Differentiated Instruction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Differentiated Instruction PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 53fd83-NGMzM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Differentiated Instruction

Description:

Differentiated Instruction Evelyn Wassel, Ed. D. Williams Valley School District September 24, 2010 * Handout # 13: Activity # 10: Tiered Assignments Trainer s ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:816
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 80
Provided by: dewa66
Learn more at: http://wassel.wikispaces.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Differentiated Instruction


1
Differentiated Instruction
  • Evelyn Wassel, Ed. D.
  • Williams Valley School District
  • September 24, 2010

2
Agenda
  • Discuss the concept of DI
  • Look at techniques to differentiate the classroom
  • Consider a rationale for on-going assessment in
    the classroom to guide instruction

3
What It Is/What Its Not
  • Differentiated Instruction IS
  • Differentiated Instruction IS NOT

4
The success of education depends on adapting
teaching to individual differences among learners.
  • Yuezheng, in fourth century B.C. Chinese
    treatise, Xue Ji

(Snow, 1982)
5
What is Differentiation?
  • A teachers response to learners needs
  • The recognition of students varying background
    knowledge and preferences
  • Instruction that appeals to students differences

6
The rationale for DI
  • Examples of learner diversity
  • Cognitive abilities (Bloom)
  • Learning styles (Gardner)
  • Socioeconomic and family factors
  • Readiness
  • Learning pace
  • Motivation
  • Gender
  • Cultural and ethnic influences

7
One Size Doesnt Fit All
8
Essential Characteristics of DI
  • There is no recipe for DI
  • It is a way of thinking
  • Teacher acts as facilitator for learning
  • DI challenges the notion that the curriculum is
    just coverage of facts.

9
Readiness Differentiation
  • Where is THIS child
  • at THIS time
  • with THIS particular
  • skill or idea?

10
What Information Do You Need?
  • To know your students
  • The process of differentiating curriculum,
    instruction and assessment begins by knowing your
    students.
  • To understand your students
  • Strengths, interests, learning styles,
    preferences and intelligences
  • To know student needs
  • This information can be utilized to make your
    curricula more meaningful to students because you
    can tailor your delivery and expectations to meet
    their needs.

11
How will I get this information?
  • Record review
  • Family-centered and culturally responsive fact
    gathering
  • Interest inventories
  • Learning preferences information
  • Multiple intelligences
  • Data-based observations
  • Functional behavior assessment
  • Monitoring cooperative group learning

12
  • Curriculum
  • PA Standards/ Assessment Anchors

The Differentiated Instruction Decision Making
Process
Students
  • Pre-assessment
  • Readiness/Ability
  • Prior Knowledge
  • Interest/Talents

How can I differentiate instruction and align
lesson outcomes and tasks to learning goals?
  • Content
  • What the teacher plans to teach
  • Process
  • How the teacher plans instruction
  • Management of flexible groups
  • Product
  • Assessment of the content

Review the Data
Link To Next Concept, Lesson or Unit
Adapted from Oaksford, L. and Jones, L. 2001
13
WHAT CAN BE DIFFERENTATED?
14
Classroom Elements
  • Content
  • Process
  • Product
  • Affect
  • Learning Environment

15
Differentiating Content
  • Sources of content
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • Teacher determines/clarifies essential knowledge,
    understanding and skills of a unit or topic.
  • Pre-test to determine readiness.
  • Differentiate content to ensure all students have
    equal access to the essential knowledge.

16
Differentiating the Curriculum
DO NOT ASSESS
BIG IDEAS ALL WILL LEARN DO TEACH INTENSIVELY DO
ASSESS
DO TEACH
DO NOT ASSESS
INTERESTING BUT NOT ESSENTIAL SOME WILL LEARN
ANYWAY
DO NOT ASSESS
DO NOT TEACH
SPECIALIZED KNOWLEDGE TRIVIA FEW WILL LEARN
Edwin Ellis, 2002
17
Ways to differentiate curriculum
  • Reading partners/reading buddies
  • Read/summarize
  • Adjust questions
  • Graphic organizers
  • Varied texts
  • Highlighted texts
  • With a partner, discuss some other ways you can
    help all students have equal access?

