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Georgia High School Graduation Test Review


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Title: Georgia High School Graduation Test Review

Georgia High School Graduation Test Review
  • European Settlement
  • through the
  • Election of 1800

Colonial Period
  • Colonies are territories established by
    governments in a foreign land.
  • Spain was the first to establish colonies in the
    New World
  • They dominated much of South America, modern-day
    Mexico, Florida, and parts of Georgia

Colonial Period
  • France came next and established colonies along
    rivers and inland waterways. Settled along St.
    Lawrence River, Ohio and Mississippi Rivers
  • Founded Quebec as a settlement
  • Made money from the fur trade and trading with
    Native Americans.

  • Jamestown, Virginia became the first successful
    English colony in 1607.
  • Founded by the Virginia Company to make money off
    its products and raw materials.
  • Colonists were not use to manual labor needed to
    build a colony they wanted to get rich quick by
    finding gold.

  • The colony was faltering until John Rolfe
    introduced tobacco as a source of income.
  • Tobacco created a wealthy class of growers in
  • To attract more settlers, Virginia introduced the
    headright system
  • This promised 50 acres of land to those who
    settled in the colony.

Virginia and Native Americans
  • Most Native Americans lived under a tribal
    confederation led by Chief Powhatan. (Father of
  • After several skirmishes with the Native
    Americans, Jamestown established control of the
  • Conflicts with the Native Americans continued in
    the western regions of VA.

Virginias Social Structure
  • Society became divided between large landowners,
    poor farmers, indentured servants and slaves.
  • Indentured servants were people who could not
    afford to come to North America on their own, so
    they agreed to work for a landowner for seven
    years in exchange for fare.

Virginias Social Structure
  • When their seven years was complete, the servants
    became landowners (headrights)
  • Land became less available and settlement pushed
    farther west.
  • Farmers in the west had conflicts with the Native
    Americans along the frontier.
  • Governor refused to help the poor western farmers
    and favored the rich easterners.

Bacons Rebellion
  • 1676 tensions led to an armed conflict between
    the Natives and western farmers led by Nathaniel
  • Governor condemned the action and Bacon turned
    his followers against Jamestown Governor had to
    flee and Jamestown was burned to the ground.
  • Rebellion ends when Bacon dies.

Bacons Rebellion
  • The wealthy ruling class saw the discontent among
    the lower classes
  • This shifted the focus away from indentured
    servants who would become lower class farmers-
    to the use of slavery.

Slavery Arises in Virginia
  • Slavery is a system in which people are owned as
  • The First African slaves arrived in 1619 at
  • The institution of slavery helped to firmly
    establish the plantation system in Virginia and
    the southern colonies.

Virginias Government
  • Due to the distance from England, the British
    adopted a policy known as salutary neglect.
  • Basically, they let the colonies govern
  • Royal governors were appointed, but local
    legislatures had the real power.
  • Legislatures were bicameral one house appointed
    by the governor one house directly elected by
    eligible voters.

House of Burgesses
  • 1619, Virginia established the first legislative
    body in America the House of Burgesses
  • Only white, male property owners could vote
    wealthy upper class men were elected.
  • It established the foundation for the ideas about
    representative government in the colonies.

The Thirteen Colonies
  • Colonies were divided into three geographic
  • New England Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode
    Island, and Connecticut
  • Middle Colonies New York, New Jersey,
    Pennsylvania, and Delaware
  • Southern Colonies- Georgia, North and South
    Carolina, Maryland, and Virginia

New England
  • Religious Dissent (disagreement with the church)
    was a prominent reason for settling in America.
  • 1620, the Puritans established Plymouth,
    Massachusetts colony
  • Puritans became known as the Pilgrims and
    celebrated the first Thanksgiving in 1621
  • Another group settled farther north established
    the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

New England Government
  • Their first efforts at self-government were laid
    out in the Mayflower Compact drafted while still
    aboard the Mayflower.
  • Their representative government took the form of
    the town meeting it gave citizens a voice in
  • Church leaders tended to be authoritative!

