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INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS FOR PREVENTING COLLISION AT SEA

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(SOS) MAYDAY Two tone alarm VHF-DSC CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC Collision Regulations General Points Every vessel has a responsibility to avoid collisions. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS FOR PREVENTING COLLISION AT SEA


1
INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS FOR PREVENTING
COLLISION AT SEA
2009
2
Collision Regulations
3
General Points
  • Every vessel has a responsibility to avoid
    collisions.
  • If every vessel follows the rules, there cannot
    be a collision.
  • Even if these rules require another vessel to
    keep out of your way, you must be ready to take
    action yourself.
  • If you are in a collision, you will always be
    partly to blame.

4
General Points
  • All actions must be clear, in good time, and
    large enough so other vessels will understand
    your intentions.
  • Generally alterations of course are more obvious
    than alterations of speed, but never hesitate to
    slow down to give yourself thinking time or more
    room.

5
Night Vision
  • At night keep lighting within your own vessel to
    a minimum it preserves your night vision.
  • Only use spotlights where it is vital to pick up
    an unlit object (mooring buoys for instance).
  • Respect other peoples night vision.

6
Extra Care at Night
  • Many navigation aids are unlit, and there are
    many other potential hazards, so keep your speed
    down.

7
RCM-SAR Requirements
  • The RCM-SAR requires that at all times
  • 1. radar, if available, is to be in use, unless
    alongside another vessel
  • 2. appropriate navigation lights are displayed
  • 3. If in doubt stop, assess, plan

8
Section I - Rules 4 to10
  • Conduct of Vessels in Any Type of Visibility

9
Rule 5 - Lookout
  • You must keep a good lookout with eyes and ears
    at all times.
  • This includes poor visibility and nighttime.

10
Rule 6 - Safe Speed
  • You should travel at a speed that gives you
    adequate time to assess and plan the manoeuvre to
    avoid collision.
  • Some of the factors that might cause you to slow
    down are
  • visibility,
  • volume of traffic,
  • background lighting,
  • water depth

11
Rule 7 - Risk of Collision
  • Frequently assess all the vessels in the vicinity
    of your vessel to see if they are likely to come
    close.
  • If the compass bearing of another vessel does not
    change much, i.e. is steady, you are on, or
    nearly on, a collision course.
  • A bearing (true or compass) is the ONLY way to
    assess risk of collision.

12
Rule 8 - Action to Avoid Collision
  • Any action you now take, must comply with these
    rules, and must be obvious to the other vessel,
    and result in the two vessels passing well clear
    of each other.

13
Rule 9 - Narrow Channels
  • In narrow channels, all vessels should keep to
    the starboard side of the channel.

14
Rule 10 - Traffic Separation Schemes
  • Traffic shall follow the traffic separation
    scheme where one is designated.
  • Where you are outside it, you should avoid it.
  • If you have to cross it you have to cross it as
    near right angles as possible.
  • A vessel less than 20 metres in length shall not
    impede a ship in a separation scheme.

15
Rule 10 - Traffic Separation Schemes
Good courses in or near separation schemes
16
Rule 10 - Traffic Separation Schemes
Bad courses in or near separation schemes
17
Section II - Rules 11 to 18
  • Conduct of Vessels in Sight of One Another

18
Collision Regulations
  • Section II - Conduct of vessels in sight of one
    another
  • Rule 11 Application
  • Rule 12 Sailing Vessels
  • Rule 13 Overtaking
  • Rule 14 Head-on
  • Rule 15 Crossing Situations
  • Rule 16 Action by the Give-way Vessel
  • Rule 17 Action by the Stand-on Vessel
  • Rule 18 Responsibilities Between Vessels

19
Rule 12 - Sailing Vessels
  • Wind on different sides
  • When sailing vessels have the wind on different
    sides, the vessel that has the wind on the port
    side shall keep out of the way of the other.
  • A keeps clear of B.

20
Rule 12 - Sailing Vessels
  • If a sailing vessel with the wind on the port
    side sees a sailing vessel to windward and cannot
    determine with certainty whether the other
    sailing vessel has the wind on the port or
    starboard side, it shall keep out of the way.

21
Rule 12 - Sailing Vessels
  • Wind on the same sides
  • When both sailing vessels have the wind on the
    same side, the vessel which is the closest to the
    wind (windward) shall keep out of the way of the
    vessel which is to leeward.
  • B keeps clear of A.