18
Differentiating Process
  • Learning and using higher order thinking skills
  • Creative thinking
  • Critical thinking
  • Problem solving
  • Integration of basic skills and abstract thinking
    skills
  • Process activities

19
Ways to Differentiate Process
  • Games
  • RAFTs
  • Cubing, Think Dots
  • Choices
  • Tiered Lessons
  • Anchor Activities
  • Online Activities

20
Games
  • Use games to capture a students interest,
    reinforce ideas and for review.
  • Frequent practice is also necessary for children
    to build and maintain strong academic skills.
  • Have varying levels according to ability.

21
Friendship Cinquain
  • A cinquain is a five-line poem that follows a
    certain pattern.
  • Interview a partner and use what you learn to
    write a cinquain about that person.
  • Questions are on the next slide.

22
Friendship Cinquain
  • What is your name?
  • Adjectives that describe you
  • Activities you enjoy
  • What makes you a good friend?
  • Nickname?

23
Friendship Cinquain
  • Name
  • Adjective, adjective
  • Action word, action word, action word
  • Four word phrase about friendship
  • Nickname or noun

24
Friendship Cinquain
  • Jordan
  • Musical, athletic
  • Singing, dancing, tackling
  • Everyone can be considerate
  • JJ

25
Friendship Cinquain
  • This can be used for any topic if you change the
    questions.
  • Examples
  • Plants
  • Columbus journey
  • Character in a story

26
RAFT
  • Writing to learn activities to enhance
    understanding of informational text
  • ROLE
  • AUDIENCE
  • FORMAT
  • TOPIC
  • The RAFT strategy forces students to process
    information rather than merely write answers to
    questions.

27
Role of the Writer
  • What is the writers role reporter, observer,
    eyewitness, object, number, etc.

28
Audience
  • Who will be reading the writing?
  • Teacher
  • Other students
  • A parent
  • Editor
  • People in the community, etc.

29
Format
  • What is the best way to present the writing?
  • Letter
  • Article
  • Report
  • Contract
  • Poem
  • Advertisement
  • E-mail

30
Topic
  • Who or what is the subject of this writing?
  • A famous scientist
  • A prehistoric cave dweller
  • A character from literature
  • A chemical element or physical object

31
Plant RAFT
ROLE AUDIENCE FORMAT TOPIC
Plant parts Plant needs Picture Were made for each other
Roots Stem, leaf, flower, seeds Letter Youd be lost without me
Flower Stem, leaf, seeds, roots Ad Im more than just a pretty face
32
Immigration RAFT
ROLE AUDIENCE FORMAT TOPIC
Boy of 12 who came from Europe Best friend in Germany Letter Crossing the ocean on a ship
Ship captain Emigrants waiting to come to America Booklet How to prepare for your trip
Artist arriving from France Graphic design firm in NYC Postcard Wish you were here
33
Activity
  • With a partner develop several scenarios where
    you could use the raft in your classroom.

34
Cubing
  • Students consider a concept from a variety of
    different perspectives.
  • The cubes are six-sided figures that have a
    different activity on each side of the cube.
  • A student rolls the cube and does the activity
    that comes up.

35
Think Dots
  • Each student is given a set of activity cards on
    a ring, a die and an activity sheet.
  • Student rolls the die and completes the activity
    on the card that corresponds to the dots thrown
    on the die.
  • Student then completes the activity on the
    activity sheet.

36
Think Dots Suggestions
  • Use colored paper and/or colored dots to indicate
    different readiness levels, interests or learning
    styles.
  • Have students work in pairs.
  • Let students choose which activities for
    example
  • Roll the die and choose any three. Create complex
    activities and have students choose just one to
    work on over a number of days.

37
Choices
  • Use Gardeners Multiple Intelligences
  • Human beings are capable of "many different and
    discrete facets of cognition."
  • Humans display different types of intelligences
    which can be measured, fostered and evaluated as
    isolated faculties of the mind.

38
Multiple Intelligences
  • The MI Theory assumes that all students possess
    an array of at least eight intelligences.
  • Identifying students strength intelligences
    allows educators to use the strengths to capture
    a students attention and assist the student in
    learning new information.

Source Google Images
39
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
  • The ability to manipulate ones own body and
    control muscle movements with utmost precision
    (surgeons, pianists)

40
Musical Intelligence
  • The ability to understand and perform music

41
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
  • This also includes scientific ability.

