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Dr Ross J Todd

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CELEBRATE SCHOOL LIBRARIES: Agents of Learning – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dr Ross J Todd


1
CELEBRATE SCHOOL LIBRARIES Agents of Learning" 
  • Dr Ross J Todd
  • Director, Center for International Scholarship in
    School Libraries
  • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
  • cissl.scils.rutgers.edu
  • rtodd_at_rutgers.edu
  • www.twitter.com/RossJTodd
  • www.facebook.com/RossJTodd

2
Rita Dove US Poet Laureate 1993-1995 "The library
is an arena of possibility, opening both a window
into the soul and a door onto the world."
Roger Rosenblatt US Author / Essasyist "A
library should be like a pair of open arms."
3
Stay Focused
Pick one Card It is YOUR card Think about YOUR
card for 20 seconds Stay focused on YOUR card
4
Ross is now going To remove YOUR Card!
5
YOUR card has been removed
6
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7
School Libraries and Learning 50 years of
Evidence tell us that school libraries impact
student achievement
8
With the school library literally the heart of
the educational program, the students of the
school have their best chance to become capable
and enthusiastic readers, informed about the
world around them, and alive to the limitless
possibilities of tomorrow. Mary Gaver, 1958
Gaver, M. Every child needs a school library.
Chicago, ALA, 1958 Gaver, M. Effectiveness of
Centralized Library Service in Elementary
Schools. Rutgers University, 1963
9
Student Achievement Through School Libraries
  • School libraries as powerful and engaging places
    in the lives of students do not happen by chance
    or force.

10
School Libraries and Learning
  • Research shows that quality school libraries
  • Improve student achievement as measured by
    standardized scores
  • Develop students as capable and avid readers
  • Develop a range of information scaffolds to help
    students interrogate multiple, diverse and
    conflicting sources of information into deep
    knowledge

11
School Libraries and Learning
  • Quality school libraries have
  • Up-to-date resources virtual and print
  • Qualified school library educators
  • Budget allocation
  • Access to information technology to find
    information and to create products
  • Active instruction in information literacy,
    critical thinking and knowledge construction
  • Vibrant reading programs
  • Teams of teachers and librarians working to
    create high-quality learning experiences based on
    curriculum standards

12
Student Achievement
  • Learning outcomes are achieved through deliberate
    actions and instructional interventions of school
    administrators, teachers and school librarians
  • INFORMATIONAL TRANSFORMATONAL FORMATIONAL

13
How do effective school libraries help students?
  • 25,574 students tell us!
  • 1,812 teachers tell us!

14
3 Studies Student Learning Through School
Libraries
  • Ohio (USA) 13,123 valid student responses and
    879 teacher responses (39 schools) (2003-4)
  • Australia 6,718 valid student responses and 525
    teacher responses (46 schools) (Lyn Hay, 2004-5)
  • Delaware (USA) 5,733 valid student responses and
    408 teacher responses (13 schools) (2005-6)

15
7 Sets of help
  • how helpful the school library is with getting
    information you need
  • how helpful the school library is with using the
    information to complete your school work (l.L
    skills)
  • How helpful the school library is with your
    school work in general (knowledge building,
    knowledge outcomes)
  • How helpful the school library is with using
    computers in the library, at school, and at home
  • How helpful the school library is to you with
    your general reading interests
  • How helpful the school library is to you when you
    are not at school (independent learning)
  • 7. General school aspects Academic Achievement

16
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17
How School Libraries Help
  • Provides access to information technology
    (sources and tools) necessary for students to
    complete their research assignments and projects
    successfully
  • Provides up-to-date diverse resources to meet
    curriculum informational needs
  • Instructional intervention focuses on the
    development of an understanding of what good
    research is about and how you undertake good
    research
  • Engages students in an active process of building
    their own understanding and knowledge
  • Demonstrates the link between school library
    services and learning outcomes