22
Rule 13 - Overtaking
  • This rule overrides all the other give-way rules.
  • The overtaking vessel (even if sailing) must keep
    out of the way of the vessel being overtaken.
  • You can pass on either side of the vessel, but
    keep well clear the other vessel may not have
    seen you.
  • If you are being overtaken, hold your course and
    speed until the other vessel is past and well
    clear.

23
Rule 14 - Head on
  • Both vessels must alter course to starboard.
  • If the other vessel turns the wrong way, you
    should turn even more to starboard, slow down, or
    stop your vessel.

24
Rule 15 - Crossing Situation
  • If the other vessel is on your starboard side it
    has right of way and you must keep clear you
    must either turn to starboard, slow down to let
    the other vessel pass ahead of you or do both.
  • A gives way to B

25
Rule 15 - Crossing Situation
  • If the other vessel is on your port side, you
    have right of way and should hold your course and
    speed. However, if you think the other vessel is
    leaving it too late, you have to take action
    yourself. The right rule still applies if you
    alter course, alter to starboard. Or you can slow
    down, or do both.

26
Rules 13-15 Vessels in Sight and in Risk of
Collision (Review)
27
Rule 16 Give-way Vessel
  • Take early and substantial action to stay out of
    the way of the stand-on vessel.

28
Rule 17 Stand-on Vessel
  • Maintain course and speed.
  • Sound 5 short rapid blasts.
  • Take action if the give-way is not taking
    substantial action to avoid collision.
  • If risk of collision exists and if circumstances
    allow, avoid altering course to port.
  • If collision is imminent, any action that will
    avoid collision or mitigate it, is permitted.

29
Rule 18 Responsibilities Between Vessels
  • Vessels in order of priority
  • Vessel not under command
  • Restricted in ability to maneuver
  • Vessel constrained by draft
  • Vessel engaged in fishing
  • Sailing vessels
  • Power driven vessels
  • Seaplanes

30
Rule 18 - Power meets sail
  • In general, power vessels have to keep out of the
    way of sailing and fishing vessels, and vessels
    that are hampered by such tasks as dredging,
    cable laying and so on.

31
Operating rule
  • Port If a power-driven vessel approaches within
    this sector maintain your course and speed with
    caution.

Starboard If any vessel approaches within this
sector, keep out of its way. (Note This rule
may not always apply if one or both vessels are
sailboats.)
Stern If any vessel approaches this sector,
maintain your course and speed with caution.
32
The RIGHT rule
  • The RIGHT rule is
  • look to the right
  • give way to the right
  • turn to the right and
  • stay to the right.

33
Section III - Rule 19
  • Conduct of Vessels in Restricted Visibility

34
Rule 19 Restricted Visibility
  • This rule applies when navigating in or NEAR an
    area of restricted visibility.

35
Rule 19 - Restricted Visibility
  • Restricted visibility any condition that reduces
    visibility, and includes fog, heavy rain, snow,
    hail, sandstorms, etc.
  • Fog is common on the coast of British Columbia. A
    good lookout becomes even more vital.
  • Slow down and be ready to stop if you sight
    another vessel or hear a fog signal.

36
Rule 19 Restricted Visibility
  • For fog signals heard forward of the beam,
    reduce speed to minimum steerageway and navigate
    cautiously.
  • Actions to take on hearing a fog signal forward
    of the beam can shown as

37
(No Transcript)
38
Part C - Lights and Shapes
39
Navigation Lights
  • Vessels that operate from sunset to sunrise,
    whether at anchor or underway, must carry and
    exhibit the correct lights.
  • A vessel is underway when not anchored, moored to
    the shore or aground.
  • Navigation lights must also be displayed during
    daylight hours in periods of restricted
    visibility.
  • All vessels must comply with the regulations
    concerning lighting.