42
Linguistic Intelligence
  • Knowledge and ability to manipulate language

43
Spatial Intelligence
  • The ability to form a mental model of a spatial
    world (i.e. sculptors, engineers, surgeons)

44
Interpersonal Intelligence
  • The ability to understand others

45
Intrapersonal Intelligence
  • The ability to understand oneself

46
Nature Intelligence
  • The ability to understand nature

47
Gardners MI
  • http//www.op97.k12.il.us/lincoln/mi.html
  • Whats your learning style?
  • http//www.edutopia.org/multiple-intelligences-lea
    rning-styles-quiz?utm_sourcegoogleutm_mediumcpc
    utm_contentpdfutm_campaignquizgclidCNvIpqDLm
    aQCFaVn5Qod1WlVEA

48
Tiered Lessons
  • Strategy that addresses a particular standard,
    key concept and generalization
  • Allows several pathways for students to arrive at
    an understanding of these components
  • Based on the students interests, readiness or
    learning profiles

49
Developing a Tiered Assignment
  • Identify unit/lesson.
  • Identify essential questions or objectives.
  • Student outcomes
  • Student skill levels
  • Student output
  • Develop/review lesson activity.
  • Determine level of learner(s).
  • Adjust COMPLEXITY for each level of learners.

50
Implementing a Tiered Assignment
  • Assignments should be
  • Accompanied by directions
  • Respectful. Adjusted for varying levels
  • Designed to meet the lesson objective
  • Determine product.
  • Traditional versus alternate
  • Teacher in role of facilitator

51
Anchor Activities
  • Specified ongoing activities on which students
    work independently
  • Ongoing assignments that students can work on
    throughout a unit

52
Why Use Anchor Activities?
  • provide a strategy for teachers to deal with
    ragged time when students complete work at
    different times
  • allow the teacher to work with individual
    students or groups
  • provides ongoing activities that relate to the
    content of the unit
  • allow the teacher to develop independent group
    work strategies in order to incorporate a mini
    lab of computers in classroom

53
Examples of Anchor Activities
  • A worksheet with open- or closed-end questions
  • Learning centers
  • Journal writing
  • Creating games or books
  • Playing games that reinforce concepts/skills

54
  • With a partner, develop a few examples of anchor
    activities you can use in your classroom.
  • Dont forget online options!

55
Differentiating Product
  • Varying the ways students demonstrate what you
    asked them to learn.
  • Use frequent assessment as checks for
    understanding and feedback not just for grades.
  • Replace some tests with rich product assignments.
  • You can also give students a choice between tests
    and assignments.

56
Ways to Differentiate Product
  • Choices based on interest, readiness and learning
    profile
  • Clear expectations
  • Timelines
  • Agreements
  • Product guides
  • Rubrics

57
Differentiating Affect
  • Students need to feel they belong to a group and
    are important to it.
  • Teacher should be continually attuned to student
    feelings.
  • Readiness levels should be value challenged
    supported in the classroom.
  • Differentiate proactively and reactively.
  • Affect is the weather of the classroom.

58
Differentiating Learning Environment
  • Use fluid, flexible grouping that reflects
    real-life situations.
  • Use space, time and materials flexibly.
  • Encourage expression of new ideas, accept
    diversity and exploration.
  • Experiences reflect learner interests and ideas.
  • Honor the dignity of all learners.

59
Differentiating Student Characteristics
  • Readiness
  • Interest
  • Learning Profile

60
Differentiating Readiness
  • Make work a little more difficult for students at
    a given point in their growth.
  • Provide support to succeed at new level of
    challenge.
  • Pre-assessment is key.
  • Teachers need to adapt teaching in ways that make
    curriculum appropriately challenging for a range
    of learners.

61
Differentiating Interest
  • Help students connect with new information by
    revealing connections with things they already
    find appealing and worthwhile.
  • Interest surveys will give clues to teachers.

62
Differentiating Learning Profile
  • Influenced by learning style, intelligence
    preference, gender and culture
  • The goal is to help students learn in the way
    they learn best and to extend ways in which they
    can learn effectively.

63
In a differentiated classroom, the teacher plans
and carries out varied approaches to content,
process, and product in anticipation of and
response to student differences in readiness
and/or interest.
64
On-going Assessment
  • Assessment is todays means of understanding how
    to modify tomorrows instruction.
  • Carol Tomlinson

65
Some Thoughts on Assessment
  • Assessment should happen on a daily basis in the
    classroom.
  • It provides ways to use instruction to inform the
    next steps.

