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Paradise Lost, or the Conquest

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Title: Paradise Lost, or the Conquest


1
CHAPTER 1
  • Paradise Lost, or the Conquest
  • of the Wilderness

2
  • The whole face of the country was covered with
    herds of Buffaloed, Elk, and Antelope deer are
    also abundant, but keep to themselves more
    concealed in the woodland
  • - Meriwether Clark
  • Journals of Lewis and Clark

3
  • For us the wilderness and human emptiness of
    this land is not a source of fear but the
    greatest of its attractions. We would guard and
    defend and save it as a place for all who wish to
    rediscover the nearly lost pleasures of
    adventuremental, spiritual, moral, aesthetic and
    intellectual adventure
  • - Edward Adder

4
  • 1.1 Introduction Why Wilderness
  • Text the concept of wilderness highlights the
    historical process as human society has pushed
    back the boundaries around settled, developed and
    humanized areas until only residual areas of
    wild land are left (p. 10)
  • For this we have to differentiate the concepts of
    frontier and wilderness

5
  • Frontier historically states were separated by
    undeveloped and/or uncontrolled regions regions
    beyond integration of a particular state a
    region of potential expansion (Glassner)
  • Wilderness area where the Earth and its
    community of life have not been seriously
    disturbed by humans and where humans are
    temporary visitors (Miller)
  • or
  • designation of land use for the exclusive
    protection of the areas natural wildlife thus
    no human development is allowed
  • (Enger Smith)

6
  • This expansion of settled areas has long had
    important implications for both society and
    environment
  • - economic globalization has reached the level
    that we are close to frontier closure
  • a very significant concern for
    environmentalists and preservationists

7
  • With increasing expansion of settlement
    cultural landscapes there will be
    increasingly little land left as a safety net
    for populations, societies, etc.
  • (1) land for human expansion
  • (2) resources and diversity necessary for
  • humans / bio-systems / etc.

8
  • Text again, we are encountering the issue of
    representation and values
  • - Today wilderness is seen in a positive vein
  • - For much of human history, wilderness was not
    seen this way
  • - It is only since the return to an attitude
    that wilderness is good / necessary / required /
    etc. that it had been argued to protect and
    value wilderness

9
  • Text A central argument of this chapter is
    that, as human societies have developed
    progressively more powerful technologies of
    production, distribution and consumption, there
    has been a parallel evolution of representation
    of the relationship between society ans nature
    and of the values which influence change.
  • (p. 10)

10
  • one argument that while no simple correlation
    exists, it seems that societies with different
    attitudes have tended to evolve different
    attitudes and values towards the natural world
  • (1) production methodologies
  • (2) religious beliefs / tenets
  • (3) cultural / social history
  • (4) scientific bend

11
  • 1.1.1 The Significance of Wilderness
  • Alluded to previously, some explain the current
    proliferation of environmental problems to
    attitudes drawn from Western religious practice
    and the Bible and carried into the modern
    industrial period
  • be fruitful and multiply and replenish the
    Earth
  • subdue it
  • have dominion over the fish / fowl / every
    living thing that moveth upon the Earth

12
  • Conversely, some researchers counter that other
    elements are more confused or undecided
  • - Adam as the image of God, but made of the
    Earth
  • (Adam and Eve are expelled for fears they are
  • becoming too god-like)
  • - Eden idyllic hunter-gather lifestyle vs
    highly productive irrigated agriculture
  • (We expanded to a generally more positive
    attitude to nomadic pastoralism vs settled
    agrarian / urban lifestyle)

13
  • Text Given this ambiguity, some Christians
    have read Genesis as giving humans domination
    over nature, and this domination of nature has
    been emphasized throughout most of Christian
    history (p. 12)
  • One of the most notable theses on human
    domination over nature was presented by historian
  • Frederick Jackson Turner (1893)

14
Turners Frontier Hypothesis
  • Turner did much to promote the idea of the rise
    of institutions west of the Appalachians that are
    particularly American
  • European settler-to-American Pioneer
  • Turner argues that the nature and character of
    U.S. population / culture / cultural landscape /
    etc, are the result of American experience with
    the wilderness frontier

