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The world is on the doorstep of a digital economy fueled by information and knowledge. ... Taiwan, Singapore, etc ... terminal covertly shares the same ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • - The Modern Roadwarrior-

  • General Powell describes an historic meeting with
    Gorbachev, who was becoming frustrated in trying
    to explain how the old model of the world was
    unworkable. He finally leaned across the table to
    Secretary Schultz and said." You need to
    understand, Secretary Schultz today I am ending
    the cold war." He then turned to Powell and
    said," General, you will have to find another

  • The bipolar world of the last half century has
    become a multipolar economy dominated by the
    United States, Europe and the Pacific Rim.
  • - Economic competition has replaced military
  • - Information and economic value have become
  • - Personal and economic interests have merged
    with national interests.
  • The new economy is based upon information
    technology that is fast leading to an age of
    networked intelligence (the network is the
    computer) that is leading to a new society with
    new politics.
  • The world is on the doorstep of a digital economy
    fueled by information and knowledge. (Information
    is Power)

Hackers - An Academic View -
Hacker History
  • The original generation of Hackers has been said
    to be such personalities as John Von Neuman,
    Alan Turing and Grace Hopper.
  • The first use of the term "Hacker" is attributed
    to member of the "Tech Model Railroad Club" from
    MIT in the late 1950s.
  • This was originally a term of praise for the
    very best programmers and designers.
  • Media coverage in the 1980s redefined the term
    to be synonymous with "Computer Criminal".
  • The visibility and rise of Hackers is the result
    of four major developments
  • 1. The proliferation of computers
  • 2. The dramatic rise and geographical expansion
    of networks.
  • 3. The dramatic rise in computer literacy.
  • 4. The dependence of organizations upon

My personal belief
  • Computers are tools for the masses. Computers
    should not be private devices for the rich.
  • Computers are tools for the masses. Computers
    should not be private devices for the rich.
  • Information belongs to everyone. Most hackers
    start at the university which generates and
    distributes knowledge.
  • Coding is community property. The status of all
    software should be shareware, freeware or public
  • Coding is an art. A good program has a certain
    elegance and beauty. In beauty there is
    creativity which is demonstrated by a program
    that can penetrate others.
  • The computer lives. Most hackers have a social
    and personal relationship with their computer.

The Hackers Ethics
  • Access to computers should be unlimited and
  • Always yield to the Hands-On Imperative
  • All information should be free.
  • Mistrust authority--promote decentralization.
  • Hackers should be judged by their hacking.
  • You can create art and beauty on a computer.
  • Computers can change your life for the better.

  • Young. Most are under 30 and concentrated around
    colleges and universities.
  • Bright. A good hack results from meeting a
    challenge which will require in many cases
    exceptionally high intelligence.
  • Understanding, Prediction and Control. These
    three conditions seem to bring a sense of
    competence, mastery, and self-esteem.
  • Computer fascination. For many of us the computer
    is simply a tool. For the hacker it is an
    unendingly fascinating toy - a mystery wrapped in
    an enigma to be explored and understood.
  • No malice. The good hacker does no damage.

Social view is
  • Misguided youths. Hackers are misguided youths
    and are essentially harmless.
  • Their intelligence and creativity should be
    encouraged but directed toward more constructive
  • Security specialists. Hackers know the corporate
    security weaknesses.
  • They should be hired as security specialist and
    their expertise utilized to protect the
    corporate vital information resources.
  • Scumbags. Hackers are the scum of the earth and
    should be treated as varmints and hunted down
    with dogs and put away for life.
  • Ordinary criminals. Hackers should be treated no
    different than any other criminals.
  • Human nature inevitably breeds predators and it
    is the responsibility of everyone to put in place
    the necessary controls to protect their valuables

