism
  • Characterized by a cynical criticism of customs,
    institutions and religious opinions, coupled with
    a withdrawal into a private sphere, free of
    social constraints
  • Back to nature self-reliance

82
Epicureanism (1)
  • Based on the materialistic atomism
  • Since there is no ultimate purpose in the
    universe, the highest good is pleasure.

83
  • Pleasure is our first and kindred good. It is
    the starting-point of every choice and of every
    aversion, and to it we come back, inasmuch as we
    make feeling the rule by which to judge of every
    good thing.
  • Letter to Menoeceus, http//www.benthamlinks.com/E
    picurus/

84
Epicureanism (2)
  • Happiness results from avoiding all forms of
    physical excess.
  • The state is a mere convenience the wise man
    should take no active part in politics.

85
Stoicism (1)
  • The cosmos is an ordered whole in which all
    contradictions are resolved for ultimate good.
  • Everything that happens is rigidly determined in
    accordance with rational purpose.

86
Stoicism (2)
  • The highest good is serenity of mind.
  • Duty and self-discipline were cardinal virtues.
  • Taught egalitarianism, pacifism, and
    humanitarianism.

87
  • Hellenistic Art

88
The Dying Gaul, 230 BCE
89
Aphrodite of Melos (also called Venus de Milo),
c. 150 B.C.E. Marble, height 6' 10". Musée du
Louvre, Paris. Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.
90
Pythocritos of Rhodes. Winged Nike (Winged
Victory), from Samothrace, c. 190 B.C.E. Marble,
approx. 8' high. Louvre, Paris. Réunion des
Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY.
91
Laocoön and His Two Sons, Roman copy, late 1st
century B.C.E.-early 1st century C.E., of a
Hellenistic statue. Marble, 7' high. Musei
Vaticani, Rome. The figures of Laocoön and his
son on the viewer's left are Roman copies. The
boy on our right is a Roman addition.
Nimatallah/Art Resource, NY.
92
Old Market Woman, 2nd century BCE
93
Sculpture
  • Moving from idealism to realism
  • Depicting ordinary people in scenes of daily life
  • Extravagance, dramatic, sentimental

94
The Altar of Zeus in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin.
The Pergamon Altar is a magnificently opulent
structure originally built in the 2nd century BC
in the Ancient Greek city of Pergamon (modern day
Bergama in Turkey). It has long been assumed that
the temple was dedicated to Zeus.
http//jdc.math.uwo.ca/images/world/r10-berlin-bel
gium/img13.html
95
http//www.artchive.com/artchive/g/greek/greek_zeu
s.jpg
96
  • The Altar of Zeus was constructed by Eumenes II
    (197-159 BC) and after his death by Attalus II as
    a memorial of the victory against the Galatians
    and taking the Acropolis of Athens as an example.
    The frieze sculptures show the fight of the gods,
    who finally are victorious, against the giants
    (gigantes) (Gigantomachy). The giants (around
    100) are the sons of the mother Earth Gaea (or
    Gaia). It is a victory finally by Zeus over Gaea
    and in this way he ends the matriarchal epoch and
    establishes a patriarchal government order and
    culture.
  • http//www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/ZeusAltar.htm

97
Athena Battling with Alkyoneus, from the frieze
of the Altar of Zeus, east section, c. 180 B.C.E.
Marble, 7' 6" high. Antikensammlung, Staatliche
Museen, Berlin.
98
Conclusion
  • Two aspects of Hellenistic culture
  • --cosmopolitanism
  • --modernity

99
  • The End
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