Splash Screen - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation
Title:

Splash Screen

Description:

Title: Presentation Plus! Subject: Glencoe World History Author: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, Inc. Last modified by: 214091 Created Date: 4/11/2002 8:05:20 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:1113
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 116
Provided by: GlencoeMc71
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Splash Screen


1
Splash Screen
2
Section 1-7
The German Path to War
  • Adolf Hitler believed that Germany could build a
    great civilization. ?
  • To do this, Germany needed more land to support
    more German people. ?
  • He wanted lands in the east in the Soviet Union
    and prepared for war. ?
  • His plan was to use the land for German
    settlements. ?
  • The Slavic people would become slaves.

(pages 809812)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
3
Section 1-8
The German Path to War (cont.)
  • Hitler proposed that Germany be able to revise
    the unfair provisions of the Treaty of Versailles
    that had ended World War I. ?
  • At first he said he would use peaceful means. ?
  • However, in March of 1935, he created a new air
    force and began a military draft.

(pages 809812)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
4
Section 1-9
The German Path to War (cont.)
  • France, Great Britain, and Italy condemned
    Hitlers moves. ?
  • Due to problems at home caused by the Great
    Depression, however, they were not prepared to
    take action. ?
  • Hitler became convinced that the Western states
    would not stop him from breaking the provisions
    of the Treaty of Versailles.

(pages 809812)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
5
Section 1-10
The German Path to War (cont.)
  • In March of 1936, Hitler sent German troops into
    the Rhineland, which was supposed to be a
    demilitarized area. ?
  • France would not oppose Germany for this treaty
    violation without British support. ?
  • Great Britain saw Hitlers actions as reasonable
    and therefore did not call for a military
    response.

(pages 809812)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
6
Section 1-11
The German Path to War (cont.)
  • This was the beginning of the policy of
    appeasement, one based on the belief that if
    European states satisfied the reasonable demands
    of dissatisfied states, the dissatisfied states
    would be content, and peace would be preserved.

(pages 809812)
7
Section 1-12
The German Path to War (cont.)
  • Hitler gained new allies. ?
  • Benito Mussolini was the Fascist leader of Italy.
    ?
  • He invaded Ethiopia in 1935 with the support of
    German troops. ?
  • In 1936, both Italy and Germany sent troops to
    Spain to support General Francisco Franco.

(pages 809812)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
8
Section 1-13
The German Path to War (cont.)
  • Later in the year, Hitler and Mussolini became
    allies and formed the Rome-Berlin Axis. ?
  • Germany also signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with
    Japan forming an alliance against communism.

(pages 809812)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
9
Section 1-14
The German Path to War (cont.)
  • By 1937, Germany had become a very powerful
    nation. ?
  • In 1938, Hitler pursued a long-held goal, union
    with Austria, or Anschluss. ?
  • By threatening to invade Austria, Hitler forced
    the Austrians to put Austrian Nazis in charge of
    the government. ?
  • The new government then invited German troops
    into Austria to help maintain order. ?
  • Hitler then annexed Austria to Germany.

(pages 809812)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
10
Section 1-15
The German Path to War (cont.)
  • In 1938, Hitler demanded that the Sudetenland in
    northwestern Czechoslovakia be given to Germany. ?
  • The British, French, Italian, and German
    representatives then met in Munich. ?
  • Britain, France, and Italy gave in to all of
    Hitlers demands. ?
  • German troops were allowed into Czechoslovakia.

(pages 809812)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
11
Section 1-16
The German Path to War (cont.)
  • After the Munich Conference, the British prime
    minister, Neville Chamberlain, announced that the
    settlement meant peace for our time. ?
  • He believed Hitlers promises that Germany would
    make no more demands. ?
  • After Munich, Hitler was even more convinced that
    France and Great Britain would not fight. ?
  • In March of 1939, Hitler invaded western
    Czechoslovakia, and made a Nazi puppet state out
    of Slovakia in eastern Czechoslovakia.

(pages 809812)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
12
Section 1-17
The German Path to War (cont.)
  • France and Great Britain began to react. Great
    Britain said it would protect Poland if Hitler
    invaded. ?
  • France and Britain began negotiations with Joseph
    Stalin, the Soviet dictator. ?
  • They knew that they would need the Soviet Union
    to help contain the Nazis.

(pages 809812)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
13
Section 1-18
The German Path to War (cont.)
  • Hitler was afraid of an alliance between the West
    and the Soviet Union. ?
  • In August of 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union
    signed the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact. ?
  • They promised not to attack each other. ?
  • Hitler offered Stalin eastern Poland and the
    Baltic states. ?
  • Hitler knew that eventually he would break the
    pact. ?
  • However, it enabled him to invade Poland without
    fear.

(pages 809812)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
14
Section 1-19
The German Path to War (cont.)
  • On September 1, Germany invaded Poland. ?
  • Two days later, Great Britain and France declared
    war on Germany.

(pages 809812)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
15
Section 1-21
The Japanese Path to War
  • In September 1931, Japanese soldiers seized
    Manchuria. ?
  • The Japanese claimed that the Chinese had
    attacked them. ?
  • In fact, the Japanese had staged the attack
    themselves disguised as Chinese soldiers. ?
  • When the League of Nations investigated and
    condemned the attack, Japan withdrew from the
    league. ?
  • For several years, Japan strengthened its hold on
    Manchuria, which it renamed Manchukuo.