18
The Students Voices
  • 777 When I was working on a project about science
    I had no idea what I was doing I asked my library
    teachers for help they helped and by the end of
    the day I felt so much better!!! And from that
    day on I knew what I was doing on that project
    and I got a A I was so proud of myself and my
    confidence went up a whole lot and now when ever
    I do a project I know I have a lot of power now
    to do well on projects!!!
  • The school librarians dont help me at all like
    they make me do all the stuff myself and wont
    tell me where the things are even when I already
    looked they show me and make me learn how to
    find the stuff myself and its hard work!!!! You
    gotta use your brain, they say
  • 1015 I I would have never have found the sources
    I needed for the paper if not for the school
    library, the public library, and the helpful
    people who staff those places. They even showed
    me steps to work through to do the research and
    complete it. They ran some classes specifically
    for us and they were very very very helpful

19
Students Voices
  • 3532 I was working on History project and we had
    to have several sources (primary documents) and
    the librarians instructed the students on how to
    go about finding the information we needed and
    compiling it into something worthwhile. I was
    able to combine everything together and earn a
    good grade.
  • 1075 Well one time was when we had to do a
    report on Animals and I had no clue how to find
    information about my animal. So Mrs. X helped me
    find the information on the computer. On the
    internet if its true or false to learn that is
    very important at school.
  • 100 I needed help doing a project for government
    that had to do with presidents and they had so
    many books and then the librarian helped me find
    web sites. But then they gave me ways of sorting
    through all the ideas to extract the key points
    so I could get my head around it all
  • 66 I needed to write a paper and I went to the
    Library where I was ultimately able to write a
    paper successfully. My ideas were a mess and
    talking to the librarian gave me a way to
    organize my ideas and present the argument. I
    did really well!! Ive never forgotten that
    used it to do many other assignments.

20
Students Voices
  • 433 It helped me find info on racism for a 10th
    grade project, and made me really think about
    that, especially I didnt realize how racist some
    of my ideas were
  • 6256 Sometimes I argue with my parents about
    things and use the library to check if my
    opinions are true
  • 1408 One time, I wanted books on Teen Suicide
    and they were able to get some for me. It was
    helpful of them as my cousin died that way and I
    could figure it out a bit more for me.
  • 6110 I guess Ive discovered one thing. When I
    do my research well, and do the proper thing with
    note cards and writing in my own words, I seem to
    just get to know the stuff and that makes a big
    help when I talk about the stuff in class.

21
Listen to the Voices
  • Because of the school library, I was able to
    research the African Hindu Tribes of my native
    country. This proved extremely helpful in my
    search for self acceptance. I have searched many
    months through books of all sorts never stumbling
    upon anything remotely near what I needed. Even
    the tour I took to the museum and the Epcot
    center couldnt clearly explain in full detail
    what it felt like to be a true African. I would
    have never felt in place without this necessary
    information.

Developing knowledge, understanding, and a sense
of self.
22
School Libraries at the heart of learning
  • Learning to Read
  • SCHOOL LIBRARIES
  • Reading to Learn

23
New Jersey Research
  • 10 New Jersey diverse public schools
  • Experienced and expert school librarians
  • 10 school librarians working on curriculum
    projects with 17 classroom teachers
  • 574 students in Grades 6 12 range of
    disciplines
  • Key question Did they learn anything? What did
    the learning look like?
  • Changes in knowledge

24
Changes in Knowledge
  • Two distinctive approaches to knowledge
    construction
  • -- Transport
  • -- Transform

25
Transport Approach to Knowledge Construction
  • Gathering facts, then more facts, then more facts
  • Stockpile of facts, even though facts were
    sorted, organized and grouped by end of task.
  • Remained on a descriptive level throughout
  • Limited intellectual engagement with the ideas
  • Surface knowledge
  • Saw the collection of facts as the end of the
    research

26
Transform Approach to Knowledge Construction
  • Initial superficial sets of properties
  • Moved beyond gathering facts
  • - building explanations
  • - address differences in information
  • - organizing facts in more coherent ways
  • Interpret information
  • Establish personal conclusions and reflections
  • Collecting facts was the beginning and not end
  • Facts were the basis for personal choice