From the Hackers mouth
  • "Hacking to me is to transcend custom and
    engage in creativity for its own sake..."
  • "For the most part, its simply a mission of
    exploration. In the words of the captain of the
    starship Enterprise, Jean-Luc Picard, "Let's see
    what's out there!"
  • "Its like picking a lock on a cabinet to get a
    screwdriver to fix a radio. As long as you put it
    back what's the harm?"
  • "Although computers are part "property" and part
    "premises" ..... they are supreme instruments of
    speech..... We must continue to have absolute
    freedom of electronic speech."
  • "Thousands of people legally see and use this
    ever-growing mountain of data much of it
    erroneous. Whose rights are we violating when we
    peruse the file. ...The invasion took place long
    before the hacker ever arrived."
  • "Crime gets redefined all the time. Offend
    enough people or institutions and lo and behold,
    someone will pass a law."
  • "At the risk of sounding like some digital posse
    comitatus, I say Fear The Government That Fears
    Your Computer."

What you mean by Hacker?
  • A Hacker is someone who has achieved some level
    of expertise with computers.
  • A Cracker is someone who breaks into systems
    without permission.
  • A Script Kiddie is someone who uses scripts or
    programs from someone else to do his/her
  • Other terms are leech, warez puppy, warez dood,
    lamer and rodent.
  • A Phreaker is a hacker who specializes in
    telephone systems.
  • A White Hat is someone who professes to be
    strictly a good guy.
  • A Black Hat is someone who is viewed as a bad
  • A Grey Hat is someone who falls in between White
    and black

What motivates the hacker?
  • Psychological Need/Recognition.
  • Desire to Learn/Curiosity.
  • Revenge/Maliciousness.
  • Experimentation.
  • Gang Mentality.
  • Misguided trust in other individuals.
  • Altruistic reasons.
  • Self-gratification.
  • Desire to Embarrass.
  • Joyriding.
  • Scorekeeping.
  • Espionage.
  • Cyber-Warrior

Typical attacks are
  • Insider Attack.
  • Social Engineering.
  • Virus Infiltration.
  • Denial of Service.
  • Software Bug.
  • Password Infiltration.
  • Lack of Security Infiltration.
  • IP Spoofing.
  • Trojan Horse.
  • Stealth Infiltration.
  • Brute Force.
  • TCP/IP Protocol Flaw.
  • Worms and viruses

Typical Attacks come from
  • 49 are inside employees or contractors on the
    internal network.
  • 17 come from dial-up from inside employees.
  • 34 are from the Internet.
  • The major financial loss is due to internal

What characteristics make a GOOD target?
  • Lax Security (Hard on the outside, soft on the
  • High visibility makes a good "Scorekeeper" site.
  • High visibility makes a good "Embarrassment"
  • Resources that are useful to the hacker.
  • Destruction of ability to provide service to

  • The Cuckoo's Egg discussed four hackers, Dirk
    Brzesinski, Peter Carl, Markus Hess and Karl
    Koch, from Hannover, Germany, penetrated or
    attempted penetration of at least 50 computers
    connected to MILNET.
  • These systems included the Pentagon, Lawrence
    Livermore Labs, the Los Alamos Nuclear Weapons
    Systems and the National Computer Security
  • They exploited these systems by means of
    weaknesses in TCP/IP and the UNIX operating
  • One of their favorite techniques was to plant
    Trojan Horses to steal authorized passwords.
  • The German Chaos Computer Club brought "chaos" to
    the national Aeronautics and Space Administration
    computer systems in the late 1980s.
  • They primarily planted Virus programs at the
    Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.
  • They gained access through a Unix flaw that the
    system administrator had failed to patch.

