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Animal welfare: Introduction ??????

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Title: Concepts in Animal Welfare Last modified by: User Created Date: 8/4/1999 10:12:28 AM Document presentation format: (4:3) Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal welfare: Introduction ??????


1
Animal welfare Introduction ??????
  • Module 1
  • ??1

2
This module will enable you to ????????
  • Distinguish between animal welfare science,
    ethics and law ???????????????????
  • Become familiar with the concept of animal
    needs?????????
  • Understand??
  • the 3 different concepts (physical, mental and
    natural) included in definitions of
    welfare???????(????????)
  • the relationship between death and
    welfare??????????
  • the role of anthropomorphism??????

3
What is the welfare of two pet cats with infected
bite wounds???????????????
  • CAT 1
  • Owners noticed a
    problem two weeks

    ago but did not take
    the cat to
    the vet ?????????,???????????
  • CAT 2
  • The cat was missing for 2 weeks. When the cat
    returned, the owners took her to the vet
    ????????,????,?????????

4
Animal Welfare Science, Ethics and Law????????????
  • Welfare science measures the effect on animals of
    different situations and environments, from the
    animals point of view??????????,?????????????????
    ?
  • Welfare ethics concerns how humans should treat
    animals???????????????
  • Welfare law concerns how humans must treat
    animals???????????????

5
Animal Welfare Science, Ethics and Law????????????
  • All three aspects are important for welfare
    ???????????
  • Some presentations focus on 1 aspect e.g.
  • ??????????
  • Science physiological indicators ????????
  • Ethics introduction to ethics ???????
  • Law protection legislation ????????
  • Other presentations cover all 3 aspects e.g.
    ?????????
  • Farm animal husbandry ??????

6
Scientific research the basics
  • Hypothesis??
  • Experiment / Observational study??/?????
  • Control bias????
  • Sample size ????
  • Control groups ???
  • Randomisation????
  • Blinding??
  • Correct statistical method and interpretation?????
    ?????

7
What is the welfare status of this dog????????????
  • Oral tumour ????
  • Has spread to local lymph nodes
  • ??????????
  • Current welfare?????
  • ????????
  • ?????
  • Future welfare?????
  • ????????
  • ???? ?????

8
Two animal welfare concepts ??????????
9
Three animal welfare concepts ??????????
Naturalness ??
Restrict natural behaviour??????
Diagram after Appleby, MC. In Appleby, MC and
Hughes, BO. 1997 Animal Welfare. CAB International
10
Example sows in stalls ????????
  • Naturalness??
  • ????
  • ????
  • Physical??
  • ?????????
  • Mental??
  • Frustration? ???
  • Pain from mouth injuries????????

11
Three welfare definitions ??????
  • Physical status (fitness) ?????(??)
  • Biological indicators including reproduction and
    production?????????????
  • Mental status (feelings)?????
  • Positive and negative emotional states??????????
  • Naturalness (telos)??(?????)

12
Definitions Physical status ???????
  • Fraser Broom, (1990)Welfare defines the state
    of an animal as regards its attempts to cope with
    its environment. ????????????????
  • McGlone, (1993)I suggest that an animal is in a
    poor state of welfare only when physiological
    systems are disturbed to the point that survival
    or reproduction are impaired. ????????????????????
    ???????????
  • Moberg, (1985)..the only defensible measurement
    of well-being in animals is to determine if the
    animal is suffering from stress. Furthermore, I
    believe that the most appropriate indicator of
    stress is the appearance of a pre-pathological
    state.??????????????????????????,????,????????????
    ??????????? ?

13
Definitions Mental status ???????
  • Duncan(1993)?????????????????????????????????????
    ??? (..neither health nor lack of stress nor
    fitness is necessary and/or sufficient to
    conclude that an animal has good welfare. Welfare
    is dependent upon what animals feel. )
  • Dawkins (1988) ?????????????????,?????????????(To
    be concerned about animal welfare is to be
    concerned with the subjective feelings of
    animals, particularly the unpleasant subjective
    feelings of suffering and pain.)
  • Bentheam (1789) ???????????,???????,?????????(The
    question is not, can they reason? Nor, can they
    talk? But, can they suffer?)

