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Hydrogen Generation in Submerged Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum

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Title: Hydrogen Generation in Submerged Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum


1
Hydrogen Generation in Submerged Friction Stir
Welding of Aluminum
  • Paul Fleming
  • Vanderbilt University

2
Overview
  • Background
  • FSW, SFSW, Aluminum and Hydrogen
  • Experiment
  • Discussions
  • Future Research

3
Friction Stir Welding
  • Recently (1991) developed solid state welding
    technique
  • Uses mechanical stirring to join metals
  • Yields high weld strength
  • Can be used to join aluminum

4
Submerged Friction Stir Welding
  • The case when the joining process is run
    underwater
  • Has been shown to be useful to prevent
    overheating
  • May produce lower grain sizes

5
Aluminum and Hydrogen
  • Aluminum in its pure form will react with air or
    water
  • In the case of water the reaction often leads to
    a release of hydrogen
  • Typically however, an oxide skin develops on the
    surface of aluminum which prevents the reaction
    from continuing through the aluminum
  • However, several researchers have proposed uses
    of this reaction for hydrogen generation

6
An example technology
  • Article from physics.com (May 16, 2007)
  • New process generates hydrogen from aluminum
    alloy to run engines, fuel cells
  • Jerry Woodall at Purdue uses gallium to prevent
    the development of the skin or oxide layer.
  • The reaction continues therefore until all
    aluminum is used

7
Another example
  • The paper, Hydrogen gas generation in the wet
    cutting of aluminum and its alloys, shows that
    when aluminum is cut underwater there is a fresh
    surface revealed which reacts with the water and
    hydrogen is released.
  • Experiments were conducted in the paper and the
    gas released during underwater cutting was
    confirmed to be hydrogen.
  • Also provides a probable chemical reaction
  • 2Al 3H2O ? Al2O3 3H2

8
Our research
  • Demonstrate that hydrogen is released during
    submerged FSW, a technology which is useful in
    and of itself
  • Build an apparatus which can perform submerged
    FSW and collect the resulting Hydrogen
  • Attempt to discern the total amount of hydrogen
    released

9
Research Apparatus
10
Block Diagram
PEMFC 1.2 W
http//www.fuelcellstore.com/products/h2interpower
/bz12-16.html
11
Experiment 1
  • Weld reprocessed three times
  • Voltage on fuel cell recorded
  • (Play Video)

12
Experiment 1
13
Experiment 2
  • Resistor (985 Ohms) added as load path between
    terminals of fuel cell
  • Voltage measured across resistor

14
Experiment 2
15
Discussion
  • Technology is potentially useful
  • As a means of safely storing hydrogen and
    releasing without the use of chemicals
  • As a means of regenerative braking, where the
    friction provides the braking force and hydrogen
    is collected and used later as fuel
  • As a useful byproduct of a process which is
    itself useful (submerged FSW)

16
Future Research
  • Improve apparatus and determine the total amount
    of hydrogen which can be collected during normal
    submerged FSW

17
References
  • Ted Clark. An analyis of microstructure and
    corrosion resistance of underwater friction stir
    processed 304l stainless steel. Technical report,
    BYU, 2007.
  • George E. Cook, Reginald Crawford, Denis E.
    Clark, and Alvin M. Strauss. Robotic friction
    stir welding. Industrial Robot, 31(1)5563,
    November 2004.
  • Jerome J. Cuomo and Jerry M. Woodall. Solid
    state renewable energy supply, November 1982. US
    Patent 4,358,291.
  • Douglas C. Hofmann and Kenneth S. Vecchio.
    Submerged friction stir processing (sfsp) An
    improved method for creating ultra fine grained
    bulk materials. Materials Science Engineering,
    402234241, 2005.
  • Terry Khaled. An outsider looks at friction stir
    welding. Technical report, Federal Aviation
    Administration, 2005.
  • Kunio Uehara, Hideo Takeshita, and Hiromi Kotaka.
    Hydrogen gas generation in the wet cutting of
    aluminum and its alloys. Journal of Materials
    Processing Technology, 127174177, 2002.
  • http//www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/te
    xt/Al/chem.html
  • http//www.physorg.com/news98556080.html
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