  • Eberhard Blum, part of the Bundesnachrichtendienst
    (BND), is reputed to have instituted a program
    called Project Rehab composed of computer
    scientist designed to penetrate the
    communications systems of the Eastern block.
  • This organization since the fall of the Eastern
    block is reputed to have targeted the west.
  • The Direction Generale de la Securite Exterieur
    (the French CIA) is reputed to target foreign
  • Their favorite US targets seems to have been IBM
    and TI.
  • They are reputed to search visitor rooms looking
    for information on laptops and to bug Air France
  • The French are reputed to auction these
    industrial secrets to the highest corporate
  • The Ministry for International Trade (MITI) is
    reputed to coordinate the industrial espionage
    activities of Japanese corporations.
  • These secrets are funneled through MITI which
    uses the information as part of their national
    industrial policy.
  • China, the former Soviet Union, France, Japan,
    Israel, Sweden, Switzerland and UK are reputed to
    be to be the most active in national industrial

  • Robert Morris Jr, Cornell University, brought the
    Internet to its knees in 1988 through the
    "Internet Worm".
  • The Worm consumed computer resources making them
    unavailable to others thereby either halting the
    computer or slowing it to a crawl. The worm
    primarily consisted of two attack programs.
  • A program designed to exploit the backdoor DEBUG
    command in Sendmail,
  • a Finger daemon program to inundate the Finger
    daemon's input buffer and a password guessing
  • The Legion of Doom (LoD) and the Masters of
    Destruction(MoD) were two of the major computer
    gangs in the late 80s and early 90s.
  • They were from Brooklyn, the Bronx and Queens.
  • They wiretapped, intercepted data transmissions,
    reprogrammed phone computer switches, stole and
    sold passwords, etc.
  • The LoD were convicted in 1992 apparently turned
    in as a result of a falling out with other

Rome Lab Attack
  • On 28 March 1994 the Rome Labs Sysadmins detected
    a password Sniffer.
  • The Sniffer had collected so much information
    that it had filled a disk and crashed the system
  • Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) was
    notified who, in turn, notified AFOSI. Air Force
    Information Warfare Center (AFIWC) was notified
    and SA Jim Christi was assigned the case.
  • The investigators, after reviewing the logs and
    interviewing the Sysadmins, found that
  • The penetration was made on March 23 by two
  • They penetrated seven computers and planted
  • 100 accounts on 30 systems were compromised.
  • Rome Lab had been used as a jumping off point
    for hack attacks on other military, government
    and research facilities around the world.
  • The Commanding officer was briefed and made the
    decision to leave several systems open in the
    hopes of tracking the hackers.
  • Pursue and Prosecute

Rome Lab Attack
  • The investigative team established a snooper
    program that began key stroke monitoring on the
    systems left open and discovered the hacker
    handles Datastream Cowboy and Kuji .
  • The majority of the attacks were traced back to
  • cyberspace.com, Seattle Washington and
  • mindvox.com, New York City.
  • On 5 April, an Internet informant provided AFOSI
    an EMail address and home Telephone number
    (Datastream) in the UK of a hacker who had been
    bragging about the exploit.
  • Scotland Yard initiated a pen register on the
    hackers telephone while AFOSI continued to
    monitor Datastream's online activity. During this
    time, based upon sniffed passwords, he
  • Attacked systems at the Jet Propulsion Lab in
    California and
  • Attacked systems at the Goddard Space Flight
    Center, Greenbelt ,Md
  • Compromised an Aerospace contractor systems in
    California and Texas
  • Initiated a scan against Brookhaven Labs , DOE,
    in NY.

Rome Lab Attack
  • On April 14/15, 1994 the investigative team
    observed Kuji initiate attacks from Latvia
  • Goddard Space Flight Center
  • Wright-Patterson AFB
  • NATO Headquarters
  • In the meantime Datastream was busily attacking
    the Korean Atomic Research Inst. Alarm bells
    started going off until it was discovered to be
    South Korea.
  • In May, 1994 Scotland Yard executed a search
    warrant and arrested 16 year old Richard Pryce.
    His tool was a 25 Mhz, 486SX, 170 Mb machine.
  • During the interview Datastream indicated
  • He communicated with Kuji only through the
    Internet or Telephone.
  • He provided the information he stole to Kuji.
  • Kuji had been his mentor.
  • Pryce pleaded guilty and was fined 1,200 pounds.
  • In June 1996 21 year old Matthew Bevan, A.K.A.
    Kuji, was finally apprehended. In 1997 Charges
    against him were dropped due to lack of evidence.
  • Kuji is now a security consultant. His web site
    is www.bogus.net/kuji.