14
Definitions Naturalness ???????
  • Rollin, (1993)???????????????,???????????????,???
    ???(Not only will welfare mean control of pain
    and suffering, it will also entail nurturing and
    fulfilment of the animals nature, which I call
    telos.)(??telos??????)
  • Brambell, (1965) ???,????????????????????????????
    ?????????(In principle, we disapprove of a degree
    of confinement of an animal which necessarily
    frustrates most of the major activities which
    make up its natural behaviour.. )
  • Kiley-Worthington, (1989) ????????????????,?????
    ????????????,?????????(If we believe in
    evolution in order to avoid suffering, it is
    necessary over a period of time for the animal to
    perform all the behaviours in its repertoire
    because it is all functional )

15
Relationship between the three definitions????????
?
?????????????
Natural Behaviour
Mental Suffering
?????
?????
Physical Fitness
?????
16
Combined definition?????
  • Some definitions combine two or three aspects
    e.g.???????????????????
  • Welfare consists of the combined state of the
    animals mind and body, and the extent to which
    its nature is satisfied ?????????????????????????
    ??
  • Fit and feeling good ????????(Webster 2005)
  • The Five Freedoms (Farm Animal Welfare Council,
    1992) are often used as a framework to assess
    animal welfare????(????????1992)??????????????
  • ???????(hunger and thirst)???
  • ????(discomfort)???
  • ???????(pain, injury and disease)???
  • ???????(express normal behaviour)???
  • ???????(fear and distress)???

17
The concept of needs ?????
  • Need a requirement, fundamental in the biology
    of the animal, to obtain a particular resource or
    respond to a particular environmental or bodily
    stimulus (Broom Johnson, 1993)????????????????,
    ????????????????????????
  • If a need is not met, this will affect physiology
    or behaviour. E.g.?????????,?????????
  • If you can link a physiological sign to the
    absence of a certain resource, the animal lacks
    humane care in that area??????????????????,???????
    ?????????

18
Hierarchy of needs???????
  • Some needs may be more important than others
    ?????????????
  • Provision of food and water is a fundamental
    need???????????????
  • Provision of a comfortable lying area may be
    less fundamental???????????????
  • ?????? gt ?????? gt ?????? (Hurnik Lehman,
    1985)

19
Needs e.g. legislation ?????
  • The owner and keeper of the animals shall have
    regard to their physiological and ethological
    (behaviour) needs in accordance with established
    experience and scientific knowledge??????????????
    ??????????????
  • Council of Europe (1976)
  • ????(1976)

20
Welfare versus death ???????
  • Welfare concerns the quality of animal life
  • ???????????????
  • Death affects the quantity of animal life
  • ????????????(??)
  • Quality and quantity of life may be ethical
    concerns????????????????

21
When is death relevant to welfare? ???????????????
  • The manner of death is relevant
  • ?????????
  • e.g. method of slaughter is important
  • ????????
  • High death rates can indicate poor welfare
    conditions
  • ?????????????
  • Poor husbandry conditions can cause disease and
    death?????????????????

22
Anthropomorphism Should we assign human
attributes to animals? ???????????
  • Humans are animals with similar
    biology????????????
  • However, each type of animal has different
    behavioural needs????????????????
  • Using a human-based assessment may be a useful
    first step ???????????????????
  • This assessment must be qualified with the
    individual animals needs???????????????

