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Standards 1-3


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Title: Standards 1-3

Chapter 1 European Settlement of North America
  • Standards 1-3

Colonial America
  • European Settlement
  • SSUSH 1

Pre-Historic Settlement
  • First inhabitants of North America migrated from
    Asia, probably across a land bridge between
    Siberia and Alaska during the last Ice Age
  • These societies developed some even established
    sophisticated civilizations some were nomadic
    hunter gatherers

Bering Strait Land Bridge
First Europeans Arrive
  • 15th and 16th Centuries saw Europeans
    establishing colonies.
  • Colonies territories established by the
    government in a foreign land.
  • The three countries that had the most colonies
    were Spain, France, and Great Britain.

Spain New World Empire
  • The Spanish were the first to arrive and
    establish strong colonies.
  • They dominated much of South America, modern-day
    Mexico, and what eventually becomes the U.S.
    Southwest, Florida, and parts of Georgia.

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France Goes Hunting!
  • France took advantage of the inland waterways and
    rivers to control parts of the interior.
  • France focused on the fur trading business
    through trapping themselves and trading with the
    Native Americans.
  • Native Americans and French Trappers came to rely
    on one another for commerce

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  • Frances first successful colony in North America
    established in 1608.
  • The colony rested high on the banks of the St.
    Lawrence River excellent location for carrying
    out fur trading and establishing more colonies.
  • Good Military position

Jamestown, Virginia
  • First successful British Colony in North America
    founded in 1607
  • A joint-stock company, the Virginia Company
    sponsored the colony to make money off raw
    materials and products.
  • New settlers came to get rich and obtain land.

Jamestown, Virginia
  • Colonists were not used to manual labor that was
    needed to build a colony.
  • Most wanted to search for gold to get rich quick,
    instead of raising crops to support colony.
  • Jamestown was built in a swampy area prone to
    infectious diseases, not good for agriculture.
  • Many died from sickness, starvation, and cold

Jamestown, Virginia
  • John Rolfe saved the colony by introducing a new
    crop tobacco!
  • England was not happy about the crop because of
    its association with corrupt behavior
  • Crop proved to be very profitable for growers
  • To attract more settlers, Virginia instituted the
    headright system.
  • This promised 50 acres of land to those who
    settled in the colony.

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Virginians and Native Americans
  • Most Native Americans lived under a tribal
    confederation (loose alliance) led by Chief
  • Hostility broke out when 200 Natives attacked the
    settlement colonists repelled the attack and
    negotiated a peace.
  • Powhatan kept a close eye on settlers, hoping to
    establish trade with them, but weary of their
    true intentions.

Virginians and Native Americans
  • The colony would not have survived its first
    winter had Natives not given them food.
  • Relations were tense Native Americans and
    colonists were both killed in attacks
  • 1644 Indian leader, Opechancanough, attacked
    but he was killed colonists were now in firm
    control of the colony.

Virginias Social Structure
  • Most colonial Americans accepted class
  • Wealthy landowners exercised most of the power in
    each colony.
  • In Virginia, society eventually became divided
    between large landowners, poor farmers,
    indentured servants and slaves.

Indentured Servants
  • People who could not afford to come to North
    America on their own.
  • They agreed to work for a landowner for up to
    seven years in exchange for the landowner paying
    for their trip.
  • Once the indentured servants served their seven
    years, they became small landowners.

Virginias Social Structure
  • As the population of small landowners increased,
    settlement pushed farther west.
  • Poor farmers in western Virginia experienced
    conflicts with the Natives
  • They became impatient with the Governor in
    Jamestown, who favored the rich and did not do
    enough to protect western Virginians.

Bacons Rebellion
  • In 1676, this tension led to an armed conflict
    known as Bacons Rebellion.
  • Nathaniel Bacon, a Virginia Planter and wealth
    aristocrat, rallied forces to fight Native
    Americans on the Virginia frontier.
  • The Governor condemned his actions, so Bacon
    turned his forces on Jamestown.
  • The governor was forced to flee and Bacons men
    burned Jamestown to the ground.

