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The Age of Jackson


The Age of Jackson Jackson and Van Buren years Other issues of VB term Petitions to abolish slave trade in DC Canadian insurrection & Maine border dispute Malaise due ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Age of Jackson

The Age of Jackson
  • Jackson and Van Buren years

Eaton Affair
  • Peggy Eaton
  • Daughter of tavern keeper
  • 1st husband may have committed suicide
  • Allegedly over her affair with TN senator John
  • Married him
  • He became sec of war
  • Reminds Jackson of gossip about beloved Rachel
  • He believes it killed her
  • Wives of cabinet members snub Peggy
  • Van Buren charming, accompanies her to functions
  • Floride Calhoun biggest snob in Eaton Malaria

Eaton (2)
  • Jackson thought Calhoun trying to coerce him to
    abandon John Eaton
  • To disgrace AJ for having appointed him
  • Van Buren leaked info
  • Sec St Calhoun, (then sec war under Monroe)
    favored censuring AJ for 1818 raid into FL
  • AJ feels betrayed!

Egalitarianism Jackson style
  • ty not for blacks, Indians or women
  • Partly due to freed blacks heading north, taking
  • Segregation for freed blacks- the rule, w/
    persecution, anti black riots
  • Justified preventing blacks abolitionists
    breaking down color barrier (poor whites would
    sink further)
  • Jackson coalition depended on shared white racism
    ability to avoid slave issue
  • Believed indians barbaric impediments to
    progress, expansion.
  • Just humane policy moving them west to area of
    horned toads rattlesnakes
  • 1830 Indian Removal Act

Indian Removal
  • 1825 GAs fraudulent treaty ceded most Creek
    land to state
  • Adams denounced
  • GA based Rt to land grab on unviability of
    States Rights
  • JQA backed down 2 avoid armed conflict
  • 1828 GA moves against Cherokees
  • To avoid Creeks fate, Cherokee adopt
    Constitution 1827
  • Declared selves sep nation w/ sovereignty over
  • GA put Cherokee under state law nullified cons
  • Prohibited Indian testimony against whites
  • Gold discovered

Indian Removal Act 1830
  • Appropriated 500,000 for removal
  • 1830 GA law- whites get residency there
  • 1832 few are left
  • 1838 Cherokee trail of Tears
  • AJ forced treaty on them gave up GA land for
    land in Indiana
  • 5 mill for moving them
  • 12,000 walked the thousand mile trail of tears
  • Victims of cruelty, scorn pilfering of whites
    along way
  • ¼ died en route, dead of winter

1832 Black Hawks War Sauk Fox Indians
  • IL WI
  • Frantic attempt of Inds to reach W bank MS
  • Ends in slaughter of 500 men, women, children by
    white troops w/ Sioux allies
  • Participants
  • Lincoln
  • Jeff Davis

  • Held out in swamps of FL
  • 7 yrs
  • 1835-42 longest Indian war in US history
  • Leader Osceola captured under flag of truce
  • During negotiations
  • Resistance continued

Opposition to Jacksons removal policy
  • Eastern reformers
  • Protestant missionaries
  • Came w/n 3 votes of defeating Removal bill in

Cherokee Nation v. GA 1831 Worcester v GA 1832
  • Ct rules GA violated US Const in extending
    jurisdiction over Cherokees
  • Marshall defines Indian tribes as dependent
    domestic nations
  • Subject only to authority of federal gov
  • Supreme Ct is powerless to enforce rulings
  • Jackson ignores takes states rights position
  • Mutters courts can try to enforce that

  • Most sensitive issue involving power of national
  • Tariffs
  • Issue majority rule, Jackson is a Nationalist
  • Cost some southern support for Dems
  • Tariffs 1st 1816
  • 1824 up
  • 1828 up 50 (tariff of abominations)
  • Contrived to win northern support for Jackson?
  • Loudest outcry SC Old cotton state
  • Loosing pop to west in 1820s
  • Cotton prices still low s. panic 1819
  • Tariffs seen as unconst extension of national
    power over states
  • Prelude to enforced emancipation?
  • SC only state w/ Af-Am majority