Religion and Dissent
  • The Puritan church was a central part of New
    England Life anyone who disagreed with the
    Church was banished.
  • Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson disagreed
    about Church teachings left to form the colony
    of Rhode Island.
  • Thomas Hooker left to form the colony of
    Connecticut in 1636

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
  • Thomas Hooker set up this set of laws for their
  • It stated that the governments power came from
    the consent of the people and set limits on
    what government could do.
  • This became the foundation for the government of
    the U.S after the revolution.

Salem Witch Trials
  • 1692 Several young girls were said to have been
    possessed by the devil and accused townspeople of
    being witches.
  • 25 people were brought to trial and some
    sentenced to death before it was over.
  • Girls were actually just drunk from fermented

New Englanders and Native Americans
  • At first, settlers and Natives were friendly
    they actually taught settlers how to grown corn.
  • They would not have survived if not for the help
    of Native Americans.
  • Several wars broke out as settlers continued to
    move west occupying native lands

King Phillips War
  • 1675, Native American leader Metacom, who was
    known as King Phillip united the Natives to drive
    out the settlers.
  • Although 2,000 settlers died, Natives eventually
    had to retreat and Metacom was killed.
  • It resulted in English colonists gaining firm
    control over New England.

Middle Colonies
  • The Middle Colonies were the most culturally
    diverse because
  • Geographic location
  • Degree of religious tolerance
  • Other nationalities (Swedes and Dutch) settled

  • Under the leadership of William Penn, it became a
    homeland for the Quakers
  • Quakers do not recognize class difference they
    promote equality of the sexes practice pacifism
    and sought to deal with Native Americans.
  • Place of religious tolerance many denominations

New Amsterdam to New York
  • New York was originally settled by the Dutch and
    was called New Netherlands and the main
    settlement was New Amsterdam.
  • King Charles II noticed its success and decided
    he wanted it for England.
  • His brother the Duke of York was given control of
    the area and renamed it New York.

Middle Passage
  • 15th Century, Portugal established the Atlantic
    Slave Trade
  • This trade became profitable for European and
    African slave traders.
  • Millions were taken along the Middle passage- the
    route taken by slave ships from Africa to North

Why have colonies anyway?
  • Main reason was the theory of mercantilism, which
    says that countries grow wealthier and maintain
    their national security by exporting more than
    they import.
  • Trans-Atlantic trade gave the colonies products
    and England raw materials.

French and Indian War
  • Tensions between settlers and the Natives and
    French came to war in 1754
  • This was Britain fighting France and her Native
    American allies.
  • Britain wins Treaty of Paris 1763 France
    gives up all claims in North America
  • Great Britain becomes the sole colonial power in
    eastern north America.
  • Britain is heavily in debt after the war!

Proclamation of 1763
  • Forbade Colonists to settle west of the
  • Issued as a means for Britain to control its new
    territories from the French and Indian War and to
    ensure peace with the Native Americans
  • Colonies resented the Kings restrictions and
    most ignored the proclamation.

Stamp Act
  • Taxed all printed material by requiring it to
    bear a government stamp.
  • In protest the colonists imposed a boycott of
    British goods.
  • Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty
    supported and enforced the boycott used
    violence to intimidate merchants and royal
  • Boycotts led to England repeal the law.

Committees of Correspondence
  • Thomas Jefferson suggested that the colonies stay
    in communication with each other.
  • Groups formed to organize the resistance against
    British laws made sure that the colonist stayed

Boston Tea Party
  • 1773, Massachusetts colonist were angry over the
    British East India Tea Companys monopoly on tea
  • Mass. Committee of Correspondence lead a group of
    radicals dressed as Mohawk Indians and marched on
    Boston Harbor.
  • The group raided English ships and dumped crates
    of tea overboard.

