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RTI

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Title: Addressing Barriers to Learning and Teaching Author. Last modified by: howard Created Date: 9/6/2008 9:36:37 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: RTI


1
RTI Learning Supports Addressing Barriers to
Learning Teaching and Re-engaging Disconnected
Students
2
  • We just missed the school bus.
  • \ Dont worry. I heard the
    principal say
  • \ no child will be left
    behind.
  • /

3
  • In the accompanying handouts we have included
    more than we cover in the power point slides. Our
    hope is that you will look the handouts over when
    you have time.
  • Feel free to use any handout as is or by adapting
    them.

4
Topics to be Covered
  • Urban Schools Can Teachers Go it Alone?
  • A Big Picture View of Why They Shouldnt
  • Be Asked to Do So
  • What Teachers Can Do to Enable Learning

5
Topics
  • In discussing what teachers can do to enable
    learning,
  • we will emphasize
  • (A) Using Response to Intervention as an
    Opportunity to
  • Work With Others
  • (B) Pursuing Response to Intervention
    Sequentially and Effectively
  • (C) Understanding and Applying Intrinsic
    Motivation
  • Pursuing Teaching as One Strategy in a
    Comprehensive
  • System of Student and Learning Supports

6
  • I. Urban Schools
  • Can Teachers Go it Alone?
  • A Big Picture View of Why They Shouldnt
  • be Asked to Do So

7
  • ltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgt
  • The current focus of school improvement policy
    and practice is too limited to ensure that all
    students have an equal opportunity to succeed at
    school.
  • ltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgt

8
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates

9
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates

10
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates
  • Continuing Achievement Gap

11
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates
  • Continuing Achievement Gap
  • So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing

12
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates
  • Continuing Achievement Gap
  • So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing
  • High Stakes Testing Taking its Toll on Students

13
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates
  • Continuing Achievement Gap
  • So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing
  • High Stakes Testing Taking its Toll on Students
  • Plateau Effect

14
  • Some of the data
  • The dropout rate for our nation remains
    unacceptably high. In 2006, the Education Trust
    reported that nearly 25 percent of the ninth
    grade population will not end up graduating from
    high school.

15
  • Some of the data
  • Take reading levels as an example.
  • Despite reports of small recent gains, most
    American students, across grade levels, are
    reading at the most basic levels and only about
    30 percent of high school students read
    proficiently and more than a quarter read below
    grade level.

16
  • Data from the National Assessment of Education
    Progress (NAEP) clearly shows the plateau effect
  • related to academic achievement.

17
(No Transcript)
18
  • Three Lenses for Viewing
  • School Improvement Efforts
  • in Urban Schools

19
  • Lens 1 All Students
  • Not just some students
  • ALL youngsters
  • are to have an equal
  • opportunity to succeed at school

20
ALL Students as Learners
Range of Learners
Motivationally ready and able Not
very motivated/ lacking prerequisite
skills/ different rates styles/ minor vulner
abilities Avoidant/ very
deficient in capabilities
21
Lens 2 Barriers to Learning and School
Improvement
Range of Learners
Instructional Component Classroom Teaching Enri
chment Activity
I Motivationally ready and able Not
very motivated/ lacking prerequisite II
skills/ different rates styles/ minor vulner
abilities III Avoidant/ very deficient in
capabilities
No barriers
Desired Outcomes (High Expectations
Accountability)
Barriers To Learning, Development, Teaching
(High Standards)
22
Appreciating the Full Range of Barriers to
Learning and School Improvement
  • For most students, its more about
  • Environmental Conditions
  • Neighborhood
  • Family
  • School and Peers
  • than about
  • Individual deficits
  • And, of course, a holistic approach emphasizes
  • gtProtective Buffers (strengths, resiliency)
  • gtPromoting Full Development

23
Examples of Environmental Conditions
  • extreme economic deprivation
  • community disorganization, including high levels
    of mobility
  • violence, drugs, etc.
  • minority and/or immigrant status