Nullification, (2)
  • Slave concentrations in marshes, tidal flats s.
    of charleston
  • Low country district of huge rice plantations
  • Summer months blacks outnumber whites 101
  • Slave rebellions narrowly averted 1822 1829
  • Planters fear agitation fed by N. abolitionists
  • 1831 Nat Turner Revolt
  • VA 55 whites slain before Turner caught
  • Nullification safety valve

Anti tariff Nullies
  • Roots 1828 SC Exposition Protest
  • Calhoun argues
  • State acting through pop elected convention has
    sovereign power to declare act of nat gov null
  • Once a state nullifies a law its unenforceable
    until ¾ states approve const. amendment
    delegating to national gov power that was
  • If such passed, nullifying state could leave union

  • Calhoun orchestrated SC convention nullification
    of Tariff of 1828 1832 (lower)
  • Legislation elects R. Hayne Gov Calhoun Sen
  • Calhoun resigns as VP to take Senator spot
  • GA, AL, MS all refuse to go along (too radical)
  • Said customs duties NOT collected in SC after Feb
    1, 33
  • Defends doctrine as way of protecting minority
    rights in union dominated by Tyrannical national
  • AJ seems Calhoun as scheming disunionist
  • AJ announced intention to enforce tariff
  • Privately threatens to hang Calhoun all other
  • Later regrets he didnt at least hang Calhoun
  • Issued Nullification Proc doctrine of Null
    impractical absurdity
  • AJ asks 4 (gets) Force Bill
  • Sent Gen Winfield Scott to Charleston Harb w/
    troops can have 50k in SC in 40 days
  • Worked to get new lower tariff passed (down by
    50) Compromise Tariff of 1833
  • Lowered duties 20
  • Extends reductions over 20 yrs

Final Act of defiance
  • Nullifiers nullify the Force Bill
  • Calhoun retires to his plantation
  • Significance
  • AJ estabd principal of national supremacy
    grounded in Will of the Majority
  • States rights doctrines remain pop in South
  • Many want to limit powers of Natl gov
  • Triggers new anti-Jackson coalition in South

Webster-Hayne Debate
  • SC disliked tariff but waits for election as
    Calhoun will be VP
  • New tariff policy likely then
  • Late 1829 CT senator tried to restrict land
    sales in W
  • Thomas Hart Benton, MO (always calls for lower
    land prices) denounced as sectional attack
  • So E can keep cheap labor
  • Rbt Hayne, SC takes Bentons side
  • Wants to strengthen W/S alliance
  • If S supports cheap land in W W will support
    lower tariffs
  • Gov endangers Union by imposing hardship on one
    section to benefit another!

Webster Hayne (2)
  • Webster, MA rebukes Ss who disparage Union
  • Lures Hayne into defense of state rights,
  • Hayne defends SC Exposition
  • Union compact of states.
  • Fed Gov, their agent, cannot judge its own powers
  • Would make powers unltd
  • Rather states remain free to judge when gov
    oversteps const. auth.
  • Rt of State Interposition (states interpose
    authority over fed law to thwart injustice)
  • As full complete now as before Const

Webster-Hayne (3)
  • Webster from beginning, Rev crusade of united
    colonies not separate
  • Sovereignty resides in whole people
  • Fed gov, state govs agents
  • if a single state could nullify a law of fed
    gov then Union wd be a rope of sand
  • Practical absurdity
  • Instead const created Sp Ct w/ final
  • Judicial Review
  • Practical outcome of nullification would be
    confrontation (CW)
  • Liberty and Union! Now and Forever! One and

Jeffersons B-day 1830
  • Toast
  • Jackson Our Union- it must be preserved!
  • Calhoun Union, next to Liberty, most dear.

Jackson Calhoun rift
  • May 12, 1830
  • Jackson shown letter confirming Calhoun, Sec War
    in 1818, proposed disciplining Jackson over FL
  • Flurry of tense letters
  • Jacksons last note Understanding you now. No
    further communication w/ you on this subject is
  • Jackson names Van Buren as minister to London
  • Announced plan to run in 32 w/ VB likely
    successor in 36
  • Senate had to approve Calhoun led opposition

Bank War Defining moment in shaping the Dem. Party
  • 1832 draft resolution 4 charter renewal
  • VETO
  • Distrust of banks
  • Shortage of gold/silver
  • Absence of paper money issued, regulated by fed
  • mostly notes loans by private state banks
  • Fluctuate in value based on reputation, credit
    of bank of issue
  • Many wild cat (W) banks
  • Quick profits- issue notes w/o specie to redeem
  • Skipping town b4 being found out