15
Turners Frontier Hypothesis, cont
  • Turner argued that the environment (frontier /
    wilderness) created individuals who exhibited
    strong individualistic traits and who resented
    seemingly senseless social controls
  • (1) promoted unregulated resource use west of
    the Mississippi
  • (2) high value attached to land ownership
  • --- in comparison to Europe
  • --- root of Democracy-in-Action resource use

16
Turners Frontier Hypothesis, cont
  • (3) non-landowners felt that through
    perseverance and diligence land could be
    acquired or more could be attained
  • Text notes that Turners thesis on the American
    experience is significant and that his later
    literature fills in some of his gaps and expands
    its tenets beyond the frontier

17
  • For example
  • (1) U.S. became the worlds dominant power and
    played a key role in establishing competitive
    capitalism as the ideology and practice of the
    global economy
  • (2) industrial and agrarian trends and our
    experiment as a Global Landlord
  • (3) most recently the U.S. emergence as a center
    for environmental debate

18
Aside
  • Central to Turner are
  • (1) the American individual who is? (pp
    13-14)
  • (2) American institutions (p. 14)
  • (how did they come into existence?)
  • - Look at the illustration and caption on p. 14
    use the r.r. grade to divide it into developed
    and tamed and nature and wilderness
  • wilderness is to be conquered, settled and
    civilized with all possible speed (p. 15)

19
Turners Frontier Hypothesis, cont
  • Turner ignored factors at least as important as
    settler / frontier interaction
  • (1) slavery
  • (2) shift from agrarian to industrial dominance
  • (3) mass migrations NW European-to-So and
  • E European-to-E Asian
  • (4) practical, economic need to conquer settle
    and civilize

20
Turners Frontier Hypothesis, cont
  • Viewed in hindsight
  • (5) too heavily environmental determinist
  • (6) frontier/wilderness was more than a place
    or process, it was a systemic interaction
    between physical environment and social
    organization
  • (7) downplays emergent regionalism and
    sectionalism no single concept of American
    culture developed
  • (8) seems to totally ignore the process of
    urbanization
  • (9) doesnt fit later frontiers

21
Possibilism
  • A somewhat related thesis, presented by British
    historian Arnold Toynbee, who hypothesized that
    the frontier experience was one of challenge and
    response
  • i.e the environment presents physical and
    psychological challenges, we create our
    response to them

22
  • History spawned other viewpoints to the role or
    importance of the frontier / wilderness
  • George Catlin H.D. Thoreau
  • John W. Powell J. Muir
  • We also have had environmental conferences,
    agencies at all levels, dividing and subdividing
    of responsibilities
  • compounding this is our belief in conservation
    and desire to have it available whenever and
    however we want it
  • (multiple use)

23
Aside
  • Editors say that, American conflict between
    exploiters and preservers of nature is now being
    played out at an international scale
  • on one level I understand what they mean, on
    another level I resent their statement
  • WE (Americans) did not invent wilderness taming
    and removal
  • I also resent their use of the phrase
    American capital
  • international capitalism came long before
    American mercantile expansion

24
  • 1.2 Pressures on Wilderness
  • Simmons, Changing the Face of the Earth (1989)
  • a study of how human society has altered the
    physical environment
  • characterizes five kinds of regions that remain
    close to their wild / climax states

25
  • 1.2 Pressures on Wilderness, cont
  • polar regions() hot deserts
  • tropical forests() high mountain chains
  • some small remote islands
  • () each has its own unique experience / concern
    section examines these two forms justification
    is that both are experiencing rapid change over
    which often hostile debate is taking place (1)
    population pressure / external commercial
    interest (2) expanded resource exploration and
    indigenous population conflicts

26
Tropical Forests and Deforestation
  • - 1981 to 1990 est. 9 of world tropical forests
    disappeared
  • a rate for total disappearance in a century
  • - The richest terrestrial biome
  • 7 of Earth land area
  • 50-90 of world species
  • 65 plant species
  • 30 of terrestrial vertebrates
  • 96 of arthropods

27
Tropical Forests and Deforestation, cont
  • - Important for
  • natural resources
  • support of diverse human cultures
  • regulation of biological, geological and
    chemical cycles