24
Examples of Family Conditions
  • chronic poverty
  • conflict/disruptions/violence
  • substance abuse
  • models problem behavior
  • abusive caretaking
  • inadequate provision for quality child care

25
Examples of School Peer Conditions
  • poor quality school
  • negative encounters with teachers
  • negative encounters with peers
  • inappropriate peer models

26
Examples of Individual Conditions
  • medical problems
  • low birth weight/neurodevelopmental delay
  • psychophysiological problems
  • difficult temperament adjustment problems
  • inadequate nutrition

27
  • Caution Dont let anyone
  • misinterpret the term
  • gtBarriers to learning
  • It encompasses much more than a deficit model of
    students.

28
  • And, it is part of a holistic approach that
    emphasizes the importance of
  • gtProtective Buffers
  • (e.g., strengths, assets, resiliency,
    accommodations)
  • gtPromoting Full Development

29
Lens 3 Engagement Disengagement
Source of Motivation
Extrinsics Intrinsics Intrinsics/

Extrinsics Engagement Intervention Concerns D
isengagement (psychological
reactance) Avoiding Over-reliance on Extrinsics,
Maximizing Intrinsic Motivation,
Minimizing Behavioral Control Strategies
30
Engaging Re-engaging Students in Classroom
Learning
Its time to pay greater attention to how
schools gtmaximize Intrinsic Motivation gtminimi
ze Behavior Control Strategies gtre-engage
Disconnected Students gtsustain Teacher
Motivation
31
Brief Activity
  • Picture students who do not come to school
    motivated and ready to learn.
  • Then,
  • Using the three lenses, jot down what you think
    urban schools are doing to
  • (1) Address barriers to learning
  • (2) Re-engage disconnected students

32
  • In addressing barriers to learning
  • re-engaging disconnected students
  • Are Teachers Going it Alone?

33
What we see around the country
Psychological Testing
Clinic
After-School Programs
HIV/Aids Prevention
Pupil Services
Health Services
Violence Crime Prevention
Physical Education
Special Education
Health Education
Nutrition Education
Juvenile Court Services
District
School Lunch Program
Community-Based Organizations
Drug Prevention
Counseling
Mental Health Services
Drug Services
Social Services
Pregnancy Prevention
Codes of Discipline
Smoking Cessation For Staff
HIV/AIDS Services
Child Protective Services
  • Student Learning Supports

34
The Problems with Student Learning Supports
  • Current situation at all levels in the
    educational system
  • with respect to student/learning supports is
    that the efforts are
  • Marginalized in school improvement
  • policy and practice.
  • This leads to
  • Fragmentation
  • Poor cost-effectiveness (up to 25 of a school
    budget used in too limited and often redundant
    ways)
  • Counterproductive competition for sparse
    resources (among school support staff and with
    community-based professionals who link with
    schools)

35
Why the Marginalization?
How school improvement policy and practice
addresses barriers to learning and teaching
Direct Facilitation of
Learning Development
Safe schools Some Student Family Assistance
Besides offering a small amount of school-owned
student "support services, schools outreach to
the community to add a few school-based / linked
services.
Instructional / Developmental Component
Management Component
Governance and Resource Management
36
  • Clearly, there are some supports whats missing
    is a dedicated, unified, and comprehensive
    component directly focused on
  • (1) addressing barriers to learning teaching
  • AND
  • (2) re-engaging students who have become
  • disconnected from classroom instruction

37
The need is to move from the prevailing
two-component framework to a three-component
framework in order to develop a Unified and
Comprehensive System of Learning Supports
Addressing Barriers to
Learning/Teaching (Enabling or Learning
Supports Component)
Direct Facilitation of Learning
(Instructional Component)
Examples of Initiatives, programs and
services that belong under the umbrella
gtpositive behavioral supports gtprograms
for safe and drug free schools gtbi-lingual,
cultural, and other diversity programs gtcompensat
ory education programs gtfamily engagement
programs gtspecial education programs gtmandates
stemming from the No Child Left Behind Act
other federal programs
Governance and Resource Management
(Management Component)
38
  • Activity
  • Discuss what you think teachers at urban schools
    would answer if asked what proportion of their
    students show up each day motivationally ready
    and able to do what the teacher has planned to
    teach that day.
  • Then, discuss
  • Why are so many students not motivationally ready
    and able?
  • After your discussion, enjoy a break.