27
THE SCHOOL LIBRARY .
  • What is a School Library?
  • the schools physical and virtual
    information-to-knowledge commons where literacy,
    inquiry, thinking, imagination, discovery, and
    creativity are central to students learning in
    all curriculum areas
  • BUILDING KNOWLEDGE

28
Björk New Worlds in Selmasongs album
  • If living is seeing
  • Im holding my breath
  • In wonder I wonder
  • What happens next?
  • A new world, a new day to see

29
Key Challenges
  • From Information to knowledge
  • Evidence-based practice
  • Building teams and partnerships
  • Engaging Web 2.0 tools to develop deep inquiry
  • Re-imagining school libraries

30
Key Challenges
  • From Information to Inquiry
  • Evidence-based practice
  • Building teams and partnerships
  • Engaging Web 2.0 tools to develop deep inquiry
  • Re-imagining school libraries
  • Without inquiry, there is no reason for school
    libraries
  • Without evidence, it is just another opinion
  • Without teams, there is limited capacity for
    change
  • Without Web 2.0, missed opportunity for situating
    learning in the real world of kids
  • Vision for the future you create the vision.
    Without vision, you walk in darkness

31
  • CHALLENGE 1
  • SCHOOL LIBRARIES AS KNOWLEDGE CENTERS, NOT
    INFORMATION PLACES
  • Building knowledge, not finding information

32
The Information-to-Knowledge Challenge
Now I am really confused!
33
The Information-to-Knowledge Challenge
No Wonder I am lost!
34
The Information-to-Knowledge Challenge
A knowledge society? Such insight!!!
35
From Information to Knowledge Research
  • Children using libraries less since they first
    began using internet research tools
  • Search engines are the primary starting point for
    information searching
  • Horizontal information seeking skim viewing a
    small number of pages then bounce out
  • Spend very little time on e-book and e-journal
    sites, and databases in school libraries
  • Engage in power browsing rapid scanning,
    quick decisions and clicking extensively
    limited evaluation
  • Make little use of advanced search capabilities
    tendency to use simple search strategies
    preference for natural language
  • Squirreling behavior stockpiling content in the
    form of downloads

36
The answer is already there
  • www.schoolsucks.com
  • www.evilhouseofcheat.com
  • www.cheathouse.com
  • http//www.phuckschool.com
  • The TRANSPORTATION of Information
  • ?
  • The TRANSFORMATION OF Information

37
From Information to Knowledge
  • Focus of the school library moving from
    information finding and gathering, to enabling
    the construction of deep knowledge and
    understanding
  • Focus on INQUIRY questioning, discovery,
    critical thinking, reflection, building deep
    knowledge of topics
  • Educational systems globally embracing Inquiry
  • School library as a KNOWLEDGE CENTER, AN INQUIRY
    CENTER, and not an INFORMATION CENTER

38
Schooling in the Twenty-first Century
39
Library Policy Tagcloud
40
The role of the school library TRANSFORMATION
41
  • CHALLENGE 2
  • EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE
  • How do our school libraries contribute to
    Learning, Literacy, and Living

42
Key Questions
  • Why do school libraries matter?
  • Are school librarians necessary?
  • How do we ensure that our libraries survive?
  • How do school libraries impact on student
    learning?
  • How do school libraries help students learn?
  • What / how do school libraries add to personal,
    social, cultural and global growth of our
    students?
  • HOW DOES MY SCHOOL LIBRARY CONTRIBUTE TO
  • - Learning
  • - Literacy
  • - Living

43
Evidence-Based Practice
  • Evidence FOR Practice use research to inform
    our day-to-day practice
  • - reading, information literacy, information
    technology, instruction
  • Evidence IN Practice gather data from our
    practice, and using data within our schools
  • Evidence OF Practice impacts of our libraries
    on student achievement gathering local evidence
    as well as country evidence

44
Evidence
  • Knowledge
  • Understanding how school libraries help kids
    learn Learning outcomes in terms of
  • Knowledge outcomes deep mastery of content
  • Critical thinking
  • Knowledge construction
  • Information-to-knowledge processes
  • Information technology
  • Reading comprehension and enrichment
  • Attitudes and values of information, learning
  • Self concept and personal agency
  • Information
  • Number of classes in the library
  • Number of library items borrowed
  • Number of students using the library at lunch
    times
  • Number of items purchased annually
  • Number of web searches
  • Number of books lost

  • ?