66
As you begin.
  • Examine your philosophy about individual needs.
  • Start small.
  • Grow slowly but grow!
  • Envision how an activity will look.
  • Step back and reflect.

67
Management Hints
68
Giving Directions
  • If the whole class is doing the same activity
    then give the directions to the whole group.
  • Do not give multiple task directions to the whole
    class.
  • For small group work, tape directions so students
    can listen to them repeatedly
  • Use task cards to give directions to small
    groups.
  • A general rule is that once the teacher has given
    directions the students cant interrupt while
    he/she is working with a small group
  • Ask Me Visors

69
Assigning Groups
  • Clothes pins with students names to assign them
    to a particular task
  • Color code children to certain groups (a
    transparency with students names in color works
    well)
  • Cubing allows you to assign groups by interest or
    readiness level

70
Handling Materials
  • Assign jobs to different students (materials
    handler, table captain)
  • As a teacher ask yourself, Is this something I
    have to do myself, or can the students learn to
    do it?
  • Remember that you have to teach children how to
    become responsible for their own things.

71
Transitions
  • Directions for transitions need to be given with
    clarity and urgency.
  • Time limit for transition
  • Address the acceptable noise level
  • Rehearsal

72
Routines for Handling Paperwork
  • Color-coded work folders
  • Portfolios
  • Baskets for each curricular area or class period
  • Filing Cabinet
  • Key to these organizational patterns is that
    the children have access to their own work and
    know how to file and/or find what they need to
    accomplish a task.

73
Time
  • Must be flexible in order to address every
    childs readiness level
  • Catch-up days
  • Anchoring Activities
  • Postcards for Writing Ideas
  • Independent Investigations

74
Principles for Fostering Equity and
Excellencein Academically Diverse Learners
  • Good curriculum comes first.
  • The teacher's first job is always to ensure a
    coherent, important, inviting, and thoughtful
    curriculum.
  • All tasks should respect each learner.
  • Every student deserves work that is focused on
    the essential knowledge, understanding, and
    skills targeted for the lesson. Every student
    should be required to think at a high level and
    should find his or her work interesting and
    powerful.
  • When in doubt, teach up!
  • Good instruction stretches learners. The best
    tasks are those that students find a little too
    difficult to complete comfortably. Be sure
    there's a support system in place to facilitate
    the student's success at a level that he or she
    doubted was attainable.

Adapted from Tomlinson, C.A., Edison, C.C.
(2003).Differentiation in practice A resource
guide for differentiating curriculum, Grades
5-9. Alexandria, VA ASCD.
75
Principles for Fostering Equity and
Excellencein Academically Diverse Learners
  • Use flexible grouping.
  • Find ways and time for the class to work as a
    whole, for students to demonstrate competence
    alone, and for students to work with varied
    groups of peers. Using only one or two types of
    groups causes students to see themselves and one
    another in more limited ways, keeps the teacher
    from" auditioning " students in varied contexts,
    and limits potentially rich exchanges in the
    classroom.
  • Become an assessment junkie.
  • Everything that a student says and does is a
    potential source of assessment data. Assessment
    should be an ongoing process, conducted in
    flexible but distinct stages, and it should
    maximize opportunities for each student to open
    the widest possible window on his or her
    learning.
  • Grade to reflect growth.
  • The most we can ask of any person-and the least
    we ought to ask-is to be and become their best.
    The teacher's job is to guide and support the
    learner in this endeavor. Grading should, in
    part, reflect a learner's growth.

Adapted from Differentiation in Practice A
Resource Guide for Differentiating Curriculum,
Grades 5-9,
76
I like this class because theres something
different going on all the time. My other
classes, its like peanut butter for lunch every
single day. This class, its like my teacher
really knows how to cook. Its like she runs a
really good restaurant with a big menu and all.
  • Comment from a course evaluation
  • written by a 7th grader.

77
Exploring DI Sites
  • Use the following wiki to access two DI word
    documents related to DI.
  • http//wassel.wikispaces.com/DIWV2010
  • Explore the wiki to complete the Ticket Out The
    Door activity.

78
Lets review
  • Differentiated Instruction is
  • Differentiated Instruction is not

79
For more information
  • www.iu29.org
  • Teacher Resources
  • Differentiated Instruction Resources
  • http//wassel.wikispaces.com/DifferentiatedInstru
    ction
  • http//wassel.wikispaces.com/DIWebpages
About PowerShow.com