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Aging and Disability

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Title: Active, Healthy Lifestyles for All: Thinking About Philosophy Author: Deborah Buswell Last modified by: Deborah Buswell Created Date: 9/24/2003 1:26:52 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aging and Disability


1
Aging and Disability
  • Chapter 28

2
Demographics
  • Increase of older people today
  • 2000 - over 65 12 of population
  • 2020 - over 65 20 of population
  • Increase of people over 85 years

3
Why Persons Age
  • Gerontology - scientific study of aging that
    examines individual differences including
    biological, psychological, and sociological
    perspectives
  • Chronological age - number of years since birth

4
Why Persons Age
  • Descriptors
  • Older or old 65
  • Young-old 65 - 74
  • Old 75 - 84
  • Old-old 85 99
  • Oldest-old 100

5
Why Persons Age
  • Life expectancy - average number of years
    remaining
  • Cohort - group of people with similar life
    experience

6
Why Persons Age
  • Morbidity - absence of health
  • Behavioral slowing is the biggest sign of aging -
    changes affect information processing
  • Overall health of older populations is increasing

7
Psychological Benefits of Physical Activity
  • Immediate benefits
  • Relaxation
  • Reduces stress and anxiety
  • Enhanced mood state
  • Long-term effects
  • General well-being
  • Improve mental health
  • Improve cognitive function
  • Motor control and performance
  • Skill acquisition

8
Social Benefits of Physical Activity
  • Immediate benefits
  • Empowered older individuals
  • Enhanced social and cultural integration
  • Long-term effects
  • Enhanced integration
  • Formation of new friendships
  • Widened social and cultural networks
  • Role maintenance and new role acquisition
  • Enhanced intergenerational activity

9
Chronic Diseases of Aging
  • Arthritis
  • Cancer
  • Diabetes
  • Diseases of heart and blood vessels
  • Osteoporosis

10
Arthritis
  • Arthritis - joint inflammation
  • Results in joint soreness, pain, and stiffness
  • Over 100 forms
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis

11
Osteoarthritis
  • Arthritis caused by breakdown of joint cartilage
    (hands and weight-bearing joints)
  • Most common in women over 45
  • Goals of treatment include reducing pain and
    improving range of motion

12
Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Caused by chronic inflammation of the synovia or
    lining of multiple joints
  • Affects the entire body systematically
  • Autoimmune disease - natural immune system does
    not operate properly and attacks healthy joint
    tissue
  • Goals of treatment include reducing pain, and
    balancing rest and exercise

13
Cancer
  • Over half of all adult cancer incidents are among
    people over 65
  • Seven warning signs of cancer
  • Change in bowel or bladder habits
  • Sores that do not heal
  • Unusual bleeding or discharge
  • Thickening lumps
  • Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
  • Obvious change in wart or mole
  • Nagging cough or horseness

14
Cancer
  • Cancers with the highest mortality rate
  • Lung cancer
  • Breast cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Colorectal cancer

15
Lung Cancer
  • Leading cause of cancer death
  • Most often ages 55 65
  • Most people die within one year of diagnosis
  • Smoking is greatest risk factor
  • Symptoms include chronic cough, shortness of
    breath, chest pain, loss of weight, bone pain,
    and others

16
Breast Cancer
  • Most common form of cancer for women
  • Generally develops after age 50
  • Treatments depend on stage of development
  • Lumpectomy
  • Mastectomy
  • Chemotherapy following surgery increases survival
    rate
  • Risk reduced by physical activity

17
Prostate Cancer
  • Greatest risk is increasing age
  • Highest prevalence in men over age 65
  • Generally growth is very slow
  • Early detection and prompt treatment reduce the
    spread

18
Colorectal Cancer
  • Cancer of the colon and rectum
  • Third most common form of cancer
  • Detected and treated early almost all cases can
    be cured
  • 90 of cases found in people over 50
  • Diet may play an important role

19
Diabetes
  • Diabetes impairs glucose utilization
  • Type 1 - onset before age 25 and insulin
    dependent
  • Type 2 - noninsulin dependent usually occurs in
    overweight adults over 40

20
Type 2 Diabetes
  • Linked to inactivity, family history of diabetes,
    and ethnic heritage
  • Treatment includes weight reduction, diet,
    exercise, and oral medications
  • Exercise helps the body use insulin appropriately

21
Diseases of the Heart and Blood Vessels
  • Hypertension
  • Heart Attack
  • Stroke
  • Reduction of risk includes weight control and
    exercise

22
Hypertension
  • High blood pressure
  • Silent killer - no obvious symptoms
  • Leads to cardiovascular complications
  • Controllable through diet, exercise, and
    medication

23
Hypertension
  • Prehypertension - blood pressure levels just
    below the risk for stroke
  • Postural hypotension - blood pressure drops and
    dizziness or lightheadedness occurs - may occur
    in persons using diuretic drugs
  • Maintain hydration
  • Use the bathroom

24
Hypertension
  • Medications
  • Beta blockers - reduces workload of the heart
  • Calcium channel blockers - reduces constriction
    in blood vessels
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors - allow
    blood vessels to dilate