A Typical Hacker Attack

November 1995 1. A computer
consultant noticed the system was sluggish. (a).
He executed the top command to determine what was
slowing down the system. (b). A program called vs
was consuming a large amount of system resources
and was running as superuser. 2. He next ran
ps. a). vs did not appear so he suspected a
break-in. 3. He executed the Emacs dired command
and found the vs program in a directory called
/var/.e/vs. 4. He next did a chdir() to the
/var directory and did a ls -a command. (a). The
directory /var/.e was not displayed.
5. The programmer used the
tar command to make a copy of the /var/.e, /bin
and /etc directories. (a) He copied this to
another computer. 6. The programmer then shut
down the system. 7. He next examined the
/bin/login file and found it had been modified to
allow logging in with a special password. 8.
This seemed to be an exceptionally sophisticated
Modem Attack
Boeing Computer
Trusted Connection
Trusted Connection
Trusted Connection
Education Computer
Government Computer
Commercial Computer

9. He found the /var/.e/vs was a password sniffer
which passed copied passwords to a remote
computer. 10. He found the /bin/ls and /bin/ps
command had been modified to not display the
directory /var/.e. 11. He also found the /bin/ls,
/bin/ps and /bin/login file creation dates and
modification times had been reset to the original
dates and times. 12. He found, in addition, that
the checksums for the modified commands matched
those of the original unmodified versions. A
comparison of the modified programs with the
backup version revealed the differences.
Modem Attack
Boeing Computer
Trusted Connection
Trusted Connection
Trusted Connection
Government Computer
Education Computer
Commercial Computer
Attack Methodology
  • What to Attack (selecting a network/target)?
  • 1. Internet
  • a. Access the Network Information Center. The
    InterNic provides Registration (rs.internic.net),
    Database (ds.internic.net) and Information
    (is.internic.net) Services.
  • b. whois server to obtain public information on
    hosts, networks, domains and system
  • c. WWW using the Uniform Resource Locator(URL
  • d. DNS to acquire the dotted decimal address.
  • e. traceroute to determine intermediate networks.
  • f. SNMP to dump a router table.
  • g. Archie to establish the locations of files.
    Archie is a server with an index of filenames.
  • h. Gopher as an ftp interface. Gopher allows
    access to resources through menus.

Attack Methodology
  • 2. Telecommunication/Modem
  • a. Social Engineering.
  • b. Dumpster Diving
  • c. Demon Dialing(Scanning/Autodialing/WarDialing)
  • c. Wiretapping
  • d. Optical-spying
  • e. Cheese box(unauthorized call forwarding)
  • f. Piggybacking
  • g. Call Forwarding
  • h. Password Breaker
  • i. Parking Lots
  • j. Shoulder Surfing
  • k. Socializing
  • l. Stealing Laptops
  • m. Wireless Communication

Attack Methodology
  • Who to Attack (selecting a host)?
  • 1. Ping the address with an ICMP Echo Request.
    This can also be used to find the route of the
    packet to the address.
  • 2. DNS with a reverse name look-up to translate
    the numeric address into a domain name address.
  • 3. DNS HINFO records provide the hardware and
    operating systems release which will be helpful
    in formulating an attack.
  • 4. Pinglist (a modification of traceroute with
    udp) to map the network.
  • 5. Netmappers are publicly available.
  • 6. Portmappers are publicly available.
  • 7. The Login Screen can be used to derive
    information about the target.
  • Note Breadth is more important than innovation
  • Select a known vulnerability rather than expose a
    new one.