Bacons Rebellion
  • Bacon suddenly died ending his rebellion
  • Uprising showed that colonists expected a
    government that served everyone.
  • Wealthy realized the discontent among the poor
    farmers planters turned away from indentured
    servants as labor.
  • Planters turned to another source of labor

Slavery in Virginia
  • Slavery is a system in which people are owed as
  • First African slaves arrived in Jamestown in
  • The institution of slavery helped to establish
    the plantation system in Virginia and throughout
    the southern colonies.
  • hippocampus

Virginias Government
  • salutary neglect.- the English government let the
    colonists govern themselves.
  • The colonies established representative
    governments -House of Burgesses
  • governors appointed by the crown were in charge-
    but House of Burgesses was most powerful

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Practice 1.1 Pg 29
The Colonies
  • Royal Colonies- governed by the King through an
    appointed royal governor.
  • Proprietary colonies- a charter from the King to
    a group of people.- Pennsylvania
  • Charter colonies were granted a charter by the
    King for the purpose of establishing a
    government. - Georgia

Southern Colonies
  • Maryland
  • Virginia
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Georgia

Southern Colonial Society
  • Great Britain established the southern colonies
    for economic reasons rather that religious.
  • Maryland was started as a refuge for Catholics.
  • The Gentry remained a part of the Church of
    England because it was in their economic and
    political interest
  • Methodist and Baptist over time became common
    among the poorer southerners.

Southern Colonial Economy
  • Tobacco became very popular in Europe and became
    an important cash crop for Virginia, North
    Carolina, and Maryland.
  • South Carolina and Georgia made rice and indigo
    important cash crops.
  • Southern colonies also produced tar, pitch, and
    turpentine from the abundant pine forest.

Middle Colonies
  • New York
  • New Jersey
  • Pennsylvania
  • Delaware

Middle Colonies
  • Located between New England and the Southern
  • The middle colonies were more culturally diverse
    because of their location, the degree of
    religious tolerance, and the fact that other
    countries (Sweden, Dutch) had originally settled
    them before England.

Diversity in the Middle Colonies
  • William Penn founded Pennsylvania as a homeland
    for the Quakers.
  • Quakers did not recognize class differences,
    promoted equality of the sexes, practiced
    pacifism (non-violence) and sought to deal fairly
    with Native Americans.
  • Pennsylvania was a place of religious tolerance
    attracting many different denominations.

New Amsterdam to New York
  • The area we know as New York was originally
    settled by the Dutch, which they named New
  • 1625, they established a trading post at the
    mouth of the Hudson River New Amsterdam
  • They traded furs, local goods, and agricultural
    products with Europe and the other colonies.
  • New Amsterdam became a key port.

New Amsterdam to New York
  • England declared the region under the rule of the
    kings brother, the Duke of York.
  • New Amsterdam surrendered and was immediately
    renamed New York in 1664
  • The entire colony quickly came under the control
    of the British.

New England Colonies
  • Massachusetts
  • New Hampshire
  • Rhode Island
  • Connecticut

  • Puritans wanted to build a community built solely
    on pure Biblical teaching rather than Anglican
  • 1620, Puritans established the Plymouth,
    Massachusetts Colony.
  • These Puritans became known as the Pilgrims and
    celebrated the first Thanksgiving in 1621
  • Another group settled further north and
    established the Massachusetts Bay Colony

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New England Colonial Economy
  • NE Colonies relied heavily on the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Shipbuilding, trade, and fishing became leading
    industries in the region.
  • New Englanders traded English Goods for West
    Indian products, slaves, etc.

New England Education
  • Puritans believed that everyone should be able to
    read the Bible
  • They were the first to promote public education.
  • 1647, Massachusetts required all towns with 50
    families to have a public school.
  • Harvard (1636) and Yale (1701) were founded to
    train ministers.

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New England Government
  • Mayflower Compact.(1620)
  • It established an elected legislature
  • Town Hall Meetings- Local citizens met together
    to discuss and vote on issues.
  • The Puritans still believed that government
    should seek to enforce the will of God.