39
(No Transcript)
40
  • Some matters that work against dealing
  • effectively with addressing barriers
  • to learning and teaching

41
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42
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43
(No Transcript)
44
  • II. What Teachers Can Do to Enable Learning
  • A. Use Response to Intervention as an
    Opportunity to Work With Others
  • B. Pursue Response to Intervention Sequentially
    and Effectively
  • C. Understand and Apply Intrinsic Motivation
  • D. Pursue Teaching as One Strategy in a
    Comprehensive System of Student and Learning
    Supports

45
  • A. Using Response to Intervention as an
    Opportunity to Work With Others

46
  • Using RTI to Enable Learning
  • What is a Broadened View of RTI?
  • Inviting Assistance into the Classroom
  • Promoting a Positive School and
  • Classroom Climate
  • Redesigning Classroom Strategies

47
  • (2) Personalization is Fundamental to RTI
  • and Goes Beyond Individualization

48
  • B. Pursuing Response to Intervention
    Sequentially and Effectively

49
Needed An Integrated Sequence of Interventions
that Includes a Comprehensive
System of Learning Supports
Promoting learning
Healthy Development plus Prevention of
Problems (System of Prevention)
as necessary
Intervening as early after onset of problems as
is feasible (System of Early Intervention)
as necessary
Specialized assistance for those with
severe, pervasive, or chronic problems (System of
Care)
50
  • Instruction Sequence and Levels for RTI
  • Step 1. Personalizing Instruction
    Add Step 2 as necessary
  • Step 2. Special assistance
  • gtfor students who continue to have
    problems
  • gtmaintained only as long as needed

51
  • Step 2. As necessary Best special practices
    (special assistance, such as remediation,
    rehabilitation, treatment) are used
    differentially for minor and severe problems

Level A Focus Interventions that observable
factors for performing
If Needs Are minor
As soon as feasible, Move back to Level A
Level B Focus Interventions that address
prerequisite factors
If necessary move to Level B
As soon as feasible, move to Level B
Level C Focus Interventions that address
underlying factors
If necessary and for those with severe and
chronic problems, move to Level C
52
Activity
53
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54
(No Transcript)
55
Start
56
  • C. Understanding and Applying
  • Intrinsic Motivation

57
I dont want to go to school. Its too
hard and the kids dont like me.
\ Thats too bad,
\ but you have to go \ youre
the teacher! /
58
  • Intrinsic motivation is a fundamental concern
  • in every classroom.
  • Understanding intrinsic motivation clarifies how
    essential
  • it is to avoid processes that
  • gtlimit options,
  • gtmake students feel controlled and
    coerced, and
  • gttend to focus mainly on remedying
    problems.

59
  • Overreliance on extrinsic motivation risks
    producing
  • avoidance reactions in the classroom and to
    school.
  • This can reduce opportunities for positive
    learning and for
  • development of positive attitudes.
  • Over time, the result is that too many students
  • disengage from classroom learning (and
    misbehave).
  • Practices for preventing disengagement and
    efforts to re-engage disconnected students
    (families, staff) require minimizing conditions
    that negatively affect intrinsic motivation and
    maximizing those that enhance it.

60
  • Can you translate the following formula?
  • E x V M

61
  • If the equation stumped you, don't be surprised.
  • The main introduction to motivational thinking
    that many people have been given in the past
    involves some form of reinforcement theory (which
    essentially deals with extrinsic motivation).
  • Thus, all this may be new to you, even though
  • motivational theorists have been wrestling with
    it for a long time, and intuitively, you probably
    understand much of what they are talking about.