Attack Methodology
  • Testing the host (finding a weakness).
  • Note Weaknesses are generally specific to an
    operating system, host hardware or due to old
    bugs that have not been patched.
  • Utilize Internet Security Scanner(ISS) or
    Security Analysis Tool for Auditing
    Networks(SATAN) to scan for various holes.
  • a. Check for unprotected logins or mail alias(
    sync,guest,lp,etc.). Does not require a password.
  • b. Connect to mail port with Telnet and logs
    mailer type and version.
  • c. Attempts an anonymous FTP connection and trys
    to grab the /etc/passwd file by using the root
    account. May want a list of supported commands.
  • d. rpcinfo to test for services running. This
    program prints out the current portmapper which
    details what Remote Procedure programs, ports,
    and protocols are active. Looking for NFS/mountd,
    yp/ms, rexd.
  • e. ypx to attempt to grab the passwords through
    the Network Information System(NIS), originally
    called Yellow Pages, in order to invoke some type
    of dictionary attack.
  • f. Transitive Trust Analyser to learn the source
    of logins and to recursively probe those hosts.
  • g. fping to determine Internet connection or

Attack Methodology
  • Hacker goals after penetration
  • Leave no evidence of the successful attack.
  • The good hack retains a cloak of invisibility.
  • Fetch and crack the /etc/passwd file.
  • Obtain machine root(superuser) access.
  • Install password sniffing tools to collect data
    for later retrieval.
  • Install two or more security backdoors (security
  • Check the /etc/hosts or .rhosts files for
    trusted hosts.
  • Check the mail alias database and log files.
  • Run security auditing programs such as
  • COPS
  • Internet Security Scanner(ISS)
  • Security Analysis Tool for Auditing

  • - A Hackers View -

Hacker is
  • Note A hacker spends 60-70 hours/week Hacking!
  • Why?
  • A challenge/A game of wits/skill and ingenuity.
  • A sense of enjoyment/Accomplishment.
  • Intensely interested in computers.
  • Hacker Profile
  • Teens or early twenties.
  • A fast learner.
  • Academically advanced.
  • Bored in school.
  • Hackers grow up to become computer professionals.
  • As many as 80 of all system operators claim to
    have hacked.

Hacker is
  • The Student
  • Very bright but bored.
  • Excited by learning more about computers.
  • They will spend days examining files on a
  • Hacking is a solitary pastime - not antisocial
  • Generally adheres to good computer ethics.
  • He wants to remain undiscovered so he can use the
  • He wants to stay out of trouble.
  • He respects the system/programmers and doesn't
    want to create additional work.
  • He may seek employment with the company (at just
    the right time with just the right credentials).

Hacker is
  • The Crasher
  • A troublemaker.
  • No obvious purpose or logic to their hacking.
  • Makes themselves visible by creating as much
    trouble as possible.
  • They are very patient and plan their attack to
    accomplish the most damage.
  • Erases programs, files, etc
  • Crashers don't have a good reputation with other
  • They crash hacker bulletin boards, close down
    hacker accounts, etc.
  • The Crasher must be stopped during the
    reconnaissance phase.

Attack Methodology
  • Step One - The Target Reconnaissance.
  • Target Reconnaissance, sometimes called
    footprinting, is when the Hacker gathers
    information about the target system and the
  • Search the Internet - Web sites, IRC,
    newsgroups, etc.
  • Use the Domain Information Grouper(DIG) to
    attempt a Zone Transfer.
  • Gather information on network users through the
    Web, newsgroups, telephone books, Social
    Engineering, Dumpster Diving, examine cars, etc.
  • This will reveal password combination and the
    policy for determining user names.

Attack Methodology
  • For example
  • whois xyz.abc will find hosts on the xyz.com
  • nslookup on xyz.abc will return information
    contained in the xyz.xom DNS.
  • utilize a zone transfer program (DIG or
    named.xfer) to retrieve the DNS files from the
    primary DNS.
  • Utilize the ping command to determine which
    systems are connected to the Internet.
  • telnet navy.mil will determine the machine type
    and OS version.
  • Utilize telnet to port 25 to determine the
    sendmail version and machine type.
  • Utilize rpcinfo to scan for active ports and
    return a list of rpc programs running on the
    machine w/version numbers and port numbers.
  • Utilize finger to get a list of users on the
    system, etc.