28
  • Geographically As late as 1945, tropical forests
    covered much of the Equatorial zone most
    extensively the Amazon, West Africa islands of
    South East Asia
  • Structurally High temperature high total annual
    precipitation dense, canopied vegetation many
    species low density - individuals of species
    widely scattered vegetation mass zone and
    initial soil horizons may be fertile, but heavily
    leached and frequently sterile soil in subsequent
    horizons cutting forests alter the hydrologic
    cycle as well as altering the albedo of the Earth
    surface and altering wind, rain and ocean
    currents

29
Interesting
  • Globally, we recognize the increasing rate of
    deforestation but, we really have no idea how
    much tropical rainforest has been cleared
    remains or what this rate of removal actually is
    (p. 17)
  • Conversely, we have historical evidence that some
    forests have exhibited greater strain ex the
  • wet-dry tropical forest of the Central American
    Pacific Coast has declined by 98

30
Aside on Rainforest Destruction
  • Global Rates of Rainforest Destruction
  • - 2.47 acres / second (two U.S. football fields)
  • - 150 acres / minute
  • - 214,00 acres / day (area larger than NYC)
  • - 78 million acres / year (area larger that
    Poland)
  • - Est. 137 lifeform species become extinct daily
    50,000 annually
  • (The Rainforest Action Network)

31
  • 1.2.1 Deforestation and the Philippines
  • As late as 1945, tropical forests covered much of
    the Equatorial zone most extensively the Amazon,
    West Africa, the islands of South East Asia (p.
    17)
  • structurally different in particulars
    generally similar ecologically
  • - Commercial exploitation of this resource
    accelerated through the 19th C became a concern
    in the 1960s a global issue 1980s

32
  • The text proposes to use the situation of the
    Philippines to highlight the issues of causality
    consequence implication of tropical
    deforestation
  • 1.2.1 Deforestation and the Philippines, cont
  • island archipelago with 300,000 sq. km
  • 1st visited by Europeans, 1521
  • from the 1500s to the latter 1980s, percentage
    of forested land area was reduced from 90 to
    less than 25
  • it was the earliest and worst case of
    deforestation in South East Asia (p. 19)

33
  • 1.2.1 Deforestation and the Philippines, cont
  • many of the social and environmental problems
    characterizing rainforest deforestation here are
    identifiable for rainforest regions globally
  • Text relates that many casual studies of
    Philippine deforestation have been carried out
    most frequently cited sources are
  • (1) shifting cultivation
  • (2) settled agriculture
  • (3) commercial logging

34
  • 1.2.1 Deforestation and the Philippines, cont
  • - Kummer, Deforestation in the Post-War
    Philippines (1991) argues that traditional
    culprits may not wholly assign blame
    proposes
  • (1) shifting cultivators have not proven to be
    a major forest threat
  • (2) the threat is one that combines the
    commercial logger and settled small plot
    agriculturalist
  • (3) corruption in licensing and permitting
    system of commercial logging constitutes a
    deforestation threat

35
  • 1.2.1 Deforestation and the Philippines, cont
  • From these points, Kummer proposes three elements
    to the deforestation problem
  • (1) ineffective permit regulations make it
    impossible to control for illegally cut and
    exported timber
  • (2) logged lands settled by subsistence farmers
  • (3) role of physical geography in the
    deforestation issue

36
  • 1.2.1 Deforestation and the Philippines, cont
  • Text proposed some significant generalizations
    about the Philippines and the global rainforest
    situation
  • (1) Philippines do not necessarily represent
    the situation of other tropical forests
  • (2) despite any Philippine-global forest
    differences, commonalities exist
  • (3) pressures on logging remain intense,
    indications are that the future need not be as
    exploitative as the past

37
  • 1.2.2 The Last Frontier Alaska
  • Since its acquisition, its settlement and
    exploitation has been hindered by its distance
    from the rest of the nation, the climate and
    terrain, and the slowness of communications.
    Many problems still stand in the way of
    immigration and economic development, and Alaska
    continues to be the countrys last frontier. (p.
    21)

38
  • 1.2.2 The Last Frontier Alaska, cont
  • It is fitting I think that in some aspects,
    Alaska is viewed as a continuation of the
    American frontier mental image
  • new, vast, unexplored assumption that it
    needed was population and development images of
    Northern Exposure Jack London Call of the
    Wild images of Eskimos walruses and whales
    grizzlies and polar bears men with no last
    names gold mosquitoes and black flies
  • This mentality is even more pronounced in the
    Far North regions of Canada or Siberian Russia