(pages 812813)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
16
Section 1-22
The Japanese Path to War (cont.)
  • By the mid-1930s, militants had gained control of
    Japanese politics. ?
  • The United States opposed the Japanese takeover
    of Manchuria but did nothing to stop it.

(pages 812813)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
17
Section 1-23
The Japanese Path to War (cont.)
  • Chiang Kai-shek tried to avoid a war with Japan. ?
  • He was more concerned with the threat from the
    Chinese Communists. ?
  • He tried to appease Japan by allowing the
    Japanese to occupy parts of northern China. ?
  • Japan moved steadily southward. ?
  • In December 1936, Chiang formed a united front
    against the Japanese.

(pages 812813)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
18
Section 1-24
The Japanese Path to War (cont.)
  • In July 1937, the Chinese and Japanese clashed
    south of Beijing. ?
  • The Japanese seized the capital of Nanjing. ?
  • Chiang Kai-shek refused to surrender and moved
    the capital.

(pages 812813)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
19
Section 1-25
The Japanese Path to War (cont.)
  • Japanese military leaders wanted to establish a
    New Order in East Asia. ?
  • The order would include Japan, Manchuria, and
    China. ?
  • The Japanese thought that, as the only modernized
    country, they could guide the other East Asian
    nations to prosperity.

(pages 812813)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
20
Section 1-26
The Japanese Path to War (cont.)
  • The Japanese planned to seize Soviet Siberia. ?
  • During the 1930s, Japan began to cooperate with
    Nazi Germany. ?
  • The Japanese thought that they and Germany could
    defeat the Soviet Union and divide its resources.

(pages 812813)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
21
Section 1-27
The Japanese Path to War (cont.)
  • The Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact forced the
    Japanese to rethink their goals. ?
  • The Japanese needed natural resources. ?
  • They looked to expand into Southeast Asia for
    sources. ?
  • At the same time they knew that they risked
    strong response from European colonial powers and
    the United States. ?
  • They decided to take the risk.

(pages 812813)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
22
Section 1-28
The Japanese Path to War (cont.)
  • In 1940, the Japanese demanded the right to
    exploit economic resources in French Indochina. ?
  • The United States responded by imposing economic
    sanctions, or restrictions on trade that are
    intended to enforce international law, unless
    Japan withdrew to its borders of 1931.

(pages 812813)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
23
Section 1-29
The Japanese Path to War (cont.)
  • The Japanese badly needed oil and scrap iron from
    the United States. ?
  • The economic sanctions were a very real threat.
    In the end, after long debate, Japan decided to
    launch a surprise attack on U.S. and European
    colonies in Southeast Asia.

(pages 812813)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
24
Section 2-7
Europe at War
  • The 1939 invasion of Poland by Germany took just
    four weeks. ?
  • The speed and efficiency of the German army
    stunned the world. ?
  • Called blitzkrieg (lightning war), the Germans
    used panzer divisions (strike forces of about 300
    tanks and soldiers) that were supported by
    airplanes. ?
  • On September 28, 1939, Germany and the Soviet
    Union divided Poland.

(pages 814817)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
25
Section 2-8
Europe at War (cont.)
  • In the spring of 1940, Hitler invaded Denmark and
    Norway. ?
  • In May, Germany attacked the Netherlands,
    Belgium, and France. ?
  • The German armies broke through French lines and
    moved across northern France. ?
  • The French had fortified their border with
    Germany along the Maginot Line, but the Germans
    surprised them by going around it.

(pages 814817)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
26
Section 2-9
Europe at War (cont.)
  • The Germans trapped the entire British army and
    French forces on the beaches of Dunkirk. ?
  • The British navy and private boats were able to
    evacuate 338,000 Allied troops, barely averting a
    complete disaster.

(pages 814817)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
27
Section 2-10
Europe at War (cont.)
  • On June 22, the French signed an armistice with
    the Germans, who occupied three-fifths of France.
    ?
  • An authoritarian French regime under German
    control was set up to govern the rest of the
    country. ?
  • Led by Marshal Henri Pétain, it was named Vichy
    France. ?
  • Germany now controlled western and central
    Europe. ?
  • Only Britain remained undefeated.

(pages 814817)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
28
Section 2-11
Europe at War (cont.)
  • The British asked the United States for help. ?
  • The United States had a strict policy of
    isolationism. ?
  • A series of neutrality acts passed in the 1930s
    prevented the United States from involvement in
    European conflicts. ?
  • Though President Franklin D. Roosevelt denounced
    the Germans, the United States did nothing at
    first.

(pages 814817)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
29
Section 2-12
Europe at War (cont.)
  • Roosevelt wanted to repeal the neutrality acts
    and help Great Britain. ?
  • Over time, the laws were slowly relaxed, and the
    United States sent food, ships, planes, and
    weapons to Britain.

(pages 814817)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
30
Section 2-13
Europe at War (cont.)
  • Hitler understood that he could not attack
    Britain by sea unless he first controlled the
    air. ?
  • In August 1940, the LuftwaffeGerman air
    forcebegan a major bombing offensive against
    military targets in Britain. ?
  • Aided by a good radar system, the British fought
    back but suffered critical losses.