Typical Hacker Attacks
  • VIRUS. A self-replicating, malicious program
    segment that attaches itself to legitimate
    application programs, operating system commands
    or other executable system components and spreads
    from one system to another.
  • Each reproduced virus code then grows
    independently of the other.
  • The virus grows geometrically.
  • Boot Sector. A virus that replaces the boot
    sector of a floppy or hard drive.
  • System File. A virus that infects system files.
  • Stealth. A virus that hides itself and actions
    from the operating system.
  • Polymorphic. A virus that changes itself each
    time it infects a file or disk. This virus hides
    itself and its actions from the operating system.
  • Multi-Parite. This virus infects both files and
    boot sectors.
  • Macro Virus. This virus is written in a macro
    language and is commonly found in software
    containing a scripting language such as Word,
    Excel, and Powerpoint.

Typical Hacker Attacks
  • WORM. An independent program that replicates from
    machine to machine across network connections and
    that clogs networks and computer systems as it
  • It is designed to search for idle computer
    memory and then to copy itself repeatedly until
    the memory is exhausted and the computer crashes.
  • A worm is not a virus although they are
    sometimes confused.
  • A virus must infect other programs with a copy
    of itself.
  • The most famous is the Internet Worm by Robert

Typical Hacker Attacks
  • IMPERSONATION. An attempt to gain access to a
    system by posing as an authorized user.
    Synonymous with masquerading and mimicking.
  • Example using another person's access code to
    log on.
  • BOMBS. A computer program residing in a computer
    that is executed at appropriate or periodic times
    to determine conditions or states of a computer
    system and that facilitates the perpetration of
    an unauthorized act.
  • Example a program that causes the system to
    erase all financial files when it discovers that
    a particular person has been removed from the
    personnel files. Writing Logic Bombs is very easy
    but difficult to detect.
  • A Time Bomb has a time trigger.
  • A Logic Bomb has a computer state trigger.

Typical Hacker Attacks
  • TRAP DOOR. A breach created intentionally in an
    ADP system for the purpose of collecting,
    altering or destroying data.
  • Generally done through putting extra code in a
    software program which acts as a testing aid for
    programmers during construction, testing or
    program maintenance.
  • TROJAN HORSE. A computer program that is
    apparently or actually useful but that performs
    another function.
  • The Trojan can modify databases, write checks,
    send electronic mail, destroy File Allocation
    Tables, directories or files.
  • The Trojan Horse can be embedded by a programmer
    or down loaded from a BBS.
  • Most Trojan Horses in the microcomputer detonate
    their payload the moment they run not only
    carrying out their intended function but also
    destroying themselves.

Typical Hacker Attacks
  • SOFTWARE PIRACY. The illegal copying of software
    (and repackaging it for sale).
  • Software piracy is being fought by the Software
    Publishing Association.
  • Indications are that this amounts to between
    4-7 billion loss in sales.
  • This results from individual copying, Pirate
    BBS, country piracy(China, Taiwan, Singapore,
    etc)and try before buying rental/loans.
  • SNIFFING. The installation of protocol analyzer
    software program (Sniffer) to gather
    surreptitiously gather user passwords and
  • log them into and unused space under an
    innocuous name, such as "..".
  • The hacker at some time in the future will
    return and download the passwords and if
    necessary employ a Password Cracker.