45
  • CHALLENGE 3
  • BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS AND TEAMS
  • Advocated as a high priority for school
    librarians
  • Important dynamic in student achievement (eg
    Lance)
  • Low levels of collaboration are documented
    (Callison, 2005, Todd 2005)

46
Instructional Collaboration Study
  • CISSL study of school librarian-teacher
    collaboration, 2004-2006
  • 85 school librarians (65) and 45 teachers (35)
  • To develop a deeper understanding of classroom
    teacher-school librarian instructional
    collaborations
  • - their dynamics, processes, enablers, barriers,
    impact on learning outcomes
  • - their role in continuous improvement and
    school change

47
What participants hoped the students would gain
through the collaboration
  • School Librarians
  • students to develop information literacy
  • students to develop a better perception of the
    library and the librarian
  • Teachers
  • students to develop knowledge of curriculum
    content
  • increased information literacy skills critical
    thinking problem solving
  • Increased depth and better quality of learning

Common Goals? KNOWLEDGE OUTCOMES
48
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49
Shared Learning Teams
  • Take advantage of varied experiences and
    expertises that exist in a school community
  • Occupational Invisibility (Hartzell) Do not
    see depth, breadth and importance of what SLs
    contribute
  • ? flexible team approach alliances for shared
    learning
  • - Alliances within / outside school
  • - Instructional expertise
  • - Subject expertise
  • - Technical expertise
  • - Reading / Literacy expertise
  • - Student expertise

50
Teams - Dont Water Rocks
  • Principal?
  • Technology leader?
  • Maths teacher? Other teachers
  • Curriculum coordinator?
  • School counselor?
  • Literacy / reading specialist
  • Special needs teacher?
  • Parent organization?
  • Community experts?
  • Public library / museum experts?
  • Teen social networkers?
  • Education system leaders?

51
  • CHALLENGE 4
  • Engaging Web 2.0 tools to develop deep inquiry

52
Capitalize on the Web 2.0 Opportunities
  • Web-based environments which seek to facilitate
    community, communication, collaboration and
    creativity between users.
  • Architecture of participation users generate
    content rather than consume content Web 2.0
    people
  • Opportunities to engage with tools of knowledge
    building blogs and online diaries, wikis,
    podcasts, videoblogs, content creation
    mechanisms, syndicated content feeds,
    folksonomies and user tagging

53
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54
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55
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56
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57
Web 2.0 Tools
  • Blogging logs / journals/ diaries on the
    internet chronological, single authorship
    multiple forms, with plug-ins (widgets) for
    mixing of content, links
  • Wikis collaborative, editable writing spaces
    collective knowledge
  • Podcasting distributing compressed audio across
    internet screencasting, videocasting
  • RSS Real Simple Syndication / Rich Site
    Summary feed of content collected and organized
    through aggregators
  • Social Networking Social Bookmarking
  • Online photo galleries publishing, creating,
    using images online

58
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59
Blogs Knowledge Spaces
  • What constitutes a sustained response? Whose
    voice is being heard?
  • Expository response provision of information
  • Explanatory response focus is on explanation
  • Critical response addressing postings with
    argument / evidence analysis
  • Analytical response comparison, analysis,
    identifying patterns, trends, themes, issues,
    associations across postings
  • Synthetical response Developing conclusions,
    establishing personal viewpoints and
    perspectives, generating position statements from
    multiple postings
  • Reflective Response my learnings identifying
    implications