(pages 814817)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
31
Section 2-14
Europe at War (cont.)
  • In September, Hitler retaliated to a British
    attack on Berlin by shifting attacks from
    military targets to British cities. ?
  • He hoped to break British morale. However, the
    shift in strategy allowed the British to rebuild
    their air power and inflict crippling losses on
    the Germans. ?
  • Having lost the Battle of Britain, Hitler
    postponed the invasion of Britain indefinitely at
    the end of September.

(pages 814817)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
32
Section 2-15
Europe at War (cont.)
  • Hitler was convinced that the way to defeat
    Britain was to first smash the Soviet Union. ?
  • He thought that the British were resisting only
    because they were expecting Soviet support. ?
  • He also thought that the Soviets could be easily
    defeated. ?
  • He planned to invade in the spring of 1941 but
    was delayed by problems in the Balkans.

(pages 814817)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
33
Section 2-16
Europe at War (cont.)
  • After the Italians had failed to capture Greece
    in 1940, the British still held air bases there. ?
  • Hitler seized Greece and Yugoslavia in April 1941.

(pages 814817)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
34
Section 2-17
Europe at War (cont.)
  • Then Hitler invaded the Soviet Union in June
    1941. ?
  • The attack on the Soviet Union stretched out for
    1,800 miles. ?
  • German troops moved quickly and captured two
    million Russian soldiers by November. ?
  • The Germans were within 25 miles of Moscow.

(pages 814817)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
35
Section 2-18
Europe at War (cont.)
  • However, winter came early in 1941 and, combined
    with fierce Russian resistance, forced the
    Germans to halt. ?
  • This marked the first time in the war that the
    Germans had been stopped. ?
  • The Germans were not equipped for the bitter
    Russian winter. ?
  • In December, the Soviet army counterattacked.

(pages 814817)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
36
Section 2-20
Japan at War
  • On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked the
    U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. ?
  • They also attacked the Philippines and the
    British colony of Malaya. ?
  • Soon after, they invaded the Dutch East Indies
    and other islands in the Pacific Ocean. ?
  • In spite of some fierce resistance in places such
    as the Philippines, by the spring of 1942, the
    Japanese controlled almost all of Southeast Asia
    and much of the western Pacific.

(pages 817818)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
37
Section 2-21
Japan at War (cont.)
  • The Japanese created the Greater East-Asia
    Coprosperity Sphere, which included the entire
    region under Japanese control. ?
  • Japan announced its intention to liberate
    colonial nations in Southeast Asia, but it first
    needed their natural resources. ?
  • The Japanese treated the occupied countries as
    conquered lands.

(pages 817818)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
38
Section 2-22
Japan at War (cont.)
  • The Japanese thought that their attacks on the
    U.S. fleet would destroy the U.S. Navy and lead
    the Americans to accept Japanese domination in
    the Pacific. ?
  • However, the attack on Pearl Harbor had the
    opposite effect. ?
  • It united the American people and convinced the
    nation that it should enter the war against Japan.

(pages 817818)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
39
Section 2-23
Japan at War (cont.)
  • Hitler thought that the Americans would be too
    involved in the Pacific to fight in Europe. ?
  • Four days after Pearl Harbor, he declared war on
    the United States. ?
  • World War II had become a global war.

(pages 817818)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
40
Section 2-25
The Allies Advance
  • A new coalition was formed called the Grand
    Alliance. ?
  • It included Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and
    the United States. ?
  • The three nations agreed to focus on military
    operations and ignore political differences. ?
  • They agreed in 1943 to fight until the Axis
    PowersGermany, Italy, and Japansurrendered
    unconditionally.

(pages 818821)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
41
Section 2-26
The Allies Advance (cont.)
  • At the beginning of 1942, the Germans continued
    to fight the war against Britain and the Soviet
    Union. ?
  • The Germans were also fighting in North Africa. ?
  • The Afrika Korps under General Erwin Rommel broke
    through British lines in Egypt and advanced on
    Alexandria. ?
  • During the spring, the Germans captured the
    entire Crimea in the Soviet Union.

(pages 818821)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
42
Section 2-27
The Allies Advance (cont.)
  • By the fall of 1942, the war had turned against
    the Germans. ?
  • In the summer of 1942, the British in North
    Africa had stopped the Germans at El Alamein. ?
  • The Germans retreated. ?
  • In November, British and American forces invaded
    French North Africa and forced the German and
    Italian troops to surrender by May.

(pages 818821)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
43
Section 2-28
The Allies Advance (cont.)
  • On the Eastern Front, Hitler decided to attack
    Stalingrad, a major Soviet industrial center. ?
  • Between November 1942 and February 1943 the
    Soviets counterattacked. ?
  • They surrounded the Germans and cut off their
    supply lines. ?
  • In May, the Germans were forced to surrender. ?
  • They lost some of their best troops. ?
  • Hitler then realized that he would not defeat the
    Soviet Union.

(pages 818821)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
44
Section 2-29
The Allies Advance (cont.)
  • In 1942, the Allies had their first successes in
    the Pacific. ?
  • In the Battle of the Coral Sea in May, American
    naval forces stopped the Japanese and saved
    Australia from invasion. ?
  • In June, the Battle of Midway Island was the
    turning point in the Pacific war. ?
  • U.S. planes destroyed four Japanese aircraft
    carriers and established naval superiority.