Typical Hacker Attacks
  • BROWSING. Searching through storage to locate or
    acquire information, without necessarily knowing
    of the existence or the format of the information
    being sought.
  • DATA DIDDLING. The unauthorized changing of data
    before or during their input to a computer system
    resulting in increased paychecks, extra leave,
    overtime pay, etc.
  • EMBEZZELING. Using a computer to prepare false
    financial reports.
  • FORGERY. The illegal creation of documents or
    records which are intended to be construed as
    real, officially produced documents or records.
  • For example, using desktop publishing to create
    a false drivers license, social security card or

Typical Hacker Attacks
  • FRAUD. The exploitation of information systems
    in an attempt to deceive an organization and/or
    to take its resources.
  • DENIAL OF SERVICE. This is performed by trashing
    a system, tying up ports, placing garbage on
    screens, changing file names, and erasing program
  • This type attack is becoming more common(
    Spamming, SYN Attack, etc).
  • SPOOFING. The deliberate inducement of a user or
    a resource to take incorrect action.
  • Example a user writes a program that gives
    "system like" responses to someone trying to log
    on the system thus, the person trying to log on
    will unwittingly give his password to the
    person/program doing the spoofing.

Typical Hacker Attacks
  • SUPERZAPPING. The unauthorized use of a utility
    computer program that violates computer access
    controls to modify, destroy, copy, disclose,
    insert, use , deny use or expose data in a
  • The name derives from an IBM utility program
    called "Superzap" which permitted an operator to
    start, stop or modify a procedure that has been
  • The equivalent in a microcomputer would be
    something like PC Tools or Norton Utility.
  • SALAMI TECHNIQUES. The unauthorized, covert
    process of taking small amounts (slices) of money
    from many sources in and with the aid of a
  • An example is the round down fraud, whereby
    remainders from the computations of interest are
    moved to the attackers account instead of being
    systematically distributed among accounts that
    were rounded up.
  • The story is told of a Russian worker who left
    the factory each night with a wheelbarrow full of
    sawdust and every night the guard poked the
    sawdust and upon finding nothing let him pass.
    Several years later, after both were retired,
    they accidentally met in a bar and the guard
    asked him what he was stealing in the wheelbarrow
    to which the worker replied "Oh, I was stealing
    the wheelbarrows."

Typical Hacker Attacks
  • PIGGY BACKING. Unauthorized access that is gained
    to an ADP system via another user's legitimate
  • A method of gaining unauthorized physical access
    to guarded areas when the attacker does not
    possess the required authorization to pass.
  • Electronic piggybacking occurs when a computer
    or terminal covertly shares the same
    communication line as an authorized user. The
    host computer, to which they both transmit, is
    unable to distinguish the signals of the
    authorized user from those of the unauthorized
  • EAVESDROPPING. The unauthorized interception of
    information-bearing emanations through the use
    of methods other than wiretapping(TEMPEST).
  • SCAVENGING. Searching through residue for the
    purpose of unauthorized data acquisition.
  • A covert, unauthorized method of obtaining
    information that may be left in or around a
    computer system after the execution of a job.
  • Included here is a physical search (trash
    barrels, carbon copies, ribbons, diskettes, etc)
    and a search for residual data within the
    computer storage areas, temporary storage tapes,
    and the like.
  • This, for example, encompasses dumpster diving,
    unerasing diskette files, examining scratch tapes
    and looking at old ribbons.

Typical Hacker Attacks
  • BUMBLING. Sometimes called "accidents", "errors
    of omission", or "errors of commission".
  • Indications are that this amounts to 50-60 of
    annual dollar loss. This is the result of clumsy
    fingers, big thumbs, and improper training,
  • DATA LEAKAGE. The covert copying of computer
    information and its removal from the
  • For example, this could be as simple as the
    copying of a software program for home use.
  • This can be accomplished through diskettes, tape
    or hard copy. Very rarely do guards perform body
    checks or open brief cases.
  • WIRETAPPING. Normally accomplished at the wiring
  • Passive Wiretapping with electrical induction
    can easily be accomplished with a tape recorder,
    microphone, AM/FM portable radio, a modem and a
    printer. The cassette recorder, through induction
    picks up the signal, amplifies it through the
    radio, perhaps acoustic coupling it through a
    modem which converts the analog signal to digital
    for printing.
  • Active Wiretapping is the monitoring and
    recording of data while the data is being
    transmitted over a communications link.
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