62
  • Translation
  • Expectancy times value
  • equals motivation

63
  • E represents an individual's expectations
    about outcome (in school this often means
    expectations of success or failure).
  • V represents valuing, with valuing
    influenced by both what is valued intrinsically
    and extrinsically.
  • Thus, in a general sense, motivation can be
    thought of in terms of expectancy times valuing.

64
  • Applying the paradigm
  • Do the math.
  • E x V
  • 0 x 1.0
  • What are the implications?

65
  • Within some limits
  • (which we need not discuss here),
  • low expectations (E) and high valuing (V)
  • produce relatively weak motivation.
  • I know I wont be able to do it.

66
  • Now, what about this?
  • E x V
  • 1.0 x 0
  • What are the implications?

67
  • High expectations paired with low valuing
  • also yield low approach motivation.
  • Thus, the oft-cited remedial strategy of
  • guaranteeing success by designing tasks to be
  • very easy is not as simple a recipe as it sounds.

68
  • .
  • Indeed, the approach is likely to fail if the
  • outcome is not valued or if the tasks are
  • experienced as too boring or if doing them is
  • seen as too embarrassing.
  • In such cases, a strong negative value is
  • attached to the activities, and this contributes
  • to avoidance motivation.
  • Its not worth doing!

69
  • Two common reasons people give for not bothering
    to learn something are
  • It's not worth it"
  • "I know I won't be able to do it."

70
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71
  • Discussion of valuing and expectations
    emphasizes that
  • motivation is not something that can be
    determined solely by forces outside the
    individual.

72
  • Any of us can plan activities and outcomes we
    think will enhance engagement (and learning)
  • But
  • how the activities and outcomes are experienced
  • determines whether they are pursued (or avoided)
    with a little or a lot of effort and ability.

73
Understanding that an individual's
perceptions can affect motivation has led
researchers to important findings About some
undesired effects resulting from over-reliance
on extrinsics.
74
  • Appreciating Intrinsic Motivation
  • Think in terms of
  • Maximizing feelings of
  • gtgtSelf-determination
  • gtgtCompetency
  • gtgtConnectedness to others

75
  • Think in terms of
  • Minimizing threats to feelings of
  • gtgtSelf-determination
  • gtgtCompetency
  • gtgtConnectedness to others

76
  • In particular
  • minimize
  • strategies designed only for social control
  • and
  • maximize
  • options
  • choice
  • involvement in decision making

77
  • Some Guidelines for Strategies that Capture
  • An Understanding of Intrinsic Motivation
  • minimize coercive social control interactions
  • maximize students desire and ability to share
    their
  • perceptions readily (to enter into dialogues
    with
  • the adults at school)
  • emphasize real life interests and needs
  • stress real options and choices and a
    meaningful
  • role in decision making
  • provide enrichment opportunities (and be sure
    not
  • to withhold them as punishment)
  • provide a continuum of structure

78
  • About Psychological Reactance and Misbehavior
  • It is particularly important to minimize the
    heavy emphasis on social control
  • and coercive procedures!!!!

79
If you didnt make so many rules, there wouldnt
be so many for me to break!
80
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81
  • Social control and coercion lead most of us to
    react overtly or covertly
  • You cant do that
  • You must do this
  • Oh, you think so!
  • This is called
  • Psychological Reactance.

82
  • When people perceive their freedom is
    threatened,
  • they experience psychological reactance, which
  • motivates them to act in ways that can restore
    the
  • threatened sense of freedom.
  • With prolonged denial of freedom, reactance
  • diminishes and people become amotivated
  • feeling helpless and ineffective.

83
  • About School Engagement
  • Re-engagement
  • A growing research literature is
  • addressing these matters.

84
  • GOSH MS. THOMPSON, I WAS READY TO
  • LEARN MATH YESTERDAY. TODAY IM READY
  • TO LEARN TO READ.

85
  • Engagement is defined in
  • three ways
  • in the research literature
  • From School Engagement Potential of the
    Concept, State of the Evidence (2004) by J.
    Fredricks, P. Blumenfeld, A. Paris. Review of
    Educational Research, 74, 59-109.