(pages 818821)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
45
Section 2-30
The Allies Advance (cont.)
  • By the fall of 1942, Allied forces were about to
    begin two major operation plans against Japan. ?
  • One, led by General Douglas MacArthur, would move
    into the Philippines through New Guinea and the
    South Pacific Islands. ?
  • The other would move across the Pacific,
    capturing some of the Japanese-held islands and
    ending up in Japan. ?
  • By November 1942, after fierce battles in the
    Solomon Islands, the Japanese power was
    diminishing.

(pages 818821)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
46
Section 2-32
Last Years of the War
  • By early 1943, the tide had turned against the
    Axis forces. ?
  • In May, the Axis forces surrendered in Tunisia. ?
  • The Allies then moved north and invaded Italy in
    September. ?
  • Winston Churchill called Italy the soft
    underbelly of Europe.

(pages 821822)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
47
Section 2-33
Last Years of the War (cont.)
  • After the Allies captured Sicily, Mussolini was
    removed from office. ?
  • The king arrested him. ?
  • A new Italian government offered to surrender to
    the Allies. ?
  • However, the Germans rescued Mussolini and set
    him up as dictator of a puppet German state in
    northern Italy.

(pages 821822)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
48
Section 2-34
Last Years of the War (cont.)
  • The Germans established a strong defense south of
    Rome. ?
  • The Allies had very heavy casualties as they
    slowly advanced north. ?
  • They did not take Rome until June 4, 1944. ?
  • The Allies had long been planning a second
    front in western Europe. ?
  • They planned to invade France from Great Britain
    across the English Channel. ?
  • On June 6, 1944 (D-Day), the Allies under U.S.
    General Dwight D. Eisenhower landed on the
    beaches in Normandy.

(pages 821822)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
49
Section 2-35
Last Years of the War (cont.)
  • Though the Germans were expecting the invasion to
    take place in another location, there was still
    heavy resistance. ?
  • However, because the Germans thought the invasion
    was a diversion, they were slow to respond. ?
  • This gave the Allies the chance to set up a
    beachhead. ?
  • By landing two million men and a half-million
    vehicles, the Allies eventually broke through the
    German lines.

(pages 821822)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
50
Section 2-36
Last Years of the War (cont.)
  • After the breakout, the Allies moved south and
    east. ?
  • French resistance fighters rose up in
    German-occupied Paris. ?
  • Paris was liberated by the end of August. In
    March of 1945, the Allies crossed the Rhine
    River. ?
  • In the north they linked up with the Soviet army
    that was moving from the east.

(pages 821822)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
51
Section 2-37
Last Years of the War (cont.)
  • The Soviets had turned the tables on the Germans
    in 1943. ?
  • They soundly defeated German troops in July at
    the Battle of Kursk in a huge tank battle. ?
  • Then they moved steadily westward. ?
  • By the end of 1943, they had reoccupied Ukraine.
    ?
  • By early 1944, they had moved into the Baltic
    states.

(pages 821822)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
52
Section 2-38
Last Years of the War (cont.)
  • In the north, Soviet troops occupied Warsaw in
    January 1945 and entered Berlin in April. ?
  • Along a southern front, the Soviets swept through
    Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria.

(pages 821822)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
53
Section 2-39
Last Years of the War (cont.)
  • By January 1945, Hitler had moved into an
    underground bunker in Berlin. ?
  • In the end he blamed the Jews for the war. ?
  • On April 30, he committed suicide. ?
  • Two days before, Italian partisansresistance
    fightershad shot Mussolini. ?
  • On May 7, 1945, German commanders surrendered,
    and the war in Europe was over.

(pages 821822)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
54
Section 2-40
Last Years of the War (cont.)
  • The war in Asia continued. Beginning in 1943, the
    Allied forces had gone on the offensive and moved
    across the Pacific. ?
  • As the Allies came closer to the Japanese home
    islands in 1945, U.S. president Harry S Truman
    decided to drop atomic bombs on Japanese cities.
    ?
  • He hoped that this would avoid an invasion of
    Japan. ?
  • The first bomb was dropped on the city of
    Hiroshima on August 6.

(pages 821822)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
55
Section 2-41
Last Years of the War (cont.)
  • Three days later, a second bomb was dropped on
    Nagasaki. ?
  • Both cities were completely destroyed. ?
  • Thousands died immediately, and thousands more
    died later of radiation sickness. ?
  • The Japanese surrendered on August 14.

(pages 821822)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
56
Section 2-42
Last Years of the War (cont.)
  • World War II was over. ?
  • Seventeen million people had died in battle in
    World War II. ?
  • Some estimate that, including civilian losses, as
    many as fifty million people died in the war.

(pages 821822)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
57
Section 3-7
The New Order in Europe
  • In 1942, the Nazis controlled Europe from the
    English Channel in the west to near Moscow in the
    east. ?
  • While Germany annexed some areas, most were run
    by military or civilian officials with help from
    local citizens who supported them.

(pages 824825)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
58
Section 3-8
The New Order in Europe (cont.)
  • The Nazis were especially ruthless in eastern
    Europe. ?
  • The Nazis saw the Slavic peoples as racially
    inferior. ?
  • The Nazis wanted the lands for German settlers. ?
  • Soon after they conquered Poland, they began to
    put their plans for an Aryan racial empire into
    action.