23
Conclusions / Summary ??/??
  • It is important to distinguish between the
    various components of animal welfare
    ???????????????---????????
  • Science
  • Ethics
  • Legislation
  • Animal welfare definitions are derived from three
    basic concepts ???????????????---????????
  • Physical
  • Mental
  • Natural

24
Further reading????
  • Anon 1992. Farm Animal Welfare Council updates
    the Five Freedoms. Vet Record 131 357
  • Bentham J. 1789. An Introduction to the Principle
    of Morals and Legislation. Athlone Press,
    re-printed 1970.
  • Broom DM, Johnson KG. 1993. Stress and Animal
    Welfare. Chapman and Hall ISBN 0412395800
  • Brambell Committee 1965. Report of the Technical
    Committee to Enquire into the Welfare of
    Livestock kept under Intensive Husbandry Systems.
    Command Report 2836. Her Majestys Stationery
    Office, London
  • Council of Europe 1976. European Convention for
    the Protection of Animals kept for Farming
    Purposes http//conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/
    QueVoulezVous.asp?NT087CM1DFCLENG CETS
    No. 087
  • Dawkins M. 1988 Behavioural deprivation A
    central problem in animal welfare. J Appl Anim
    Behav Sci 20 209-225

25
Further reading????
  • Duncan IJD 1993. Welfare is to do with what
    animals feel. J Agric Environ Ethics (Special
    Suppl 2) 8-14
  • Fraser, AF Broom DM. 1990. Farm Animal Behaviour
    and Welfare, 3rd edition. Bailliere Tindall,
    London, England
  • Hurnik JF, Lehmann H. 1985. The philosophy of
    animal welfare. A contribution to the assessment
    of farm animal wellbeing. In Wegner RM (ed).
    Second European Symposium on Poultry Welfare,
    Celle, Germany
  • Kiley-Worthington M. 1989.Ecological, ethological
    and ethically sound environments for animals.
    Towards symbiosis. J Agric Ethics 2 323-347.
  • McGlone J 1993. What is animal welfare? J Agric
    Environ Ethics (Special Suppl 2) 26
  • Moberg GP 1985. Biological response to stress
    key to assessment of animal well-being? In Animal
    stress (Ed. Moberg, G. P.) American Physiological
    Society, Bethesda, Maryland. 27-49.

26
Further reading????
  • Morton DB. 2000. A systematic approach for
    establishing humane endpoints. Institute for Lab
    Animal Research Journal 4180-86.
  • Rollin B. Animal welfare, science and value. J
    Agric Environ Ethics (Special Suppl 2) 8-14
  • Seamer JH 1993. Farm animal welfare in Britain.
    SCAW (Scientists for Animal Welfare) Newsletter
    14(4) 13-14
  • Webster J 2005. Animal Welfare. Limping towards
    Eden. Blackwell, Oxford.

27
Further reading????
  • APPLEBY, M.C. and HUGHES, B.O., 1997 Animal
    Welfare. CAB International ISBN 0851991807
  • BEAUCHAMP, T.L. and CHILDRESS, J.F., 1994
    Principles of Biomedical Ethics (4th Ed.) Oxford
    University Press ISBN 0195143329
  • BROOM, D.M. and JOHNSON, K.G., 1993 Stress and
    Animal Welfare. Chapman and Hall ISBN 0412395800
  • DAWKINS, M.S., 1998 Through our eyes only? A
    Journey into Animal Consciousness. Oxford
    University Press ISBN 0198503202
  • NORMAN GR, STREINER DL. 2000 Biostatistics the
    bare essentials. 2nd edition Mosby St Louis.
    ISBN-10 1550091239
  • MARTIN P, BATESON P. 2007. Measuring Behaviour
    (3rd edition). Cambridge University Press.
    ISBN-10 0521535638
  • MANNING, A.N. and DAWKINS, M.S., 1998 An
    Introduction into Animal Behaviour (5th Ed.)
    Cambridge University Press ISBN 0521578914

28
Further reading????
  • ROLLIN, B.E., 1999 An Introduction to Veterinary
    Ethics Theory and Cases. Iowa State University
    Press ISBN 0813816599
  • WEBSTER, A.J.F., 1994 Animal Welfare A cool eye
    towards Eden. Blackwell ISBN 0632039280
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