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The French-Indian War

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Title: The French-Indian War Author: Susan M. Pojer Last modified by: Pete Maienknecht Created Date: 3/27/2001 6:17:19 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The French-Indian War


1
The French Indian War (1756 to 1763)
The Great War for Empire
By Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS
Chappaqua, NY
2
Was 1763 a "turning point" in
British-colonial relationships???
3
North America in 1750
4
1754 ? The First Clash
The Ohio Valley
British
French
Fort Necessity Fort
Duquesne George Washington
Delaware Shawnee
Indians
5
1754 ? Albany Plan of Union
Ben Franklin ? representatives from
New England, NY, MD, PA
  • Albany Congress ? failed Iroquois
    broke off relations with
    Britain threatened to
    trade with the French.

6
Benjamin Franklin
  • The different and contrary reasons of dislike
  • To my plan, makes me suspect that it was really
  • The true Medium and I am still of opinion it
  • Would have been happy for both sides the water
  • If it had been adopted. The colonies so united
  • Would have been sufficiently strong to have
  • Defended themselves there would than have
  • Been no need of troops from England of course
  • The subsequent pretense for taxing America,
  • And the bloody contest it occasioned, would have
  • Been avoided.

7
Questions
  • 1. What did Franklin see as the ultimate result
  • Of the failure to adopt the Albany Plan of Union?
  • 2. Do you think this was a reasonable conclusion?

8
1755 ? Br. Decides to Eliminate Fr. Presence in
No. Amer.
Gen. Edward Braddock ? evict the French from the
OH Valley Canada (Newfoundland Nova Scotia)
  • Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley, Acadia.
  • Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne ? by 1500
    French and Indian forces.

Only Br. Success ? expelled France
from Louisiana.
CAJUNS
9
1756 ? War Is Formally Declared!
Lord Loudouin
Marquis de Montcalm
Native American tribes exploited both sides!
10
British-American Colonial Tensions
British
Colonials
  • March in formation or bayonet charge.
  • Indian-style guerilla tactics.

Methods of Fighting
  • Br. officers wanted to take charge of
    colonials.
  • Col. militias served under own captains.

Military Organization
  • Drills tough discipline.
  • No mil. deference or protocols observed.

Military Discipline
  • Colonists should pay for their own defense.
  • Resistance to rising taxes.

Finances
  • Prima Donna Br. officers with servants
    tea settings.
  • Casual, non-professionals.

Demeanor
11
Question
  • 3. What main issues were at the core of the
  • Tension that existed between the Colonial
  • Militiamen and the British Soldiers?

12
1757 ? William Pitt Becomes Foreign Minister
  • He understood colonial concerns.
  • He offered them a compromise

- col. loyalty mil. cooperation--gtBr.
would reimburse col. assemblies for their
costs.
- Lord Loudoun would be removed.
RESULTS? ? Colonial morale
increased by 1758.
13
1758-1761 ? The Tide Turns for England
By 1761, Sp. has become an ally of Fr.
14
Question
  • 4. Why was William Pitt instrumental in helping
  • To turn the tide of the French and Indian
  • War?

15
1763 ? Treaty of Paris
France --gt lost her Canadian possessions, most of
her empire in India, and claims to lands east of
the Mississippi River.
Spain --gt got all French lands west of the
Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida
to England.
England --gt got all French lands in Canada,
exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and
commercial dominance in India.
16
North America in 1763
17
Effects of the War on Britain?
1. It increased her colonial empire in the
Americas.
2. It greatly enlarged Englands debt.
3. Britains contempt for the colonials
created bitter feelings.
Therefore, England felt that a major
reorganization of her American Empire was
necessary!
18
Effects of the War on the American Colonials
1. It united them against a common enemy for
the first time.
2. It created a socializing experience for
all the colonials who participated.
3. It created bitter feelings towards the
British that would only intensify.
19
Questions
  • 5. What effect did victory in the French
  • Indian War have on the British?
  • 6. How did this change their view of the
  • North American Colonies?
  • 7. What effect did victory in the War have
  • On the colonists?
  • 8. How did this change their view of their
  • Relationship with England?

20
The Aftermath Tensions Along the Frontier
1763 ? Pontiacs Rebellion
Fort Detroit
British gifts of smallpox-infected blankets
from Fort Pitt.
21
Pontiacs Rebellion (1763)
22
BACKLASH!
British ? Proclamation Line of 1763.
Colonials ? Paxton Boys (PA)
23
Question
  • 9. What effect did the aftermath
  • of Pontiacs Rebellion have on the relationship
    between the English
  • and the colonials?

24
Rethinking Their Empire
Br. Gvt. measures to prevent smuggling
  • 1761 ? writs of assistance
  • James Otis case
  • Protection of a citizens private property must
    be held in higher regard than a parliamentary
    statute.
  • He lost ? parliamentary law and custom had
    equal weight.

25
Question
  • 10. What was the significance of James Otis
  • Case?
  • Stop Here for Chapter 4.

26
George Grenvilles Program, 1763-1765
1. Sugar Act - 1764
2. Currency Act - 1764
3. Quartering Act - 1765
4. Stamp Act - 1765
27
Theories of Representation
Real Whigs
Q-gt What was the extent of Parliaments
authority over the colonies??
Absolute?
OR Limited?
Q-gt How could the colonies give or
withhold consent for parliamentary
legislation when they did not have
representation in that body??
28
Stamp Act Crisis
Loyal Nine - 1765
Sons of Liberty began in NYC Samuel

Adams
Stamp Act Congress 1765 Stamp Act
Resolves
Declaratory Act 1766
29
Townshend Duties Crisis 1767-1770
1767 ? William Pitt, P. M. Charles
Townshend, Secretary of the Exchequer.
  • Shift from paying taxes for Br. war debts
    quartering of troops ? paying col. govt.
    salaries.
  • He diverted revenue collection from internal
    to external trade.
  • Tax these imports ? paper, paint,
    lead, glass, tea.
  • Increase custom officials at American ports
    ? established a Board of Customs in Boston.

30
Colonial Response to the Townshend Duties
1. John Dickinson ? 1768 Letters from
a Farmer in Pennsylvania.
2. 1768 ? 2nd non-importation
movement Daughters of Liberty
spinning bees
3. Riots against customs agents John
Hancocks ship, the Liberty.
4000 British troops sent to Boston.
31
For the first time, many colonists began calling
people who joined the non-importation movement,
"patriots!"
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