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Part IV The Renaissance

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Invented by Edmund Spenser for his poem The Faerie Queene (1590 1609), the Spenserian stanza has origins in the Old French ballade (eight-line stanzas, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Part IV The Renaissance


1
Part IV The Renaissance
  • ???????????????

2
Introduction to 16th century
  • 1. Renaissance (pp91--94)
  • The Renaissance Center, Detroit, along the
    Detroit River
  • Detroit???, ?????(Michigan)????????, ????????

3
Renaissance Literature in England
  • 1.poetry
  • 2.drama
  • 3. prose

4
Sir Philip Sidney
  • His life and works

5
Edmund Spenser (1552--1599)
  • English poet whose long allegorical poem The
    Faerie Queene is one of the greatest in the
    English language. It was written in what came to
    be called the Spenserian stanza.

6
  • English poet known chiefly for his allegorical
    epic romance The Faerie Queene (1590-1596). His
    other works include the pastoral Shepeardes
    Calendar (1579) and the lyrical marriage poem
    Epithalamion (1595).
  • ???,???(1552?-1599) ????,?????????????
    (1590-1596?)?????????????? ??????
    (1579?),??????? ??? (1595?)

7
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8
Spenserian stanza
  • verse form that consists of eight iambic
    pentameter lines followed by a ninth line of six
    iambic feet (an alexandrine) the rhyme scheme is
    ababbcbcc. The first eight lines produce an
    effect of formal unity, while the hexameter
    completes the thought of the stanza. Invented by
    Edmund Spenser for his poem The Faerie Queene
    (15901609), the Spenserian stanza has origins in
    the Old French ballade (eight-line stanzas,
    rhyming ababbcbc), the Italian ottava rima (eight
    iambic pentameter lines with a rhyme scheme of
    abababcc), and the stanza form used by Chaucer in
    his Monk's Tale (eight lines rhyming ababbcbc).
    A revolutionary innovation in its day, the
    Spenserian stanza fell into general disuse during
    the 17th and 18th centuries. It was revived in
    the 19th century by the Romantic poetse.g.,
    Byron in Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Keats in
    The Eve of St. Agnes, and Shelley in Adonais.

9
William Shakespeare

10
Life and Times of William Shakespeare
  • William Shakespeare (15641616) is one of the
    most remarkable playwrights and poets the world
    has ever known.
  • Likely the most influential writer in all of
    English literature and certainly the most
    important playwright of the English Renaissance,
    William Shakespeare was born in 1564 in the town
    of Stratford-upon-Avon in Warwickshire, England.
    The son of a successful middle-class glove-maker,
    Shakespeare attended grammar school, but his
    formal education proceeded no further. In 1582,
    he married an older woman, Anne Hathaway, and had
    three children with her.

11
  • This is the birthplace of William Shakespeare in
    Stratford-on-Avon.

12
The museum in Stratford
  • In Stratford there is a museum on William
    Shakespeare where there are plenty of things
    about Shakespeare. Every year visitors from all
    over the world come to visit and worship the
    great writer.

13
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14
  • Around 1590 he left his family behind and
    traveled to London to work as an actor and
    playwright. Public and critical success quickly
    followed, and Shakespeare eventually became the
    most popular playwright in England and part owner
    of the Globe Theater. His career bridged the
    reigns of Elizabeth I (ruled 1558-1603) and James
    I (ruled 1603-1625) he was a favorite of both
    monarchs. Indeed, James granted Shakespeare's
    company the greatest possible compliment by
    endowing them with the status of king's players.
    Wealthy and renowned, Shakespeare retired to
    Stratford, and died in 1616 at the age of
    fifty-two. At the time of Shakespeare's death,
    such luminaries as Ben Johnson hailed him as the
    apogee of Renaissance theatre.

15
  • Shakespeare's works were collected and printed in
    various editions in the century following his
    death, and by the early eighteenth century his
    reputation as the greatest poet ever to write in
    English was well established. The unprecedented
    admiration garnered by his works led to a fierce
    curiosity about Shakespeare's life but the
    paucity of surviving biographical information has
    left many details of Shakespeare's personal
    history shrouded in mystery. Some people have
    concluded from this fact that Shakespeare's plays
    in reality were written by someone else--Francis
    Bacon and the Earl of Oxford are the two most
    popular candidates--but the evidence for this
    claim is overwhelmingly circumstantial, and the
    theory is not taken seriously by many scholars.

16
  • In the absence of definitive proof to the
    contrary, Shakespeare must be viewed as the
    author of the 37 plays and 154 sonnets that bear
    his name. The legacy of this body of work is
    immense. A number of Shakespeare's plays seem to
    have transcended even the category of brilliance,
    becoming so influential as to affect profoundly
    the course of Western literature and culture ever
    after.