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Religion and Dissent
  • The Puritan Church was a central part of life in
    New England.
  • Every settler in Massachusetts had to attend and
    support the Puritan Church.
  • Dissenters were often banished from the colony.

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Roger Williams Anne Hutchinson
  • Disagreed with Puritan Church leaders
  • Proponent of separation of Church and State that
    every individual should be free to follow his own
    convictions in religious matters
  • Founded Rhode Island Colony
  • Disagreed with Puritan leaders felt that women
    could discern the will of God.
  • Banished from colony for teaching a Bible study
    to men and women.
  • Resettled in Rhode Island
  • She and her family were killed by Native

Thomas Hooker
  • thought that any adult male who owned property
    should be able to vote and participate in civil
    government, regardless of church membership.
  • Left Massachusetts to found the new English
    settlement at Hartford, Connecticut.

Unrest Takes its Toll
  • The colony lost its charter in 1684
  • Massachusetts was made a Royal Colony in 1691
    established a representative legislature
  • Abolished the requirement that every member must
    be a member of the Church.

Salem Witch Trials
  • 1692, the commitment to Puritan faith resulted in
    a dark episode in American history the Salem
    Witch Trials.
  • Claiming to have been possessed by the devil,
    several young girls accused townspeople of being
  • 14 Women 5 men were hanged one was crushed to
    death for refusing to plead others died in

New Englanders and Native Americans
  • Relations were peaceful at first Natives taught
    the Pilgrims how to grow corn that helped them
    survive the harsh winters.
  • A series of wars broke out that pushed the
    Natives off lands they had lived on for

King Phillips War
  • 1675, King Phillip (Native American name was
    Metacom) united the tribes to fight the settlers
  • Despite killing nearly 2,000 settlers, Metacoms
    forces retreated when the settlers fought back.
  • Colonial soldiers killed Metacom in a Rhode
    Island cave.
  • Became known as King Phillips War and resulted
    in the English gaining firmer control over New

Colonial Culture
  • SSUSH 2

Why did nations establish colonies?
  • Mercantilism theory that countries grow
    wealthier and maintain their national security by
    consistently exporting more than they import.
  • To do this nations needed colonies for additional
    resources and markets
  • American colonists began a profitable
    trans-Atlantic trade (only with Britain and its

The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • American colonization and the plantation system
    made the slave trade very profitable
  • Slave ships carried millions of African slaves to
    the Americas.
  • By the 1700s, black slaves outnumbered white
    settlers in Latin America and in South Carolina

The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • These slaves arrived by way of the Middle Passage
  • Middle Passage was the route taken by ships
    carrying slaves from Africa to North America.
  • Interactiv Map

Middle Passage
  • Africans were forced to live in cramped quarters
    aboard slave ships and suffered inhumane
    treatment many died

Colonial African American Culture
  • Slaves on one plantation came from many cultures
    and spoke different languages.
  • Africans developed a tight knit community over
    time quickly adopted the English language
    adopted Christianity to their African beliefs.

  • Section 1.2 Questions

Individualism and Social Mobility
  • Social Mobility ( the ability to move from one
    social class to another) was limited in Europe
  • If you were born into the Upper class, you had
    opportunities that the lower class did not have.
  • Owning land gave you access to better education,
    wealth, political office, serving in the
    military, etc.
  • Members of the lower class had little chance of

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Individualism and Social Mobility
  • In the colonies, it was different.
  • Lower class people found that if they worked hard
    that they could advance their economic status.-
    land of opportunity

Individualism and Social Mobility
  • individualism -A belief in the ability of each
    individual to achieve success if they apply
    themselves and work
  • This led to the idea of universal suffrage and
  • Universal suffrage all white males were allowed
    to vote not just landowners.
  • Democracy- people electing whomever they wish to
    serve in public office rather than just the
    ruling class.