Bank War (2)
  • Farmers, workers want to be paid in real money
  • Gold silver
  • Viewed bankers parasites
  • Manipulating getting rich
  • Bank of US New Pres- Nicholas Biddle, Phil. PA
  • underwrote econ expansion of 1820s
  • Charter good thru 36

Bank War (3)
  • Campaign 32 Clay convinced Biddle to re-charter
  • Sure of congress approval
  • Jackson couldnt veto in campaign year
  • Enemy of sound banking?
  • Bank symbol of privileged monopoly
  • Deprived Amers of chance to compete ly
  • July 10, 1832 AJ vetoed
  • Took stand against all new grants of monopolies
    for advancement of few at exp of many

Bank War (4)
  • Business community lashed out at AJ
  • AJ goes into election as champion of people
    against banking aristoc
  • Easily beat Clay Natl Repub Party
  • Found sec of treasury willing to sign order
    removing fed deposits from bank 33
  • Bank reduced to seeking charter from PA as
    private corp
  • Gov deposited into pet banks
  • Result too much credit triggered buying frenzy
    of W land
  • Prices shot up
  • 1836 Specie Circular
  • Gold silver only for land, etc
  • Hard times hit by 37 (Van Buren)

Speculative bubble
  • Reached greatest extent by 1836
  • Burst by Distribution Act-
  • Distributed gov surplus to states
  • Long time process (removes argument for cutting
  • Much surplus comes from sale of W lands
  • Alt cut price on land? (W idea)
  • Lower tariff? (S idea)
  • Surplus used to pay off national debt by Jan 1835
  • AJ opposed distribution so surplus LOANED to
  • As deposits, never demanded back
  • Distributions were taken out of state banks
  • State banks had to call in loans to cover
  • Huge disarray
  • Specie Circular issued to stop fraud, cut out big
    speculators, stop extension of notes, credit
  • Irony few settlers had specie now at mercy of

Boom Bust of 1830s
  • Causes
  • Mid decade inflation from increased specie
    payments from England, France, MX
  • For investments, purchases, esp cotton
  • Same time Brit credits let Amers buy w/o
    exporting specie
  • Also flow of specie to China ?
  • They now take Brit credits to cover growing opium
    imports from Br India
  • Therefore specie reserves in US kept pace w/ ??
    in bank notes in spite of reckless banks
  • 1836 Brit econ ?
  • Brit investments ?
  • Demand for cotton ?
  • May 1837 VB in- NY banks suspend specie payment
    on notes
  • Fear of bankruptcies sets off bank runs
  • Brief recovery 38 bad wheat harvests in Eng
  • Good harvests return in 39- no imports needed
    same year as bumper crop in US
  • Depression ? mid 1840s

Van Buren 1836
  • Dems 2nd Natl Convention
  • Whigs have no conv
  • Send up many candidates
  • Webster, Hugh White (TN), Wm Harrison (IN)
  • Issues in S whigs argue VB soft on anti-slavery
  • Only White trusted
  • VB takes 170 electoral Votes- Old Kinderhook
  • Aka Little Magician
  • VB no popular base
  • Different style reflective, weighed polit
  • Appeared indecisive
  • Seemed to have no bold program
  • Inherited financial panic

Panic 1837
  • Gov land sales up from 4 mil (1833) to 20 million
  • Decade of boom business cycle increased
  • EZ credit
  • Land spec
  • Amers pile up debt
  • Key foreign trade credit England
  • Late 36 Bank of E tightened credit on Br
    merchants in US
  • Incr. interest rates, decreased credit lines
    (afraid of specie drain to US) depression in E
    tips over US econ.
  • Brit demand for cotton declined
  • Price of cotton declined
  • No new loans
  • US expansion depended on Euro capital

Panic (1)
  • US wheat crop failed no exports
  • Wildcat banks go under
  • Gov lost 9 mil in pet banks
  • Working class hard hit- fall 1837 1/3 unemp
  • Rest take 30-50 pay cuts
  • Cost of food, clothes soars
  • Churches, voluntary societies sole help for
  • VB advisors think healthy shake down of
    speculators, bankers not gov job to rescue
    farmers, businesses or provide relief
  • To stabilize econ
  • Distribution of surplus postponed
  • Indep treasury adopted