60
Wikis
  • Collaborative, editable spaces collective
    knowledge (eg Wikipedia eg Tsunami 2004 9hrs
    for first 76 word story 48 hours later, 6,500
    words and edited 1,200 times wikihow.com
    wikitravel.com)
  • Open, contributory, living documents people work
    together to generate and maintain a document
  • Social construction of knowledge negotiation of
    meaning groups best effort, not an individual
    community watchdog, soft security
  • Working as a team / group / community in a shared
    information space giving students control of
    knowledge construction and editorial control
    responsibility and ownership

61
What to do with Wikipedia
  • Students use W. to brainstorm ideas, build
    background knowledge you will not stop it!
  • Take group through a key Wikipedia article on a
    topic related to class work, pointing out its
    strengths and weaknesses, and inviting the class
    to edit it
  • Students use other sources to determine accuracy
    of the facts in a Wikipedia article
  • The class takes on creating specific Wikipedia
    articles related to class work and post to
    Wikipedia
  • Watch what happens modification, spammed, and
    how to deal with this

62
Scaffolds for Working in a Wiki What does it
take?
  • Constructing the sustained response creative
    publishing competencies
  • How teams work together in safety and security
  • Dealing with team issues, conflict eg someone
    edits without justification / explanation
    arguments
  • Negotiation skills negotiating to agree on
    correctness, meaning, relevance
  • Team management / project management planning,
    timelines, role assignment, delegation
  • Communication eg explaining intentions behind
    edits
  • Document management / versions

63
  • CHALLENGE 5
  • RE-IMAGINE SCHOOL LIBRARIES

64
Re-imagining School Libraries
  • Learning Commons for knowledge building
  • Focus on inquiry, thinking, imagination,
    discovery, and creativity as central to students
    learning in all curriculum areas
  • Provide the information, intellectual and social
    tools to foster creativity, knowledge creation
    and production
  • Inquiry Center Instruction in thinking,
    analysis and synthesis, not just information
    finding

65
Great Minds at work?
  • Learning habits

Building Effective Inquiry
66
Hall of Fame Research Greatness
Grade 8 Research Project
  • Where/when born, died, lived
  • Education/Jobs/Career
  • Challenges overcome
  • Qualities that led to greatness
  • Awards/Commendations
  • Political offices held
  • Best remembered for what
  • Connection to NJ
  • ?

67
Critical thinking and Deep Knowledge?
  • Walt Whitman (Camden) Considered by many to be
    the most influential poet in U.S. history

68
Lonely, Nervous, Brave, Determined,
Sassy Daughter of parents who filled their house
with music Music must have filled her loneliness
when her father died Moved to New York for a
better life. Who loved the night magic of Harlem,
Who loved the celebrities and begging for
autographs with her friends Who really loved
singing and scatting Who loved her Aunt that
took care of her as a child. Who felt loss, when
her mother died Who felt anger when she was put
in an orphanage Who felt trapped in those walls
but they couldnt keep her down because she felt
the pull of her song and the night magic of
Harlem. Who felt nervous and fear at
auditions Who feared not being able to sing
because she had no one to care for her Who
feared dying from diabetes and possibly going
blind, Who feared whom she would pass her
singing crown down to Who wanted to see someone
take over her singing crown Who would have liked
to have spent more time with her late parents Who
wanted to work with the best bands Who changed
the world of jazz and swing Who was very proud of
her awards and achievements She was The First
Lady Of Song she was Sassy and a Legend of
Jazz Born in Virginia, grew up in New York,
adopted by the world. Ella was great Fitzgerald
Ella
69
A TIME OF BOLD ACTION Edna St Vincent Millay
1892-1950
  • Upon this gifted age, in its dark hour
  • Rains from the sky a meteoric shower
  • Of facts, they lie unquestioned, uncombined.
  • Wisdom enough to leech us of our ill
  • Is daily spun, but there exists no loom
  • To weave it into fabric.
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