86
  • Behavioral engagement
  • Draws on the idea of participation
  • it includes involvement in academic and social
    or extracurricular activities and is considered
    crucial for achieving positive academic outcomes
    and preventing dropping out.

87
  • Emotional engagement
  • Encompasses positive and negative reactions to
    teachers, classmates, academics, and school
  • is presumed to create ties to an institution
    and influence willingness to do the work.

88
  • Cognitive engagement
  • Draws on the idea of investment
  • it incorporates thoughtfulness and willingness
    to exert the effort necessary to comprehend
    complex ideas and master difficult skills.

89
  • Activity
  • (1) Discuss what factors seem related
  • to students who become disengaged from school
    learning.
  • (2) List out ways to help prevent such
  • disengagement.
  • .

90
  • Working with
  • Disengaged Students
  • Four general strategies
  • See Handout for this and some references for
    learning more about all this.

91
  • I suspect that many children
  • would learn arithmetic,
  • and learn it better,
  • f it were illegal.
  • John Holt

92
Activity for the future at a school Discuss
which classroom and school practices seem to
(1) threaten feelings of gtcompetence
gtself-determination gtrelatedness to staff and
peers (2) enhance such feelings
93
  • D. Pursuing Teaching as One Strategy in a
    Comprehensive System of
  • Student and Learning Supports

94
  • Defining Learning Supports
  • Learning supports are the resources, strategies,
    and
  • practices that provide physical, social,
    emotional, and
  • intellectual supports to enable all pupils to
    have an
  • equal opportunity for success at school by
    directly
  • addressing barriers to learning and teaching
    and
  • re-engaging disconnected students.
  • A comprehensive, multifaceted, and cohesive
    learning
  • supports system provides supportive
    interventions in
  • classrooms and school-wide and is fully
    integrated
  • with efforts to improve instruction and
    management
  • at a school.

95

Framing a Comprehensive System of Learning
Supports to Address Barriers to Learning
96
A system of learning supportsframes both an
intervention continuum delineated arenas of
content

97
Levels of Intervention ContinuumInterconnected
Systems for Meeting the Needs of All Students
One key Facet of a Learning Supports Component
School Resources (facilities, stakeholders,
programs, services)
Community Resources (facilities,
stakeholders, programs, services)
Systems for Promoting Healthy Development
Preventing Problems primary prevention
includes universal interventions (low end
need/low cost per individual programs)
See examples
See examples
Systems of Early Intervention early-after-onset
includes selective indicated
interventions (moderate need, moderate cost per
individual)
Systems of Care treatment/indicated
interventions for severe and chronic
problems (High end need/high cost per individual
programs)
98
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
99
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
100
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
101
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for Transitions
102
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for Transition
Home involvement Engagement In Schooling
103
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for Transition
Community Outreach
Home involvement t Engagement In Schooling
104
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Student Family Assistance
Support for Transition
Community Outreach
Home involvement t Engagement In Schooling
105
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Student Family Assistance
Infrastructure gtleadership mechanisms
Support for Transition
Community Outreach
Home involvement t Engagement In Schooling
106
Major Examples of Activity inEach of the Six
Basic Content Arenas
107
  • Classroom-Based Enabling
  • Re-engaging Students in Classroom Learning
  • FOCUS
  • Classroom based efforts to enable learning
  • Prevent problems intervene as soon as problems
    appear
  • Enhance intrinsic motivation for learning
  • Re-engage students who have become disengaged
    from classroom learning