40
Navigation Lights
  • 1. Masthead light
  • 2. Port side light
  • 3. Starboard side light
  • 4. Stern light
  • 5. Towing light

41
Navigation Shapes
  • Vessels towing, and also on the tow
  • Deep draft vessels
  • Vessel under sails but using machinery to propel
  • Vessels at anchor

42
Navigation Shapes
  • All fishing vessels
  • In addition in the direction of her gear or nets

43
Navigation Shapes
  • Vessel not under command
  • Vessel engaged
  • in mine clearance

44
Navigation Shapes
  • Vessel restricted in ability to manoeuvre
  • Safe side to pass
  • Side with obstruction

45
Navigation Shapes
  • Vessel aground

46
Navigation Shapes
  • Vessel operating divers

47
Part D - Sound and Light Signals
  • Rule 32 - Definitions
  • Rule 34 - Manoeuvring and Warning Signals
  • Rule 35 - Sound Signals in Restricted Visibility
  • Rule 36 - Signals to Attract Attention
  • Rule 37 - Distress Signals
  • Annexes I -V

48
Rule 32 - Definitions
  • Sound signals for signals of action
  • Signals are sounded upon rudder order
  • Exchanged by any vessel in proximity to another
    vessel
  • Exchanged if vessels are in sight and
    manoeuvring is required

49
Rule 32 - Definitions
  • Short Blast- about one second duration
  • Long Blast - 4-6 second duration

50
Rule 33 - Equipment for Sound Signals
  • Vessels lt 100m in length whistle and bell
  • Vessels gt 100m in length whistle, bell, and
    gong
  • Vessels lt 12m in length some type of sound
    signaling device

51
Rule 34 - Manoeuvring and Warning Signals
  • Sound signals can be used by any vessel to
    indicate an action they are about to take
  • One short blast I am altering course to
    starboard.
  • Two short blasts I am altering course to port.
  • Three short blasts My engines are going astern.

52
Rule 34 - Manoeuvring and Warning Signals
  • Five short blasts
  • Officially - I am unsure of your intentions
  • Practically - you are not following the rules
  • or wake up you idiot.

53
Rule 34 Manoeuvring and Warning Signals -
Overtaking
  • An overtaking situation exists when a vessel
    approaches another vessel more than 22.5o abaft
    the beam of the overtaken vessel.

54
Rule 34 Manoeuvring and Warning Signals- Crossing
  • At night, the stand-on vessel sees the green
    sidelight of the give-way vessel, and the
    give-way vessel sees the red sidelight of the
    stand-on vessel.

55
Rule 34 Manoeuvring and Warning Signals - Meeting
  • A meeting situation exists if two power vessels
    approach on reciprocal or near reciprocal courses.

56
Rule 34 - Manoeuvring and Warning Signals
  • Vessel shall sound one long blast when coming to
    blind turn
  • BC Ferry in Active Pass

57
Rule 35 - Sound Signals in Restricted Visibility
  • Power driven vessel underway and making way (T)
  • Power driven vessel underway and not making way
    (stopped in the water) (M)

58
Rule 35 - Sound Signals in Restricted Visibility
  • Vessel not under command, restricted in ability
    to manoeuvre, sailing, fishing or towing (D)
  • Last vessel of a tow (B)

59
Rule 35 - Sound Signals in Restricted Visibility
  • Pilot vessel on duty (H)

60
Rule 35 - Sound Signals in Restricted Visibility
  • Vessels at anchor, including vessel working at
    anchor
  • Bell ringing for 5 second.
  • If more than 100 metres
  • Bell ringing for 5 seconds forward then gong
    sounded for 5 seconds aft.
  • In addition may sound (R)

61
Rule 35 - Sound Signals in Restricted Visibility
  • Vessels aground
  • Bell - Bell- Bell -Bell ringing for 5 seconds -
    Bell - Bell - Bell.
  • Vessel aground if more than 100 metres
  • Bell - Bell- Bell -Bell ringing for 5 seconds -
    Bell - Bell - Bell, then gong sounded for 5
    seconds aft.

62
Rule 35 - Sound Signals in Restricted Visibility
  • Vessels less than 12 metres in length shall make
    an efficient sound signal at least every 2
    minutes.

63
Rule 36 - Signals to Attract Attention
  • If a vessel needs to attract the attention of
    another vessel she may use a searchlight to show
    direction of a danger.
  • However any signal must be such as not to be
    confused with a navigational aid, so flashing
    lights or strobes are not to be used.

64
Rule 37 - Distress Signals
MAYDAY
Two tone alarm
VHF-DSC
. . . _ _ _ . . . (SOS)
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