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Glands and Hormones

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Glands and Hormones Slide 9.23a A. Thyroid Gland: Found at the base of the throat Butterfly shaped Produces two hormones: 1)Thyroid hormone 2) Calcitonin Thyroid ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Glands and Hormones


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Glands and Hormones
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Slide 9.23a
  • A. Thyroid Gland
  • Found at the base of the throat
  • Butterfly shaped
  • Produces two hormones
  • 1)Thyroid hormone
  • 2) Calcitonin

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  • Thyroid Gland

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  • 1) Thyroid Hormone
  • Major metabolic hormone
  • Requires iodine to produce thyroid hormones
  • Goiter - swelling of the thyroid as a result of
    iodine deficiency

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Imbalance of Thyroid Hormone Hyperthyroidism -
Too much thyroid hormone a) result
nervousness, higher body temp., increased
heart and metabolic rates, and weight loss
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b) treatment radioactive iodine or surgical
removal of part of the thyroid gland c) Graves
disease
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Hypothyroidism - not enough thyroid hormone
a) result lower metabolic rates and body temp.,
lack of energy, and weight gain b)
treatment supplementary thyroid hormone
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  • 2) Calcitonin
  • Decreases blood calcium levels by causing its
    deposition on bone
  • Antagonistic to parathyroid hormone

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  • B. Parathyroid Glands
  • Tiny masses toward the back of the thyroid
  • Two per lobe

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  • Parathyroid hormone
  • Stimulate cells to remove calcium from bone,
    raising calcium levels in the blood

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  • C. Adrenal Glands
  • Sits on top of the kidneys
  • Two sections
  • 1) Cortex outer region
  • 2) Medulla inner region

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  • 1) Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex
  • a) Cortisol released in response to long term
    stress
  • - increases blood pressure, blood sugar
  • - decreases immunity
  • b) Target the kidneys to regulate water and
    salts

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  • 2) Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla
  • Produces two similar hormones
  • Epinephrine (adrenaline)
  • Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
  • These hormones prepare the body to deal with
    short-term stress
  • fight or flight response

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Fight or Flight regulated by sympathetic
nervous system
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  • D. Pancreas
  • a mixed gland that produces
  • a) hormones b) digestive enzymes

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  • Hormones maintain blood sugar levels
  • Insulin allows glucose to enter cells
  • Glucagon converts glycogen to glucose

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  • Pancreatic Hormones and Blood Sugar

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  • E. Pineal Gland
  • Found toward the middle of the brain
  • Secretes melatonin
  • Establishes the bodys wake and sleep cycles
  • Other functions??

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  • F. Thymus
  • Located behind the sternum, gets smaller with age
  • Produces thymosin
  • Matures some types of white blood cells
  • Important in developing the immune system

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Slide 9.36
  • G. Ovaries
  • 1) Estrogen
  • Stimulates the development of secondary female
    characteristics
  • Matures female reproductive organs
  • Helps prepare the uterus to receive a fertilized
    egg
  • Helps maintain pregnancy
  • Prepares the breasts
  • to produce milk

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  • 2) Progesterone
  • Produced by the corpus luteum
  • Acts with estrogen to bring about the menstrual
    cycle
  • Helps in the implantation of an embryo in the
    uterus

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  • H. Hormones of the Testes
  • Testosterone
  • Responsible for
  • -adult male secondary sex characteristics
  • -growth and maturation of male reproductive
    system
  • -sperm cell production

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  • Developmental Aspects of the Endocrine System
  • Menopause is brought on by decreased function of
    the ovaries
  • Problems associated with reduced estrogen are
    common
  • Many endocrine glands decrease output with age
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