(pages 824825)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
59
Section 3-9
The New Order in Europe (cont.)
  • Heinrich Himmler, the SS leader, was put in
    charge of German resettlement plans in the east. ?
  • This meant to move Slavic people out and replace
    them with Germans. ?
  • Beginning in western Poland, the Germans moved
    one million Poles to southern Poland. ?
  • By 1942, two million ethnic Germans had been
    moved in to colonize the new German provinces in
    Poland.

(pages 824825)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
60
Section 3-10
The New Order in Europe (cont.)
  • When the Nazis invaded the Soviet Union, Hitler
    anticipated turning all the people into slaves
    and inhabiting the conquered lands with German
    peasants. ?
  • Himmler stated that German plans could involve
    killing 30 million Slavs.

(pages 824825)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
61
Section 3-11
The New Order in Europe (cont.)
  • Due to labor shortages in Germany, the Nazis
    starting rounding up foreign workers as slave
    labor. ?
  • By the summer of 1944, seven million Europeans
    were laboring in Germany. ?
  • Another seven million were forced to work in
    their own countries.

(pages 824825)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
62
Section 3-12
The New Order in Europe (cont.)
  • Forced labor caused problems for the Germans. ?
  • Bringing workers to Germany reduced the number of
    workers left in occupied countries. ?
  • The Germans brutal tactics led more and more
    people to resist Nazi occupation forces.

(pages 824825)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
63
Section 3-14
The Holocaust
  • Hitlers vision divided the world into the Aryan
    race and those who would destroy it. ?
  • He was convinced that the Jewish people were the
    greatest threat to his Aryan Empire. ?
  • He directed that Jews in Europe be exterminated
    completely. ?
  • His plan was called the Final Solution.

(pages 825828)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
64
Section 3-15
The Holocaust (cont.)
  • The SS under Himmler was responsible for carrying
    out the Final Solution. ?
  • The Final Solution was genocide, or the physical
    extermination, of the Jewish people.

(pages 825828)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
65
Section 3-16
The Holocaust (cont.)
  • Reinhard Heydrich was the head of the SSs
    Security Service. ?
  • He was in charge of the Final Solution. ?
  • He created special forces, called Einsatzgruppen,
    to carry out Nazi plans. ?
  • When Poland fell, he ordered all Jews rounded up
    and put in terribly crowded ghettos in a number
    of cities. ?
  • The Nazis tried to starve the Jews. ?
  • Some of the ghettos organized resistance against
    the Nazis.

(pages 825828)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
66
Section 3-17
The Holocaust (cont.)
  • In June 1941, the Einsatzgruppen began acting as
    mobile killing units. ?
  • They followed the army, rounded up all Jews, and
    executed them. ?
  • They buried the victims in mass graves. Perhaps
    one million Jews were killed in this way. ?
  • However, the Nazis found that this process was
    too slow.

(pages 825828)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
67
Section 3-18
The Holocaust (cont.)
  • The next step was to build death camps. ?
  • Beginning in 1942, Jews from countries occupied
    by or sympathetic to Germany were transported to
    Poland in freight trains like cattle. ?
  • Six death camps were built in Poland. ?
  • The largest was Auschwitz. ?
  • About 30 percent of the arrivals were sent to
    work in a labor camps. ?
  • Many of those were starved or worked to death. ?
  • The rest were exterminated in mass gas chambers.

(pages 825828)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
68
Section 3-19
The Holocaust (cont.)
  • By the spring of 1942, the death camps were fully
    operating. ?
  • Throughout the war, the Final Solution continued
    to have top priority. ?
  • Even as the Nazis were losing the war in 1944,
    Jews were being shipped from Greece and Hungary
    to the death camps. ?
  • The Final Solution had priority over the military
    for trains.

(pages 825828)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
69
Section 3-20
The Holocaust (cont.)
  • The Nazis were also responsible for the deaths of
    at least nine to ten million non-Jewish people. ?
  • About 40 percent of Europes Gypsies were killed,
    as were Poles, Ukrainians, and Belorussians who
    lost their lives as slave laborers. ?
  • The Nazis also probably killed at least three to
    four million Soviet prisoners of war.

(pages 825828)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
70
Section 3-21
The Holocaust (cont.)
  • This mass slaughter of European civilians,
    particularly European Jews, is called the
    Holocaust. ?
  • In a few places, Jews resisted. ?
  • In some countries, people tried to help Jews to
    escape from the Nazis. ?
  • The Danish people were able to protect most of
    their Jewish citizens. ?
  • In many places, collaborators (people who
    assisted the enemy) helped the Nazis find Jews.

(pages 825828)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
71
Section 3-22
The Holocaust (cont.)
  • Though the Allies knew about the death camps,
    they chose to concentrate on ending the war. ?
  • They did not learn the full truth until the war
    was over.

(pages 825828)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
72
Section 3-23
The Holocaust (cont.)
  • Young people of all ages were victims of World
    War II. ?
  • Jewish children were the first to be put to death
    in the gas chambers because they could not work.
    ?
  • 1.2 million Jewish children died in the
    Holocaust. ?
  • In Germany, Britain, and Japan, many children
    were moved from cities that were being bombed. ?
  • Some who were evacuated never saw their parents
    again.

(pages 825828)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
73
Section 3-24
The Holocaust (cont.)
  • By 1945 there were 13 million orphaned children
    in Europe. ?
  • In Eastern Europe, children suffered terribly. ?
  • All secondary schools were closed because the
    Germans did not think Slavic people needed more
    than a very basic education. ?
  • Children on both sides, particularly at the end
    of the war, joined the fighting. ?
  • Sometimes 14- or 15-year-old children were at the
    front lines or worked as spies.