Intolerable Acts
  • To punish Boston, England passed the Coercive
    Acts colonist called them Intolerable because
    of their harshness
  • It closed Bostons harbor, place a military
    governor over Massachusetts, and expanded the
    Canadian border thus taken land away from certain

The Revolution Begins
First Continental Congress
  • To deal with crisis, all the colonies but Georgia
    meet in 1774 to demand that the King give them
  • Since the colonies were not represented in
    Parliament the should govern themselves.

Lexington and Concord
  • April 1775 fighting broke out between the
    Minutemen and the British Regulars.
  • British were attempting to seize arms and
    ammunition stored in Concord.
  • The shot heard round the world was fired by
    someone and started the American Revolution.
  • One month later, the Second Continental Congress

Thomas Paine
  • 1776, Paine publishes his pamphlet Common Sense
  • In it he makes a compelling case for
  • Due to the success of Paine, the Second
    Continental Congress stopped seeking resolution
    with the King and instead declared independence.

Declaration of Independence
  • Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson
  • Influenced by the Enlightenment thinkers of John
    Locke, Montesquieu
  • Asserted the principle that all men are created
  • Men are endowed with certain rights of life
    liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
  • Signed July 4, 1776

First Year of War
  • Colonist surround Boston after Lexington and
  • Battle of Bunker Hill British push Americans
    back after several failed attempts.
  • British establish New York City as their

First Year of War
  • George Washington is made commander of the
    Continental Army.
  • Washington is forced to retreat from NYC
  • Christmas 1776, He crossed the Delaware River to
    attack the Hessians at Trenton, NJ and Princeton,
  • These victories were unique because he attacked
    during the winter and they lifted American morale.

Revolution in the North
  • Battle of Saratoga key American victory that
    convinces the French to join our fight.
  • Valley Forge winter encampment of Army in which
    many died, but time was used to train the army

Revolution in the South
  • British focused the fight in the South 1778 more
    Tories (or Loyalist) lived there.
  • British had Charleston and Savannah under control
    and moved north to secure the Carolinas
  • Lord Cornwallis was turned back at the Battle of
    Kings Mountain

The French Alliance
  • After the Declaration of Independence was signed
    Ben Franklin was sent to convince French to
    join the fight Saratoga convinced them to join
  • France promised to pay money, send troops and
    their navy to support America
  • Marquis De Lafayette was a talented soldier who
    was given a command of his own

Battle of Yorktown
  • Lord Cornwallis regrouped and invade North
    Carolina and chased Nathaniel Greene into
    Virginia exhausting his resources.
  • Cornwallis went to Yorktown to get supplies but
    was surrounded by American forces.
  • Cornwallis surrenders when the French fleet
    blocks supplies from arriving.
  • This battle ended the American Revolution

Treaty of Paris 1783
  • Officially ends the American Revolution

George Washington
  • First president under the new United States
  • He was opposed to political parties because he
    felt they were divisive.
  • He also wanted the U.S. to avoid alliance with
    foreign nations.

Alexander Hamiltons Economic Plan
  • Secretary of the Treasury
  • Proposed a tax a whiskey to raise revenue and
    show the power of the new govt.
  • Proposed tariffs on imports and a national Bank
  • He was a loose constructionist and used the
    necessary and proper clause to increase the
    power of the federal government

Whiskey Rebellion
  • Farmers opposed Hamiltons whiskey tax and
    refused to pay it resorting to violence
  • Washington sends in troops show the governments
    power to enforce laws.
  • Farmers and Westerners begin to support the
    Republican party over the Federalist party

First Political Parties
  • Federalists
  • Favored a strong central government
  • Favored the wealthy and business
  • necessary and proper clause
  • Jeffersonian Republicans
  • Favored stronger state government
  • Favored agricultural interest
  • Strict interpretation of the Constitution

Election of 1800
  • John Adams (2nd president) Federalist against
    Thomas Jefferson Republican
  • Exposed a flaw in the Constitution electors
    voted for president and the second highest vote
    getter became Vice President
  • Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr tie
  • Election is decided in the House of
    Representatives when Hamilton (a federalist)
    backs Jefferson
  • Constitution is amended to correct the problem
    (12th Amendment)