25
Heart Attack
  • Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) - leading cause of
    death in U.S.
  • Coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart
    narrow and cause a heart attack
  • Controllable factors - smoking, obesity, high
    blood pressure, high cholesterol, sedentary
    lifestyle, and diabetes
  • Family history of CHD also increases the risk

26
Stroke
  • Associated with hypertension
  • Interrupted blood flow to the brain damaging
    brain cells
  • Lack of oxygen
  • Sudden bleeding
  • Timely treatment can save damaged cells
  • High incidence rate

27
Stroke
  • Knowledge of warning signs essential for quick
    treatment
  • Recovery depends on damaged area, rehabilitation
    services available, and attitude of person who
    had the stroke
  • Prevention strategies - diet, exercise,
    monitoring blood pressure, sugar, and
    identification of other problems

28
Osteoporosis
  • Osteopenia - loss of bone mass
  • Osteoporosis - combination of osteopenia and
    mechanical failure of the skeleton
  • Bones become fragile and risk of fractures
    increases
  • Prevention/treatment - focuses on diet, exercise,
    and hormone replacement therapy

29
Falls and Posture Training
  • Many older people fear falling and hurting
    themselves
  • Fear leads to sedentary lifestyle
  • Physical activity can improve strength, reaction,
    balance, confidence, and reduce the risk of
    falling
  • Tripping is most common cause of falls

30
Alzheimers Disease
  • Severe changes in memory
  • Dementia - loss of memory and other intellectual
    capacities
  • Rate of AD increases dramatically with age
  • Exercise during early-stage AD can be beneficial
  • Exercise contributes to aerobic capacity and
    cerebral circulation

31
AD and Exercise
  • Exercise during early-stage AD can have positive
    impact
  • Change in sleep patterns
  • Reduction in restless behavior
  • Reduction in aggressive incidents
  • Enhances functioning of neurons
  • Increase physical and mental arousal

32
AD and Exercise
  • Activity guidelines for early-stage dementia
  • Patience
  • Dropout prevention
  • Simplify
  • Praise
  • Maintain frequency
  • Later-stage dementia presents additional
    challenges

33
Parkinsons Disease
  • Progressive neurological disorder that is most
    commonly seen in individuals older than 50
  • Degeneration of neurons causes loss of dopamine
  • Affects voluntary movement and results in shaking
    or tremor-type movements

34
Parkinsons Disease
  • Incidence increases with age
  • No cure
  • Drug treatments restore dopamine levels
  • Relaxation exercises can reduce tremors
  • Flexibility exercises can stretch tightened
    muscles
  • Breathing exercises strengthen respiratory muscles

35
Depression
  • Not a normal part of aging
  • Occurs with other conditions (comorbid)
  • Affects moods
  • Apathetic
  • Loss or stressful changes

36
Depression
  • May go unreported or undiagnosed
  • Severe depression may lead to suicide
  • Incidence increases with age
  • Physical activity and exercise
  • Improve physical well-being
  • Improve social well-being
  • Improve psychological well-being

37
Vision and Hearing
  • Visual and auditory acuity steadily decline with
    age
  • Structural changes occur in eyes and ears with
    age and result in reduced vision and hearing

38
Vision and Hearing
  • Macular Degeneration
  • 10-12 million adults affected
  • Deterioration of the central portion of the
    retina
  • Diet, eye protection, and vitamin supplements
    need to be modified after diagnosis

39
Vision and Hearing
  • Cataracts
  • Leading cause of blindness
  • Cataracts can be removed with surgery
  • Glaucoma
  • Glaucoma increases over 65
  • Treated with drugs and eye drops to lower
    pressure in the eye

40
Vision and Hearing
  • Exercise and activity program considerations
  • Use brightly colored markers
  • Keep floor clear of all objects
  • Sit rather than stand
  • Face the participant
  • Give clear verbal instructions and demonstrations
  • Keep equipment in the same place
  • Keep hands away from your face
  • Speak in a normal tone

41
Aging with Disability Acquired When Young
  • Unique changes in aging associated with other
    disabilities
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Congenital or childhood onset disabilities
  • Mental retardation

42
Spinal Cord Injury
  • Prolonged duration of SCI
  • Secondary complications
  • Pathological processes not related to SCI
  • Degenerative changes of aging
  • Environmental factors such as societal,
    community, and cultural issues

43
Congenital or Childhood Onset Disabilities
  • Aging problems associated with the
    musculoskeletal system
  • Soreness of joints
  • Pain and weakness in muscles
  • Decline in energy
  • Secondary conditions impacting quality of life
  • Loss of independent walking

44
Mental Retardation
  • Health problems are similar to the older
    population as a whole
  • 50 have at least one major chronic physical
    problem
  • Service delivery in terms of physical activity,
    recreation, and leisure programs for this
    population is lacking

45
Down syndrome
  • Alzheimers disease and Down syndrome (trisomy
    21) linked
  • Brain changes in adults with DS and AD are same
  • Higher rates of vision and hearing loss,
    osteoporosis, epilepsy, motor disabilities,
    chronic lung disease, diabetes, and stroke

46
Interactions with People Who Are Older
  • Ageism - prejudice against a person based on old
    age
  • Based on stereotyped expectations communication
    decreases between younger and older people
  • Avoid baby-talk and patronizing speech
  • Listen and treat with respect
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