(pages 825828)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
74
Section 3-26
The New Order in Asia
  • Japan hoped to use its newly conquered countries
    as sources of raw materials, such as tin, oil,
    and rubber. ?
  • The possessions would also provide a market for
    Japanese goods.

(pages 828829)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
75
Section 3-27
The New Order in Asia (cont.)
  • The Japanese used the slogan Asia for the
    Asiatics. ?
  • They contacted anticolonialist forces and
    promised them that local governments would be set
    up under Japanese control. ?
  • This happened in Burma, the Dutch East Indies,
    Vietnam, and the Philippines. ?
  • However, each territory was actually run by the
    Japanese military. ?
  • Local people were forced to serve in the military
    or work on public works projects.

(pages 828829)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
76
Section 3-28
The New Order in Asia (cont.)
  • In Vietnam, the Japanese took rice from the
    people. ?
  • A million people starved to death in 1944 and
    1945. ?
  • At first, many Southeast Asian nationalists
    cooperated with the Japanese. ?
  • Their attitudes changed as the Japanese provoked
    local people through their arrogance and contempt
    for local customs. ?
  • For example, Buddhist pagodas in Burma were used
    as military latrines.

(pages 828829)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
77
Section 3-29
The New Order in Asia (cont.)
  • Like the Germans, the Japanese had little respect
    for the lives of people in occupied countries. ?
  • In Nanjing, China, the Japanese soldiers looted
    the city and killed and raped its people. ?
  • The Japanese used labor forces composed of
    prisoners of war and local peoples. ?
  • In one case, 12,000 Allied prisoners of war died
    while constructing the Burma-Thailand railway in
    1943.

(pages 828829)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
78
Section 3-30
The New Order in Asia (cont.)
  • Nationalists in occupied countries were
    conflicted. ?
  • They did not want the former colonial powers to
    return, but they did not like the Japanese
    either. ?
  • Some, like Ho Chi Minh in French Indochina,
    turned against the Japanese and worked with the
    Allies. ?
  • Others simply did nothing. ?
  • By the end of the war, few people in occupied
    Asian countries supported the Japanese.

(pages 828829)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
79
Section 4-7
The Mobilization of Peoples Four Examples
  • Even more than World War I, World War II was a
    total war. ?
  • Economic mobilization was more extensive. ?
  • The war had an enormous impact on civilian life
    in many parts of the world.

(pages 830832)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
80
Section 4-8
The Mobilization of Peoples Four Examples
(cont.)
  • In the Soviet Union initial defeats led to
    drastic emergency measures. ?
  • For example, Leningrad was under siege for nine
    hundred days. ?
  • Over a million people died there due to food
    shortages. ?
  • People had to eat dogs, cats, and mice.

(pages 830832)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
81
Section 4-9
The Mobilization of Peoples Four Examples
(cont.)
  • Soviet workers dismantled factories in the west
    and shipped them to the east, out of the way of
    the attacking German army. ?
  • At times workers ran machines as new factory
    buildings were built up around them.

(pages 830832)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
82
Section 4-10
The Mobilization of Peoples Four Examples
(cont.)
  • The military and industrial mobilization of the
    Soviet Union produced 78,000 tanks and 98,000
    artillery pieces. ?
  • In 1943, 55 percent of the national income went
    to war materials. ?
  • As a result there were severe shortages of food
    and housing.

(pages 830832)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
83
Section 4-11
The Mobilization of Peoples Four Examples
(cont.)
  • Soviet women were an important part of the war
    effort. Women working in industry increased 60
    percent. ?
  • They worked in industries, mines, and railroads.
    ?
  • They dug antitank ditches and worked as air raid
    wardens. ?
  • Some fought in battles and flew in bombers.

(pages 830832)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
84
Section 4-12
The Mobilization of Peoples Four Examples
(cont.)
  • The war did not come to the home territory of the
    United States. ?
  • The country became an arsenal for the Allies. ?
  • The United States produced much of the military
    equipment needed to fight the Axis. ?
  • In 1943, the United States was building six ships
    a day and ninety-six thousand planes per year.

(pages 830832)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
85
Section 4-13
The Mobilization of Peoples Four Examples
(cont.)
  • The American mobilization created some social
    turmoil. ?
  • There were widespread movements of people. ?
  • For example, many women and men enrolled in the
    military moved frequently. ?
  • Also, as millions of servicemen and workers
    looking for jobs moved around, their wives and
    children or girlfriends often moved with them.

(pages 830832)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
86
Section 4-14
The Mobilization of Peoples Four Examples
(cont.)
  • African Americans were profoundly impacted by the
    war. ?
  • Over a million African Americans moved from the
    South to cities in the North and West to work in
    war industries. ?
  • At times the influx of African Americans led to
    social tensions and even violence. ?
  • A million African Americans joined the military.
    ?
  • They served in segregated units. Angered by their
    treatment, many returned from the war ready to
    fight for their civil rights.

(pages 830832)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
87
Section 4-15
The Mobilization of Peoples Four Examples
(cont.)
  • Japanese Americans on the West Coast were moved
    to internment camps away from the ocean. ?
  • Sixty-five percent of them had been born in the
    United States. ?
  • In spite of that, they were required to take
    loyalty oaths and were forced to live in camps
    surrounded by barbed wire.