39
  • 1.2.2 The Last Frontier Alaska, cont
  • The discoveries of Alaska
  • (1) Migrating Neolithic Asian populations
  • ? From Asia or Europe? Jon Erlandson, Un. of
    Oregon
  • (2) Danish explorer Vitus Bering (1741) for the
    Tsar
  • (3) Modern American settlement /
    environmentalists / resource contractors / etc
  • Aside generally accepted that Pro-Indians came
    to N.A. by this route, I really wonder about the
    why of it

40
  • 1.2.2 The Last Frontier Alaska, cont
  • Over 15,000 years the emergence of four distinct
    hunter-gather cultures
  • (1) Tlingit
  • (2) Aleut
  • (3) Inuit (The People) once Eskimo
  • Kalaajlit
  • Inupiate

41
  • 1.2.2 The Last Frontier Alaska, cont
  • (3) Inuit (The People) once Eskimo
  • --- a staged culture
  • proto-Inuit
  • Dorest
  • Thule
  • Contemporary
  • (4) Athabaskan / Metis

42
  • 1.2.2 The Last Frontier Alaska, cont
  • I. Economic and Resource Interest
  • - As with much of recent history, early
  • Anglo-European exploration and exploitation
    economically motivated
  • --- fishing/fur bearing mammals
    (semi-permanent)
  • --- gold (permanent)
  • male dominated
  • not predicated on available agriculture

43
  • 1.2.2 The Last Frontier Alaska, cont
  • I. Economic and Resource Interest
  • --- By WWII gold, copper, timber, fish, coal,
    etc. were being withdrawn from the territory
  • Interestingly military expansion provided the
    territory with a major percentage of its
    permanent population as well as the impetus
    (with mineral exploitation) for transportation
    and communications infrastructure

44
  • 1.2.2 The Last Frontier Alaska, cont
  • I. Economic and Resource Interest
  • --- Soon after statehood deposits of petroleum
    were discovered in Cook Inlet and on the Kenai
    Peninsula
  • Interesting (text) despite these discoveries,
    the state remained a drain on the national
    economy until the discovery of petroleum on the
    North Slope

45
  • 1.2.2 The Last Frontier Alaska, cont
  • I. Economic and Resource Interest
  • --- North Slope represented the greatest
  • economic vs environmental debate to that point
    in U.S. history
  • TAP (opened 1977)
  • current concerns Arctic National Wildlife
    Refuge (ANWR)

46
  • 1.2.2 The Last Frontier Alaska, cont
  • II. Environmental Interests
  • --- opening of Alaska coincide with the 1st
    wave of environmentalism
  • with its mental map / location / mystic /
    flora and fauna / etc, it would naturally
    become a center-piece in environmental
    protection and wilderness designation
  • --- wilderness experiences / hunting and fishing
    / recreation / etc. as revenue

47
  • 1.2.2 The Last Frontier Alaska, cont
  • II. Environmental Interests
  • --- federal govt also utilized its power to
    protect fragile and unique environments
  • ex national monuments 7 million acres
    wilderness
  • reserves (U.S. Fish and Wildlife)-19
    mill. acres
  • federal lands into parks/refuges/wilderne
    ss areas-
  • 104 mill acres

48
  • 1.2.2 The Last Frontier Alaska, cont
  • III. Indigenous Interests
  • --- indigenous peoples and their interests
    remain the least integrated into the goals and
    direction of Alaska
  • --- here, as elsewhere, contact with the
    Europeans has pretty much damned the native
    cultures

49
  • 1.2.2 The Last Frontier Alaska, cont
  • III. Indigenous Interests
  • - in reaction to the decline of indigenous
    cultures and the Anglos inability to figure out
    what to do with native peoples
  • Alaskan Federation of Natives (AFN 1966)
  • Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act
  • (ANCSA 1971)

50
Aside
  • The success of the AFN and the ANCSA did not go
    unnoticed among the indigenous peoples of Canada
  • --- James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement
    (1975)
  • --- Northeastern Quebec Agreement (1978)
  • --- Western Arctic Claims Settlement Act (1984)
  • --- Dene Nations / Metis Agreement (1990)
  • --- Council for Yukon Indians (1990)
  • --- Tungavik Federation of Nunavut (1990)