108
Classroom-Based Enabling
(cont.) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Opening the
classroom door to bring in available supports
Redesigning classroom approaches to enhance
teacher capability to prevent and
handle problems and reduce need for out of
class referrals Enhancing and personalizing
professional development Curricular
enrichment and adjunct programs Classroom and
school-wide approaches used to create and
maintain a caring and supportive climate
109
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
FOCUS School-wide and classroom-based efforts
for gtresponding to crises gtminimizing the
impact of crises gtpreventing crises
110
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Ensuring
immediate assistance in emergencies so
students can resume learning
Providing Follow up care as necessary
Forming a school-focused Crisis Team to
formulate a response plan and take leadership
for developing prevention programs
Mobilizing staff, students, and families
to anticipate response plans and recovery
efforts Creating a caring and
safe learning environment Working
with neighborhood schools and community to
integrate planning for response and
prevention
111
Support for Transitions FOCUS School-wide
and classroom-based efforts to gtenhance
acceptance and successful transitions gtprevent
transition problems gtuse transition periods to
reduce alienation gtuse transition periods to
increase positive attitudes/motivation toward
school and learning
112
Support for Transitions
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Welcoming social
support programs for newcomers Daily
transition programs (e.g., before/afterschool,
lunch) Articulation programs Summer or
intersession programs School-to-career/higher
education Broad involvement of stakeholders in
planning for transitions
113
Home Involvement in Schooling FOCUS
School-wide classroom-based efforts to engage
the home in gtstrengthening the home
situation gtenhancing problem solving
capabilities gtsupporting student development and
learning gtstrengthening school and community
114
Home Involvement in Schooling
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Addressing specific
support and learning needs of family Improving
mechanisms for communication connecting
school and home Involving homes in student
decision making Enhancing home support for
learning and development Recruiting families
to strengthen school and community
115
Community Outreach for Involvement and
Support (including Volunteers) FOCUS
Building linkages and collaborations to
strengthen students, schools, families, and
neighborhoods
116
Community Outreach for Involvement and Support
(including Volunteers) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES
Planning and Implementing Outreach to Recruit a
Wide Range of Community Resources Systems
to Recruit, Screen, Prepare, and Maintain
Community Resource Involvement Reaching out
to Students and Families Who Don't Come to
School Regularly Including Truants and
Dropouts Connecting School and Community
Efforts to Promote Child and Youth
Development and a Sense of Community
117
From Kretzmann McKnight -- Communities have
many resources!
Day care Center
Police
Faith-based Institutions
Banks
Higher Education Institutions
Senior Citizens
Local Residents
School
Library
Businesses
Artist Cultural Institutions
Restaurants
Media
Health Social Services Agencies
Community Based Orgs. Civic Assn.
118
Student and Family Assistance
FOCUS Specialized assistance provided
through personalized health and social service
programs
119
Student and Family Assistance Examples
Providing support as soon as a need is
recognized and doing so in the least
disruptive ways Referral interventions for
students families with problems Enhancing
access to direct interventions for health,
mental health, and economic assistance
Care monitoring, management, information sharing,
and follow-up assessment to coordinate
individual interventions and check whether
referrals and services are adequate and
effective Mechanisms for resource coordination
and integration to avoid duplication, fill
gaps, garner economies of scale, and enhance
effectiveness Enhancing stakeholder
awareness of programs and services
120
For more specific examples and mapping and
analysis self study surveys for each arena, see
the Centers online resource aid Resource
mapping and management to address barriers to
learning An intervention for systemic change
http//smhp.psych.ucla.edu/pdfdocs/resourcemapping
/resourcemappingandmanagement.pdf
121
  • Combined Continuum and
    Content Arenas
  • Levels of Intervention

Systems for Promoting Healthy
Development
Preventing Problems
Systems for Early Intervention (Early after
problem onset
Systems of Care
Classroom-Focused Enabling
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for transitions
Content Arenas
Home Involvement in Schooling
Community Outreach/ Volunteers
Student Family Assistance
Activity Mapping Analyzing Learning Supports
122
  • The framework is meant to guide development of
  • a comprehensive system of learning supports as
  • a primary and essential component of school
  • improvement.
  • Reminder
  • Such an enabling component is meant to
  • (1) address interfering factors
  • and
  • (2) re- engage students in classroom instruction