Benjamin Franklin
  • He was an inventor, scientist, writer,
    ambassador, and founding father of the United
  • He is also an example of individualism.
  • He was not born into the upper class.
  • His father made candles and soap for a living and
    his mother was a daughter of a former indentured

Benjamin Franklin
  • Benjamin quit school at the age of 10 and became
    an apprentice to a printer and eventually made
    his way to England.
  • 1726, he returned to Philadelphia and opened his
    own print shop.
  • He was an autodidact, a self taught person.

Benjamin Franklin
  • Franklin made a fortune as a writer, scientist
    and inventor.
  • He also created the first fire department
  • He used his natural abilities to climb the social
    ladder of the colonies.
  • The example of Franklin established the idea that
    success was open to all and still is today!

Religious Expression
  • 1730s, the colonies experienced the First Great
  • The Awakening was a religious movement that
    featured passionate preaching from evangelists
    like Jonathan Edwards and George Whitfield
  • It encouraged people to seek a sincere
    relationship with Jesus Christ instead of a

Great Awakening
  • It encouraged colonists to think for themselves
    on religious matters.
  • Helped to ensure that principles like freedom of
    religion and separation of church and state
    became valued colonial principles.

Road to Revolution
French and Indian War
  • Part of the Seven Years War in Europe
  • British colonists began to move west and fought
    with French and the Native Americans.
  • In 1754, tensions resulted in the French and
    Indian War Britain fighting against the French
    and the Native American allies.

French and Indian War
  • signed the Treaty of Paris in 1763
  • France gave up its claim to Canada, as well as,
    all lands east of the Mississippi River.
  • Spain ceded Florida to the British.
  • Great Britain was now the only colonial power in
    North America

Tensions Rise
  • Great Britain was heavily in debt after the war
    and felt that the colonies should help pay for
    the expenses.
  • Colonists had not been paying taxes before

Proclamation of 1763
  • Forbade colonists from settling west of the
    Appalachian Mountains.
  • Put the territory under British Military control.
  • Also was an attempt to ensure peace with the
    Native Americans.
  • Colonists resented the restrictions and most
    ignored it.

King George III
Stamp Act
  • British government taxed nearly all printed
    materials by requiring a government stamp.
  • Colonists met in the Stamp Act Congress they
    declared No Taxation without representation
  • Colonists responded with a boycott of British

Sons Daughters of Liberty
  • Group formed to support and enforce the boycott.
  • Sons often used violence to intimidate any
    merchant or royal official who might use the
  • Daughters used their skills to weave fabric
    called homespun that were usually imported
    from Great Britain.

Boston Tea Party
  • British laws had given an unfair advantage to the
    British East India company in the selling of tea
    (favorite drink of colonists)
  • December 1773, a group of radicals dressed as
    Mohawk Indians- marched to Boston Harbor- raided
    ships and dumped crates of tea into the harbor.
  • School House Rock

Committees of Correspondence
  • Colonies formed groups dedicated to organizing
    resistance to British laws.
  • These groups made sure that colonists remained
    discontent with British rule.

Intolerable Acts
  • Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts to punish
    the colony of Massachusetts.
  • Closed Boston Harbor placed a military governor
    over Massachusetts expanded the Canadian border
  • Because of the severity of the act the colonists
    called it the Intolerable Acts

The Revolution Begins
  • To deal with the crisis, representatives from all
    colonies except Georgia gathered for the First
    Continental Congress in 1774.
  • It sent a letter to King George III saying that
    the colonists had a right to be represented in
    Parliament, since they were not that they had a
    right to govern themselves.

Lexington and Concord
  • April 1775, British troops were on their way to
    seize arms and ammunition stored by colonists in
    Concorde, Massachusetts.
  • Colonial Militia, known as the Minute Men, met
    the Redcoats in Lexington
  • Someone fired the shot heard round the world
    that started the American Revolution.
  • One month later, the colonists met in the Second
    Continental Congress to discuss the situation.

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Thomas Paine (1737-1809)
  • January 1776, Paine publishes his famous
    pamphlet, Common Sense.
  • In it, he made a compelling case for independence
    that won many to the cause.
  • Due to his influence and that of others, the
    Second Continental Congress stopped seeking
    resolution with England and chose to declare