(pages 830832)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
88
Section 4-16
The Mobilization of Peoples Four Examples
(cont.)
  • The government claimed to do this for national
    security. ?
  • Of American descendants of the Axis Power
    countries, Japanese Americans were the only group
    to be put into camps.

(pages 830832)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
89
Section 4-17
The Mobilization of Peoples Four Examples
(cont.)
  • In 1939 in Germany, many civilians feared that
    the war would bring disaster. ?
  • Hitler understood the importance of the home
    front. ?
  • He believed that lack of civilian support had led
    to the German defeat in World War I. ?
  • To keep up public morale, Hitler refused to cut
    consumer-goods production for the first two
    years of the war.

(pages 830832)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
90
Section 4-18
The Mobilization of Peoples Four Examples
(cont.)
  • This decision may have cost Germany the war. ?
  • After defeats on the Russian front, the policy
    changed.

(pages 830832)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
91
Section 4-19
The Mobilization of Peoples Four Examples
(cont.)
  • Early in 1942, Hitler increased arms production
    and the size of the army. ?
  • Albert Speer became minister for armaments and
    munitions. ?
  • He tripled armament production between 1942 and
    1943. ?
  • In July 1944, the German economy was totally
    mobilized. ?
  • Schools, theaters, and cafes were closed. ?
  • However, this came too late to avoid defeat.

(pages 830832)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
92
Section 4-20
The Mobilization of Peoples Four Examples
(cont.)
  • Before the war, the Nazis tried to keep women out
    of the job market. As the war progressed, more
    and more men had to serve in the military. ?
  • The Nazis changed their policies and encouraged
    women to work. ?
  • However, the number of working women increased
    very little between 1939 and 1944.

(pages 830832)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
93
Section 4-21
The Mobilization of Peoples Four Examples
(cont.)
  • Wartime Japan was a highly mobilized society. ?
  • The government controlled prices, wages, labor,
    and resources. ?
  • Citizens were encouraged to sacrifice for the
    national cause. ?
  • In the final years of the war, young Japanese
    volunteered to serve as suicide pilots against
    U.S. ships. ?
  • They were called kamikaze (divine wind) pilots.

(pages 830832)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
94
Section 4-22
The Mobilization of Peoples Four Examples
(cont.)
  • The Japanese government opposed employing women. ?
  • General Hideki Tojo, the Japanese prime minister
    from 1941 to 1944, argued that employing women
    would weaken the family system and the nation. ?
  • Female employment increased only in areas in
    which women had traditionally worked, such as
    textiles and farming. ?
  • The Japanese met labor shortages by using Korean
    and Chinese laborers.

(pages 830832)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
95
Section 4-24
Frontline Civilians The Bombing of Cities
  • Bombing was used against military targets, enemy
    troops, and civilian populations. ?
  • World War II was the first war in which large
    masses of civilians were bombed.

(pages 833834)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
96
Section 4-25
Frontline Civilians The Bombing of Cities
(cont.)
  • Toward the end of World War I, there had been a
    few bombing raids against civilian targets. ?
  • The raids had caused great public outcry. ?
  • After the war, European nations began to think
    that bombing civilian targets could be used to
    force governments to make peace. ?
  • During the 1930s, European nations developed
    long-range bombers.

(pages 833834)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
97
Section 4-26
Frontline Civilians The Bombing of Cities
(cont.)
  • The first sustained civilian bombing was done by
    the Germans against London. ?
  • For months, the Germans bombed the city nightly.
    ?
  • There were heavy casualties and tremendous
    damage. ?
  • In time, the blitz, as the bombing was called,
    was carried to other British cities. ?
  • In spite of the heavy bombing, British morale
    remained high.

(pages 833834)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
98
Section 4-27
Frontline Civilians The Bombing of Cities
(cont.)
  • The idea that bombing civilians would force peace
    was proved wrong. ?
  • In 1942, the British began major bombing
    campaigns against German cities. ?
  • Ignoring their own experience, the British hoped
    that the bombing would break the morale of the
    German people. ?
  • Thousands of bombers were used to attack major
    German cities.

(pages 833834)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
99
Section 4-28
Frontline Civilians The Bombing of Cities
(cont.)
  • The bombing of Germany added to civilian terror. ?
  • The Germans particularly feared incendiary bombs,
    which spread fire when they exploded. ?
  • In some cities, such as Dresden, enormous
    firestorms resulted from the bombing, killing
    hundreds of thousands of people and burning
    everything that could burn.

(pages 833834)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
100
Section 4-29
Frontline Civilians The Bombing of Cities
(cont.)
  • The bombing of Germany by the Allies may have
    killed a half-million civilians. ?
  • Millions of buildings were destroyed. ?
  • In spite of the terrible destruction, the bombing
    did not seem to sap the morale of the German
    people or destroy the German industrial capacity.
    ?
  • However, the destruction of transportation
    systems and fuel supplies strongly impacted the
    ability of the Germans to supply their military
    forces.

(pages 833834)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
101
Section 4-30
Frontline Civilians The Bombing of Cities
(cont.)
  • In November 1944, the Allies began attacks on
    Japanese cities. ?
  • By that time, the Japanese air force could no
    longer defend Japan. ?
  • The crowded Japanese cities, filled with highly
    combustible structures, were especially
    vulnerable. ?
  • By the following summer, a fourth of Japanese
    dwellings and many of its industries had been
    destroyed .

