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Organization Development and Change

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Organization Development and Change Chapter Seven: Collecting and Analyzing Diagnostic Information Thomas G. Cummings Christopher G. Worley Learning Objectives for ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Organization Development and Change


1
Organization Development and Change
Chapter Seven Collecting and Analyzing Diagnostic
Information
  • Thomas G. Cummings
  • Christopher G. Worley

2
Learning Objectivesfor Chapter Seven
  • To understand the importance of diagnostic
    relationships in the OD process
  • To describe the methods for diagnosing and
    collecting data
  • To understand and utilize techniques for
    analyzing data

3
The Diagnostic Relationship
  • Who is the OD Practitioner?
  • Why is the practitioner here?
  • Who does the practitioner work for?
  • What does the practitioner want and why?
  • How will my confidentiality be protected?
  • Who will have access to the data?
  • Whats in it for me?
  • Can the practitioner be trusted?

4
Data Collection - Feedback Cycle
Core Activities
Planning to Collect Data
Collecting Data
Analyzing Data
Feeding Back Data
Following Up
5
Sampling
  • Population vs. Sample
  • Importance of Sample Size
  • Process of Sampling
  • Types of Samples
  • Random
  • Convenience

6
Determine Sample Size
  • www.yahoo.com ? sample size
  • Confidence Level 95 99
  • Confidence Interval 3
  • Population  10000000       
  • Sample size needed1067

7
Questionnaires
  • Major Advantages
  • Responses can be quantified and summarized
  • Large samples and large quantities of data
  • Relatively inexpensive
  • Major Potential Problems
  • Little opportunity for empathy with subjects
  • Predetermined questions -- no change to change
  • Overinterpretation of data possible
  • Response biases possible

8
Interviews
  • Major Advantages
  • Adaptive -- allows customization
  • Source of rich data
  • Empathic
  • Process builds rapport with subjects
  • Major Potential Problems
  • Relatively expensive
  • Bias in interviewer responses
  • Coding and interpretation can be difficult
  • Self-report bias possible

9
Observations
  • Major Advantages
  • Collects data on actual behavior, rather than
    reports of behavior
  • Real time, not retrospective
  • Adaptive
  • Major Potential Problems
  • Coding and interpretation difficulties
  • Sampling inconsistencies
  • Observer bias and questionable reliability
  • Can be expensive

10
Unobtrusive Measures
  • Major Advantages
  • Non-reactive, no response bias
  • High face validity
  • Easily quantified
  • Major Potential Problems
  • Access and retrieval difficulties
  • Validity concerns
  • Coding and interpretation difficulties

11
Analysis Techniques
  • Qualitative Tools
  • Content Analysis
  • Force-field Analysis
  • Quantitative Tools
  • Descriptive Statistics
  • Measures of Association (e.g., correlation)
  • Difference Tests

12
Force-Field Analysis of Work Group Performance
Forces for Change
Forces for Status Quo
Group performance norms
New technology
Better raw materials
Fear of change
Desired Performance
Current Performance
Member complacency
Competition from other groups
Well-learned skills
Supervisor pressures
13
Questionnaire Design
14
Outline
  • ??????? p.15
  • ?????? p.27
  • ???? p.30
  • ?????? p. 36
  • ?????

15
?????
  • ????(Nominal measurement)
  • ????, ???????
  • ????(ordinal measurement)
  • ???????,????????
  • ????(Interval measurement)
  • ?????????????,????
  • ????(Ratio measurement)
  • ??????,???????

16
?????
  • ????(Nominal measurement)
  • ????(ordinal measurement)
  • ????(Interval measurement)
  • ????(Ratio measurement)

? ? ?
17
Sampling
  • ??

18
Sampling
  • Population ??
  • Sample ??
  • Sampling error ????
  • ?????????????????

19
?????
  • Random sampling ????
  • ??????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ????
  • ?????????????
  • Non-random sampling?????
  • ??
  • ??
  • ??
  • ??
  • ??
  • ???????????

20
Random Sampling ????
  • ?????? simple random sampling, SRS
  • ???
  • ???
  • ???? systematic sampling
  • ???? ????
  • ??????????

21
Random Sampling ????
  • ???? stratified sampling
  • ???????(??),???????????
  • ?? ??
  • 1 2000? 200
  • 2 1500? 150
  • 3 1000? 100
  • 4 500? 50

22
Random Sampling ????
  • ???? (cluster sampling)
  • ?????????????????,??????????????????
  • ???500?(10?),????3?,?????3??????

23
Non-random sampling ?????
  • ????
  • ???????????
  • ?????????
  • ???????????????
  • ????????????
  • ???????????????

24
Sampling Error
  • Figure 3.2()
  • Random sampling error
  • ??????????????????????????
  • Non-sampling error/systematic errors
  • ???????
  • ???????????????????????
  • ?????????????????????,????????????????????

25
?????
  • Validity Reliability

26
??
  • Validity
  • ???????????????
  • ????????????????????????????
  • ?????????? ????????????????????
  • ??/??

27
??
  • Reliability
  • ?????????????
  • ?????????????????? ????????

28
????????
????????
???????
29
?????
  • ?
  • ??,???
  • ???
  • ???,???? (?????)
  • ???,????? (????)

30
??
  • ???? face validity
  • ???? content validity
  • ???? criterion validity
  • ???? construct validity

31
???? face validity
  • It is a characteristic of measure that gives it
    intuitive appeal.
  • ???????
  • ?????????????????????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ????????

32
???? content validity
  • ??????????????,??????????,????????
  • ????????,??????????????
  • ????
  • ???????
  • ???????

33
???? criterion validity
  • ??????????????????????
  • ????
  • ????????????
  • ? ??,??,????,????

34
???? construct validity
  • ????
  • ??????????????
  • ?
  • GRE???3??? ????????
  • ??????????????
  • ?????????

35
??
  • ???? test-retest reliability
  • ???? parallel-form test
  • ???? split-half reliability
  • ??????? internal consistency reliability

36
???? test-retest reliability
  • ????????????????2?,????????2????????(?2????????)?
  • ????????(??)????
  • ???
  • ???

37
Reliability as Stability over Time
  • ??? TEST RETEST
  • APPLICANT SCORE SCORE
  • Smith 90 93
  • Perez 65 62
  • Riley 110 105
  • Chan 80 78
  • ??? TEST RETEST
  • APPLICANT SCORE SCORE
  • Smith 90 72
  • Perez 65 88
  • Riley 110 67
  • Chan 80 111

Presentation Slide 52
38
???? parallel-form test
  • ?????????2????????
  • ???????????

39
???? split-half reliability
  • ?????????
  • ??
  • ???????
  • ?????
  • ??2??????
  • ????? ????????? ????????

40
??????? internal consistency reliability
  • ????????
  • ??????,????????????
  • ??? cronbachs a
  • ??????a?????????????

41
SPSS
  • ?????
  • ????
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