Panic (2)
  • Cotton main security for most US banks,
    mercantile firms
  • Result chain reaction contracting credit,
    falling prices
  • Investors rush to convert notes to specie
  • Banks suspend payment
  • Panic hits New Orleans, Mar. 37 ? NY banks by May
  • Panic drags down whole econ
  • Bankruptcies are up investment capital down,
    business down
  • States stop all construction/ slash budgets
  • 9 states in S W defaulted on bonds
  • Unemployment up ? mass protest meetings in E
  • Fear of revolution
  • Brief recovery 38 another round credit
    contraction -gt depression ? 43
  • N.E. unemp ? 20 (unheard of)
  • Many farmers, planters fled W 2 avoid creditors

Election 36
  • Dems charged w/ starting depression
  • Opponents Whigs- blame AJs destruction of bank
  • Gov interference in econ
  • Undermined business confidence
  • AJ forcing pet banks to replace small denom bank
    notes w/ hard made it worse
  • Issued Specie Circular large blocks land, only bt
    w/ specie
  • to break spec frenzy
  • May have helped spread panic by req transfer 2 W
    of specie when E banks strapped
  • Low reserves cant meet demand on bank notes

  • Removing fed fm nat bank protects people fm
    paper aristocrats in banking business
  • Policy contradicts Dem idea of ltd gov
  • Shifted to state banks ? had to regulate or be
    accused of creating little monsters
  • Only way out break connection between gov

Independent Treasury system
  • The gov deals w/ NO banks
  • Treasury does business in gold silver only
  • T stores reserves in regional vaults (sub
  • Proposed 1837
  • Approved 1840 after more bank failures
  • Result prolonged depression
  • Specie locked in vaults unavailable 4 loans,
    expansion of credit
  • Reduced money supply
  • Put ?pressure on prices
  • Repealed in 1 yr
  • Restored 1846

Other issues of VB term
  • Petitions to abolish slave trade in DC
  • Canadian insurrection Maine border dispute
  • Malaise due to economy

Election 1840
  • Log Cabin Hard Cider campaign
  • Whigish Jacksonian military hero Wm H Harrison
  • Battle of Tippecanoe v Shawnees
  • Gov of IN
  • Anti-Masons like him
  • Tyler for VP brings in states rights wing
  • Baltimore Republican printed upon condition of
    his recvg pension of 2k and a barrel of cider,
    Gen Harrison wd no doubt consider to w/d
    pretentions. Spend days in a log cabin on banks
    of the OH
  • Whigs seized symbols to show Harrison as man of
    modest means

  • One of first families of VA
  • Lived in large farmhouse
  • Log cabins rolled thru streets w/ barrels of
  • Huge victory balls rolled through highways to
    symb snowballing support
  • Placards, emblems, campaign buttons, floats,
    effigies, rallies newspaper The Log Cabin used
    Jacksonian techniques to discredit VB
  • Showed him as aristocrat (really had humble
  • Van Van is a used up man

  • From newspaper fad 1830s creating comical
  • GTDHD give the devil his due
  • OW oll wright
  • OK oll correct
  • Dems picked up OK for Old Kinderhook start OK
  • Whigs said OK was AJs creative spelling insist
    he marked state papers this way
  • Whig cider barrels get marked OK

Impact of Jackson Yrs
  • Voter turn out up from 26 1824 to 78 in 1840
  • Whig historians say AJ created spoils system
  • Revisionists paint him as author of new democ
  • Post revisionists frontier nabob
  • AJ supporters intended to return to
    Jeffersonian Repub of ltd gov no alliances w/
    bus (corruption) allow free enterprise
  • How Jeffersonian was Jackson?