51
1.3 The Transformation of Nature
  • 1.3.1 The Growth and Spread of Human Impacts on
    Environments
  • Text The extent and severity of human impacts
    on environments depend on the way societies
    organize production. (p. 26)
  • Historically, three broad production systems
    existed
  • (1) hunter-gatherer out of Africa to all
    parts of the world except Antarctica

52
  • 1.3.1 The Growth and Spread of Human Impacts on
    Environments
  • hunter-gatherers, cont
  • --- somehow have an image of indigenous H-G
    cultures as environmentally benign /
    natural / pure
  • reality is that such cultures are very good
    at altering physical and biological
    environments
  • both deliberately and non-deliberately

53
Example
  • The most technological advanced thing that the
    Australian Aborigines had was fire. They used
    it to
  • - flush and drive animals
  • - promote the growth of plants they wanted /
    that
  • were sought by the animals they hunted
  • H-G contribute to the extinction of species
    altering the mix of flora and fauna clearing of
    land selective cleaning of land diverting and
    irrigating land etc
  • We tend to think of H-G cultures as being static
    and non-evolving, when by necessity they may be
    the most adaptive and evolving

54
  • 1.3.1 The Growth and Spread of Human Impacts on
    Environments
  • (2) agricultural post 10,000 B.C. out of the
    Middle East, particularly in the temperate
    regions of the world and later appearing
    pastoralism
  • --- more systemic in altering the environment
  • --- many of the same selective alternations and
    deforestation techniques seen in H-G

55
  • 1.3.1 The Growth and Spread of Human Impacts on
    Environments
  • agricultural deforestation has been the
    greatest human impact in the temperate
    latitudes
  • of course, deforestation frequently leads to
    soil erosion altering drainage patterns
    changing soil infiltration patterns
  • agricultural societies have transformed
    landscapes through both adding water to a
    location (irrigation) and its removal (drainage
    / diking / etc)

56
  • 1.3.1 The Growth and Spread of Human Impacts on
    Environments
  • agricultural
  • because of factors comparative advantage
    settled agriculture encouraged increasingly
    complex patterns of trade and communication
  • (ex early eastern U.S.)
  • These lines of trade and communication made
    possible transition into Industrial Production
    system

57
Additionally
  • Remember impact of hydraulic civilizations
  • - Not all agricultural civilizations were
    hydraulic
  • Egypt, Mesopotamia, Indus, Wei yes
  • Mayan, Aztec, Inca no
  • generally, large-scale irrigation increased
    production efficiency, therefore increasing
    output/man/hour
  • irrigation made possible large non-farming
    populations / social stratification / labor
    specialization / urban growth / generally higher
    standard of living for the society
  • all of these factors gave rise to increasing
    economic, political and social power
  • historically it also created cosmologic
    civilizations

58
  • 1.3.1 The Growth and Spread of Human Impacts on
    Environments
  • (3) industrial U.K and Europe, diffused to
    North America and ultimately the greater part
    of the world
  • - characterized by increasingly complex spatial
    linkages (trade and communications)
    building on those of the agricultural
    production system

59
  • 1.3.1 The Growth and Spread of Human Impacts on
    Environments
  • industrial patterns both directly and
    indirectly fostering greater consumption
  • (look at measures of GNP or standard-of
    living)
  • - productive patterns stressing
    greater efficiency / mechanization
  • - unfortunately, also greater patterns
    of pollution
  • (decreasing with time but becoming more toxic)

60
  • 1.3.1 The Growth and Spread of Human Impacts on
    Environments
  • industrial
  • - peripheral to industrialization is the
    growth of urban centers and population growth
  • (back to J-curve and Demographic Transition)
  • - latter period brought first environmentalism
  • Aside alludes to a good point when mentioning
    that we have become dependents of continued
    industrial growth old Malthusian Trap concept

61
  • 1.3.1 The Growth and Spread of Human Impacts on
    Environments
  • - What about (4) Post-Industrial systems?
  • what will such a production system
  • look and act like?