17
  • In his plays he does not hesitate to describe the
    cruelty and anti-natural character of the civil
    wars, but he did not go all the way against the
    feudal rule. In his dramatic creation, esp. in
    his histories or tragedies, he affirms the
    importance of the feudal system in order to
    uphold social order. Shakespeare is against
    religious persecution and racial discrimination,
    against social inequality and the corrupting
    influence of gold and money.
  • He has accepted the Renaissance views on
    literature. He holds that literature should be a
    combination of beauty, kindness and truth, and
    should reflect nature and reality. Shakespeares
    major characters are neither merely individual
    ones nor type ones they are individuals
    representing certain types.

18
Shakespeare
  • William Shakespeare (15641616) is one of the
    most remarkable playwrights and poets the world
    has ever known.
  • The surf on the line can show how enormous the
    information we can get about Shakespeare via two
    websites baidu.com and google.com.

19
A collection of William Shakespeare's poems,
printed in 1640, included a picture of the
author.
20
His works
  • With his 38 plays, 154 sonnets and 2 long poems,
    he has established his giant position in world
    literature.
  • The first period
  • 5 history plays Henry VI , parts I, II, III
    Richard III , Titus Andronicus
  • 4 comedies The Comedy of Errors, The Two
    Gentlemen of Verona, The Taming of the Shrew and
    Loves Labors Lost
  • The second period
  • 2 histories Richard II, King John, Henry IV,
    Parts I and II, and Henry V
  • 6 comedies A Midsummer Nights Dream, The
    Merchant of Venice, Much Ado About Nothing, As
    You Like It, Twelfth Night, and The Merry Wives
    of Windsor
  • 2 tragedies Romeo and Juliet and Julius Caesar

21
His Works
  • The third period
  • Tragedies Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth,
    Antony and Cleopatra, Troilus and Cressida, and
    Coriolanus
  • Comedies Alls Well That Ends Well and Measure
    for Measure
  • The last period
  • His principal romantic tragicomedies Pericles,
    Cymbeline, The Winters Tale and The Tempest
  • His final plays Henry VIII and The Two Noble
    Kinsmen
  • Poetry two long narrative poems Venus and Adonis
    and The Rape of Lucrece 154 sonnets
  • Four famous comedies A Midsummer Nights Dream,
    As You Like it, The Merchant of Venice, Twelfth
    Night
  • Sonnet is a 14-line lyric poem, usually written
    in rhymed iambic pentameter, with a rhymed
    pattern abab cdcd efef gg

22
Hamlet
23
Jon Finch (centre) as Macbeth in Roman Polanski's
1971 film version of Shakespeare's Macbeth.
24
  • Romeo and Juliet

25
Othello
26
Royal Shakespeare Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon,
Warwickshire,
27
The Sonnet
  • The Sonnet Form
  • A sonnet is a fourteen-line lyric poem,
    traditionally written in iambic pentameter--that
    is, in lines ten syllables long, with accents
    falling on every second syllable, as in "Shall I
    compare thee to a summer's day?" .

28
Sonnet 18 (to a young man)
  • Shall I compare to a summers day? a
  • Thou art more lovely and more temperate b
  • Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, a
  • And summers lease hath all too short a date b
  • Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, c
  • And often is his gold complexion dimmed d
  • And every fair from fair sometime declines, c
  • By chance or natures changing course untrimmed
    d
  • But thy eternal summer shall not fade, e
  • Nor lose possession of that fair thou owst, f
  • Nor shall death brag thou wand rest in his shade,
    e
  • When in eternal lines to time thou growst. f
  • So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
    g
  • So long lives this, and this gives life to
    thee. g

29
The sonnets
  • Two kinds of sonnets have been most common in
    English poetry, and they take their names from
    the greatest poets to utilize them the
    Petrarchan sonnet and the Shakespearean sonnet.
  • The Petrarchan sonnet is divided into two main
    parts, called the octave and the sestet. The
    octave is eight lines long, and typically follows
    a rhyme scheme of ABBAABBA, or ABBACDDC. The
    sestet occupies the remaining six lines of the
    poem, and typically follows a rhyme scheme of
    CDCDCD, or CDECDE. The octave and the sestet are
    usually contrasted in some key way for example,
    the octave may ask a question to which the sestet
    offers an answer.

30
The Shakespearean sonnet
  • The Shakespearean sonnet, the form of sonnet
    utilized throughout Shakespeare's sequence, is
    divided into four parts. The first three parts
    are each four lines long, and are known as
    quatrains, rhymed ABAB the fourth part is called
    the couplet, and is rhymed CC.
  • Sonnet is a 14-line lyric poem, usually written
    in rhymed iambic pentameter, with a rhymed
    pattern abab cdcd efef gg
  • The Shakespearean sonnet is often used to develop
    a sequence of metaphors or ideas, one in each
    quatrain, while the couplet offers either a
    summary or a new take on the preceding images or
    ideas.