Jefferson Jackson Compared (Hofstatder) Backgrou
  • Jefferson
  • Jackson
  • Born in Carolinas to widow
  • Dad died few months before
  • 13 enlisted in Rev War
  • 14 captured, tortured by Brits
  • Lost family in war-
  • Bro killed in action
  • Mother died of prison fever (typhus)
  • Inherited farm sized plot of land NC
  • Education sparse
  • Apprentice to saddle maker 6 mo
  • School teacher 6 mo
  • Inherits 300 from Irish relative
  • Moved to Charleston- gambled, studied law
  • _at_20 admitted to bar NC
  • Moved to Nashville
  • Repd creditors, helped collect debts
  • Other lawyer in town repd debtors
  • Wked up to local aristoc, land, slaves
  • VA aristocracy
  • Mom Jane Randolph
  • Father died when TJ 14
  • Inherits 2700 acres
  • Bondsmen
  • As adult 10K acres, 100-200 slaves
  • Ed William Mary, excelled
  • VA Gentry, requisite 4 politics
  • 24 admitted to bar
  • 26 House of Burgesses (6 yrs)
  • 29 married
  • Studied whole life sciences, religions,
    languages, agri, mechanics, engineering

POV before presidency
  • Jefferson
  • Jackson
  • Belief in code duello
  • Response to insult of honor call out
  • Duelled w/ Charles Dickinson over horse race
  • D missed Js heart by inches bc of greatcoat
  • Bullet lodged in ribs
  • J fired gun wouldnt go off
  • Fired again, stayed on feet till D pronounced
  • Duel w/ Sen B Hart- later friends
  • Tried to return bullet- running joke
  • War gov VA during Rev till age 38
  • Retired death of wife drove him back to work
  • 1785-89 min to France (post Franklin)
  • Bcms anti-industrialist
  • Angered by Engs exploit. Of workers Frances of
  • Confirms Republican views
  • Pro agrarian head of pop faction
  • For propertied intersts

POV before pres (2)
  • Jefferson
  • Jackson
  • Wants Amer econ to be agri based
  • Minimize factories, cities, workers
  • Believes majority of men rise to top for profit,
  • Believes checks balances vital to survival of
  • Considered Federalist best work of practical
    principals of gov written
  • Objections to const
  • No Bill of Rts
  • Allowance of more than one term for pres
  • Saw future founded on propertied class in
    propertied nation
  • Known for firey temper quick loud opinions
  • Fit Frederick Jackson Turners ideal of fronteir
    society self made man
  • Solicitor at 22
  • _at_23 US Atty
  • 29 congressman
  • 30 senator
  • 31 justice of Sp Ct of Tn
  • Jobs symbol of status to AJ
  • Active in militia, rep as Indian fighter
  • Land speculator
  • Nat hero B. of New Orleans
  • Rode national wave of increased suffrage

On banks
  • Jackson
  • Disapproved of pop demand in Panic 1819 for laws
    to prevent imprisonment for debt
  • Lost land fortune mortgaged to national bank
  • Opposed banks, public debts, paper money, high
    tariffs, fed. Internal improvmts
  • 1796 sold thousands acres to merchant,
    speculator for notes
  • Used to supply new general store
  • he went under defaulted on notes, left AJ
    liable for all debts
  • Had to sell off estate, slaves
  • Business failed, sold to partners
  • Took 19 yrs to pay off debts- till 1815
  • Saved 22k, bought new estate panic hit
  • Opposed 2 yr suspension of debt repayment then
  • By 1824 prosperity- issues caucus, Battle of
    New Orleans
  • Jefferson
  • Anti banks as support for merchant class and

  • Jefferson
  • Jackson
  • Fear of his atheism unfounded
  • Tried to pay off Hamilton based debts in 16 yrs
    kept system
  • Reduced gov expenses
  • Abolished excise duties
  • Attacked judiciary, esp through Burr trial no
    real effect on it
  • Thru LA purchase, widened agri expansion
  • No attempt to open up male suffrage
  • Tried to heal rift in parties
  • Laissez-Faire policy toward businesses
  • Pacifist stayed out of Napoleonic wars
  • Used economic sanctions embargo
  • Expansion of democ liberated captialism ? rise
    of industrialism in E
  • settlement of W
  • Typical American now a capitalist
  • Opposed to Biddles bank
  • Small businessmen in E
  • State banks
  • Land speculators
  • AJ vetoed bank recharter- said bank was not
    constitutional gave industry a monopoly
  • Re-elected, w/d gov from banks
  • Wild cat banking grew
  • Principle of business w/o privilege
  • Hero to middle class want unltd expanding

After Presidency
  • Jefferson
  • Jackson
  • Resumed States Rights pov
  • Regrets Federalist turn Republican party took
  • Returned to private life w/ enthusiasm
  • Stayed pro-expansion of small businessmen