123
What the Two Component Model Does to Teachers
Range of Learners
Instructional Component Classroom Teaching Enri
chment Activity
I Motivationally ready and able Not
very motivated/ lacking prerequisite II
skills/ different rates styles/ minor vulner
abilities III Avoidant/ very deficient in
capabilities
No barriers
Desired Outcomes (High Expectations
Accountability)
Barriers To Learning, Development, Teaching
(High Standards)
Whats Missing?
124
An Enabling or Learning Supports Component to
Address Barriers and Re-engage Students in
Classroom Instruction
Range of Learners
Instructional Component Classroom Teaching Enri
chment Activity
I Motivationally ready and able Not
very motivated/ lacking prerequisite II
skills/ different rates styles/ minor vulner
abilities III Avoidant/ very deficient in
capabilities
No barriers
Desired Outcomes (High Expectations
Accountability)
  • Enabling
  • Component
  • Addressing
  • Interfering
  • Factors
  • (2) Re-engaging
  • Students in
  • Classroom
  • Instruction

Barriers To Learning, DevelopmentTeaching
(High Standards)
125
Identifying Staff at a School Involved with
Learning Supports
  • Administrative Leader for
  • Learning Supports
  • School Psychologist
  • School Nurse
  • Pupil Services
  • Attendance Counselor
  • Social Worker
  • Counselors
  • Dropout Prevention
  • Program Coordinator
  • Title I and Bilingual Coordinators
  • Resource and Special
  • Education Teachers
  • Other important resources
  • School-based Crisis
  • Team Members
  • School Improvement
  • Program Planners
  • Community Resources

Such a list should include a brief description
of programs and services and times available
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Working together to Develop the System A
Learning Support Leadership Team
What you also need is a Leadership Team for
Developing a Unified Comprehensive System of
Learning Supports (Focused on all students and
the resources, programs, and systems to
address barriers to learning and promote
healthy development)
What you probably have is a Case-Oriented
Team (Focused on specific individuals
and discrete services)
  • Possibly called
  • Learning Supports Leadership Team
  • Learning Supports Resource Team
  • Learning Supports Development Team
  • Learning Support Component Team
  • Sometimes called
  • Child/Student Study Team
  • Student Success Team
  • Student Assistance Team
  • Teacher Assistance Team
  • IEP Team

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A Case-Oriented Team
A Resource-Oriented Team
  • EXAMPLES OF FUNCTIONS
  • aggregating data across students and
  • from teachers to analyze school
  • needs
  • mapping resources
  • analyzing resources
  • enhancing resources
  • program and system
  • planning/development
  • redeploying resources
  • coordinating-integrating resources
  • social "marketing"
  • EXAMPLES OF FUNCTIONS
  • triage
  • referral
  • case monitoring/management
  • case progress review
  • case reassessment

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  • Enhancing a System of Learning Supports
  • Connecting Resources Across a Family of Schools,
  • a District, and Community-Wide

Learning Supports Leadership Team
Learning Supports Leadership Team
High Schools
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Middle Schools
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Learning Supports Leadeship Team
Elementary Schools
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Learning Supports Leadership Council
Learning Supports Leadership Council
School District Resources, Management,
Governing Bodies
Community Resources, Management, Governing
Bodies
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  • To Recap
  • Here are six steps we recommend to teachers
    concerned with enhancing equity of opportunity
    for students
  • (1) Rethink assistance and support in the
    classroom
  • (2) Understand that positive classroom and
    schoolwide climate emerge from both good
    instruction and a potent approach to learning
    supports
  • (3) Aim at increasingly personalizing
    instruction and student and learning supports

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  • Work with colleagues, volunteers, and other
    stakeholders to
  • (4) Ensure a continuum of interventions and use
    a sequential approach in assessing responses to
    intervention
  • (5) Extend ways to accommodate
    differences/disabilities
  • (6) Expand school improvement plans to include
    development of a comprehensive system of student
    and learning supports

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(No Transcript)
132
  • Write down one question and/or comment
  • We will answer as many as we can
  • and take the rest away and send back
  • some response to the class.
  • And remember you can always contact our Center to
    access resources TA.

133
  • What the best and wisest parent wants
  • for his or her own child, that must the
    community want for all of its children.
  • Any other ideal for our schools
  • is narrow and unlovely
  • acted upon, it destroys our democracy.
  • John Dewey
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