62
  • 1.4.1 Hunter-Gatherers
  • - The editors are correct in telling us that we
    really know little or nothing about the thought
    processes of Paleolithic H-G
  • much of our understanding is taken from
  • (i) physical / anthropological artifact
    information
  • (ii) second-hand information
  • (iii) the individual researchers
    particular perceptions and prejudices

63
  • 1.4.1 Hunter-Gatherers
  • - It is clear that H-G were typically nomadic
    a small kin-group migrating across a large
    geographic area seeking food sources, or
    exploiting feast-and-famine slash-and-burn
    supplemental agriculture
  • --- population and density must have remained
    low
  • --- likely animistic in beliefs
  • --- concept of landownership seems to be
    missing
  • --- frequently hold creation myths

64
  • 1.4.2 Agricultural Society
  • - Because of their nature we have greater
    information about these societies
  • (i) they are much more abundant
  • (ii) they produced numerically larger
    permanent settlements
  • (iii) they left written records
  • I would add
  • (iv) they left a chronological pattern of
    pollution and environmental degradation

65
  • 1.4.2 Agricultural Society
  • - Domestication of plants and animals opens up
    the first permanent separation of Man and the
    environment
  • (i) species now intrinsically defined
    according to their value to mankind our
    definition of resource
  • (ii) domestic species and their perpetuation
    take precedence over environmental harmony
  • (iii) Man becomes dominant as the altering
    agent of the physical environment

66
  • 1.4.2 Agricultural Society
  • - Fact is that settled agriculture initiated a
    self- perpetuating feedback system societally
    economically technologically environmentally
  • - Societies become more complex, more
    stratification occurs, the call for more
    resources and greater agricultural production
    increases and we keep going
  • Look at the Historical Perspectives
    civilizations

67
  • 1.4.2 Agricultural Society
  • - Also significant is the fact that such
    cultures were polytheistic rather than animist
  • --- Nature is demoted to the control of Gods
    in human forms / with human traits
  • soon after, in nomadic cultures of the Middle
    East monotheism would develop

68
  • Text Two significant developments occurred in
    the eastern Mediterranean several thousand years
    ago
  • (1) the emergence of Judaism and direct child
    Christianity
  • (2) the rationalism of Greek culture and
    philosophy
  • Early Judaism is grounded in the rural
    landscape / arid wilderness regions (Sacks
    one-ness)
  • Contact with Greek culture dooms this what
    emerges is an attitude that urban (village, etc)
    is positive and the wilderness is bad

69
  • This is what Clarence Glacken (Traces on the
    Rhodesian Shore, 1967) is saying with
  • what is most striking in concepts of nature,
    even mythological ones, is the yearning for
    purpose and order perhaps these notions of order
    are, basically here is what is important for
    us analogies derived from the orderliness and
    purposiveness in many outward manifestations of
    human activity order and purpose in roads, in
    the grid of village streets and even in winding
    lanes, in a garden or a pasture, in the plan of a
    dwelling and its relation to another

70
  • one-ness of Gods creations is lost completes
    divorce of human culture from nature
  • sacred place changes
  • gender and social divisions become crystallized
  • It has been argued that all of this is a product
    of Greek dualism the Greek concept of
    opposition
  • the inferior to the superior (master)
  • the inherent existence of Good and Evil

71
  • Under Christianity, a rigid hierarchy of place
    emerges
  • (i) at the very top the construct of Heaven
  • (ii) settled places towns, cities,
    agricultural regions
  • (iii) the rural countryside
  • (iv) the wilderness
  • This will subconsciously find its way into the
    contact diffusion of Christianity

72
  • Glacken recognizes three major themes that
    backhandedly argue that thus separation of
  • Man-God-Nature is not absolute
  • (1) teleology
  • (2) environmental determinism
  • (3) human society as an agent of environmental
    change
  • I would insert possibilism

73
  • Asian agricultural societies developed a somewhat
    different attitude to nature, the environment and
    their role in it
  • (i) less affected by monotheistic religion
  • (ii) they shared the concept of fundamental
    unity and harmony between Man and nature

74
  • For a spectrum of Eastern attitudes you might
    look at
  • (1) Hinduism
  • --- very ambiguous to the environment
  • --- animist roots polytheism ahimsa
  • (2) Buddhism
  • --- most widespread Eastern religion
  • --- practices ahimsa
  • --- religion without a named God, its
    underlying tenet is the living of a good
    life and working to reduce greed and
    suffering (the Four-Noble Truths)

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