31
  • Shakespeare's sonnets are very different from
    Shakespeare's plays, but they do contain dramatic
    elements and an overall sense of story. Each of
    the poems deals with a highly personal theme, and
    each can be taken on its own or in relation to
    the poems around it. The sonnets have the feel of
    autobiographical poems, but we don't know whether
    they deal with real events or not, because no one
    knows enough about Shakespeare's life to say
    whether or not they deal with real events and
    feelings, so we tend to refer to the voice of the
    sonnets as "the speaker"--as though he were a
    dramatic creation like Hamlet or King Lear.

32
  • There are certainly a number of intriguing
    continuities throughout the poems.
  • The first 126 of the sonnets seem to be
    addressed to an unnamed young nobleman, whom the
    speaker loves very much
  • The rest of the poems (except for the last two,
    which seem generally unconnected to the rest of
    the sequence) seem to be addressed to a
    mysterious woman, whom the speaker loves, hates,
    and lusts for simultaneously. The two addressees
    of the sonnets are usually referred to as the
    "young man" and the "dark lady" in summaries of
    individual poems, I have also called the young
    man the "beloved" and the dark lady the "lover,"
    especially in cases where their identity can only
    be surmised.

33
  • 1 In the old age black was not counted fair,
  • Or if it were it bore not beautys name.
  • But now is black beautys successive heir,
  • 4 And beauty slandered with a bastard shame
  • For since each hand hath put on natures powr,
  • Fairing the foul with arts false borrowed
    face,
  • 8 Sweet beauty hath no name, no holy bowr,
  • But is profaned, if not lives in disgrace,
  • Therefore my mistress eyes are raven black,
  • Her eyes so suited, and they mourners seem
  • At such who, not born fair, no beauty lack,
  • 12 Slandring creation with a false esteem.
  • yet so they mourn becoming of their woe,
  • That every tongue says beauty should look so.

34
  • Questions
  • 1. What is the theme of the sonnet?
  • 2. How do you define beauty?
  • Rhymed pattern
  • Abab cdcd efef gg

35
Rhymed Pattern
  • In the old age black was not counted fair, a
  • Or if it were it bore not beautys name. b
  • But now is black beautys successive heir, a
  • And beauty slandered with a bastard shame b
  • For since each hand hath put on natures powr,
    c
  • Fairing the foul with arts false borrowed face,
    d
  • Sweet beauty hath no name, no holy bowr, c
  • But is profaned, if not lives in disgrace, d
  • Therefore my mistress eyes are raven black, e
  • Her eyes so suited, and they mourners seem f
  • At such who, not born fair, no beauty lack, e
  • Slandring creation with a false esteem. f
  • yet so they mourn becoming of their woe, g
  • That every tongue says beauty should look
    so. g

36
III The detailed study of the poem
  • 1. the old age former times
  • black brunette
  • counted considered.
  • fair (1) blonde (2) beautiful
  • 2. bore not beautys name was not called
    beautiful.
  • 3. isbeautys successive heir i.e. has legally
    acquired beautys name
  • successive by order of succession.

37
Queen Elizabeth I
38
  • 4. beauty natural beauty, i.e. blonde.
    Slandered is disgraced. With a bastard shame
    (1) as a bastard (2) as the parent of a bastard
    (ugliness).
  • 5. since ever since. Each hand everybody. Put
    on assumed.
  • 6. Fairing Making fair, i.e. painting up as a
    blonde. The foul what is ugly. Arts of
    artifice. Arts false borrowed face i.e.
    cosmetics.
  • fairing foul false face
  • 7. Sweet beauty Natural beauty. Name i.e. good
    name (to be envied). Holy bowr holy place,
    sanctuary (for worship).

39
  • 8. But On the contrary. Profaned treated with
    disrespect. If not or even.
  • 9.,10 eyes, eyes
  • eyes are raven black. (disfigure)
  • so suited dressed in the same color. They,
    i.e. her eyes. Mourners seem seem to be mourners
  • 11. At such who Mourning those who, follows the
    above line mourners. No beauty lack lack no
    beauty, are not without beauty (such as a
    blondes)

40
  • 12. Slandring Disgracing.
  • Creation (1) nature (2) natures creative
    powers. False esteem confused judgement, with
    the false valuation, estimation.
  • 13. Yet However. So in such a manner. mourn
    lament, is followed that. Becoming of
    befitting.
  • 14. so like that.

41
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  • ????????,?????
  • ?????? ???????,
  • ?????????????,
  • ?????????????,
  • ??????,???????
  • ?????????????,
  • ???????,?????,
  • ?????????????,
  • ??????????????
  • ?????????????,
  • ??????????????

42
IV Discussion
  • The author defines the new standards as being
    beautiful black, black eyes. Why does he keep
    such different criteria?

43
Summary
  • In this lecture we learn the information about
    sonnet, Shakespeare and his sonnet. With the
    scrutiny of sonnet 127, we can taste the beauty
    of Shakespearean sonnets, understand what the
    great writer thinks about and the ideas on the
    times he lived in.
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