(pages 833834)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
102
Section 4-31
Frontline Civilians The Bombing of Cities
(cont.)
  • The bombing of civilians then reached an
    unprecedented level when the United States
    dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in
    August 1945.

(pages 833834)
103
Section 4-33
Peace and a New War
  • After the end of World War II, a new
    international conflict emerged, the Cold War. ?
  • The Cold War was primarily an ideological
    conflict between the United States and the Soviet
    Union. It dominated world politics until the end
    of the 1980s.

(pages 834836)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
104
Section 4-34
Peace and a New War (cont.)
  • In November 1943, Stalin, Churchill, and
    Roosevelt met in Tehran to decide the future
    course of the war. ?
  • Their countries were known as the Big Three of
    the Grand Alliance. ?
  • The Big Three decided that the Americans and
    British would attack Germany through France in
    1944. ?
  • They would then meet the Soviet forces somewhere
    in a defeated Germany.

(pages 834836)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
105
Section 4-35
Peace and a New War (cont.)
  • This meant the Soviet troops would probably
    liberate most of Eastern Europe. ?
  • They also agreed to partition postwar Germany.

(pages 834836)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
106
Section 4-36
Peace and a New War (cont.)
  • In February of 1945, the Big Three powers met at
    Yalta in southern Russia. ?
  • By that time, they knew that the Germans were
    beaten. ?
  • Roosevelt and Churchill realized that eleven
    million Soviet troops were taking possession of
    much of Eastern and Central Europe. ?
  • Roosevelt favored the idea of self-determination
    for postwar Europe.

(pages 834836)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
107
Section 4-37
Peace and a New War (cont.)
  • This meant that each country would choose its own
    form of government. ?
  • Stalin was suspicious of the Western powers and
    wanted a Communist buffer between the West and
    the Soviet Union. ?
  • Roosevelt also sought Soviet military help
    against Japan. ?
  • In return for military aid, Roosevelt agreed that
    the Soviets could take Sakhalin and the Kuril
    Islands, two warm-water ports, and railroad
    rights in Manchuria.

(pages 834836)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
108
Section 4-38
Peace and a New War (cont.)
  • Roosevelt wanted to create the United Nations
    organization to help resolve difficult
    international disagreements. ?
  • The Big Three powers at Yalta accepted his plans
    and set the founding meeting of the United
    Nations for April 1945, in San Francisco.

(pages 834836)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
109
Section 4-39
Peace and a New War (cont.)
  • The Big Three also confirmed at the Yalta
    Conference that Germany would have to surrender
    unconditionally. ?
  • They agreed to divide Germany into four zones. ?
  • The zones would be occupied and governed by
    France, Britain, the United States, and the
    Soviet Union. ?
  • Stalin agreed to hold free elections in Poland at
    some future date.

(pages 834836)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
110
Section 4-40
Peace and a New War (cont.)
  • The Soviets and the Americans were deeply split
    about free elections in Eastern Europe. ?
  • The Soviets wanted these nations to be
    pro-Soviet. ?
  • The Americans wanted free elections. ?
  • These conflicting goals were never reconciled.

(pages 834836)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
111
Section 4-41
Peace and a New War (cont.)
  • The Potsdam Conference was held in July 1945. ?
  • Roosevelt had died in April and was replaced by
    Harry Truman. ?
  • Truman demanded that free elections be held
    throughout Eastern Europe. ?
  • Stalin refused to concede. Stalin wanted absolute
    military security for his country. ?
  • He thought this could only happen if all the
    Eastern European states had Communist
    governments.

(pages 834836)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
112
Section 4-42
Peace and a New War (cont.)
  • He saw free elections as a direct threat. ?
  • The only way to force free elections in Eastern
    Europe would have been to invade the Soviet-held
    territory. ?
  • As World War II had just ended, very few people
    favored that course. ?
  • The Allies agreed that leaders who had committed
    crimes against humanity during the war should be
    tried for their crimes. ?
  • In 1945 and 1946, Nazi leaders were tried and
    condemned at trials in Nuremberg, Germany.
    Trials were also held in Japan and Italy.

(pages 834836)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
113
Section 4-42
Peace and a New War (cont.)
  • In 1945 and 1946, Nazi leaders were tried and
    condemned at trials in Nuremberg, Germany.
    Trials were also held in Japan and Italy. ?
  • Many Western leaders thought that the Soviets
    intended to spread communism throughout the
    world. ?
  • The Soviets saw Western policy, particularly that
    of the United States, as global capitalist
    expansionism.

(pages 834836)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
114
Section 4-44
Peace and a New War (cont.)
  • In March 1946, Winston Churchill declared that an
    iron curtain had descended across the
    continent. ?
  • This iron curtain divided Europe into two hostile
    sides. ?
  • Stalin responded by calling Churchills speech a
    call to war with the Soviet Union. ?
  • The world seemed to be bitterly divided again.

(pages 834836)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
115
Section 4-44
Peace and a New War (cont.)
  • The Allies agreed that leaders who committed
    crimes against humanity during the war should be
    tried for their crimes. In 1945 and 1946, Nazi
    leaders were tried and condemned at trials in
    Nuremberg, Germany. Trials were also held in
    Japan and Italy.

(pages 834836)
Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to
display the information.
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com