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Rocket Propulsion

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Title: Rocket Propulsion


1
Rocket Propulsion
2
Rocket History
3
Tsiolkvsky
19?? ?
Russian Mathematician
4
Dr. Goddard
US Rocket Scientist
Possible propulsion system for space journey
5
Buzz Bomb in world war II
6
What is the propulsion system?
  • A device to produce a thrust needed for the
    flight.
  • Airbreathing Engine

Rockets
7
Types of Propulsion
Jet engines
Rocket engines
Airbreathing engines
Liquid R.
Turbojet
Turbofan
Turboprop
Ram/Scramjet
Solid R.
Hybrid Rocket
Hybrid engines
Turbojet/Ramjet
Turbofan/Ramjet
Turborocket
Ram-Rocket
ScRam-Rocket
8
Equation for Thrust
Newtons 2nd Law
Propeller Gas Turbine Ramajet
9
Airbreathing Engine
Combustor
Inlet
Nozzle
Compressor
Turbine
Accessories Afterburner, Thrust Reverser,
Spoiler..
10
Possible for combined cycle
11
Application of rocket propulsion
Type
Max accel.
Application
2-6g
Solid
Large space launch vehicle booster
5-20g
Antiaircraft or antimissile-missile
Solid
Liquid
0.2-6g
Spacecraft orbit maneuver
Up to 25g
Solid
Air launched guided missile
Up to 10g
Solid/Liquid
Battlefield support-surface launched
Liquid/EP
Less than 0.1g
Spacecraft attitude control
Space shuttle main engine
Liquid
4g
Up to 20g
Solid
Antitank
12
Rocket Propulsion
Chemical Rocket
Large thrust
Low Isp
Liquid Propellant Rocket
Solid Propellant Rocket
Non-Chemical Rocket
Small thrust
High Isp
Electric Propulsion
Nuclear
Laser
13
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14
Rocket Propulsion
Energy Release Rate
0.3MW/m3 Boiler
300MW/m3 Jet Engine
30,000MW/m3 Rocket
15
Thrust Chamber
16
Fundamentals of rocket propulsion
17
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18
Rocket Propulsion
Thrust
Pressure Thrust
Momentum Thrust
Tsiolkvsky equation
19
Specific Impulse
Characteristic Velocity
Thrust Coefficient
A measure of propellant characteristic
A measure of combustion performance
A Function of nozzle geometry
20
Rocket Performance
Initial MassFinal MassPropellant Mass
Initial MassStructure MassPropellant
MassPayload Mass
Three Fractions
21
Design Objective
to obtain the highest payload ratio
Thrust to Weight Ratio
Desirable to have a low mp/ mi and ?
22
Typical mission velocity requirements
Earth to LEO
7600m/sec
LEO to GEO
4200m/sec
LEO to earth escape
3200m/sec
LEO to lunar orbit(7days)
3900m/sec
LEO to Mars orbit(0.7yr)
5700m/sec
LEO to Mars orbit(40days)
85000m/sec
LEO to Neptune orbit(29.9yr)
13400m/sec
LEO to solar escape
8700m/sec
LEO Low earth orbit 270km
23
Multi-Stage Performance
Consider a vehicle with n stage
When we assume the n stages are identical
24
Optimization of Multistage Rocket
For a special case
Maximize
with Constraint
Lagrange Multiplier
Assume
25
Chemical Rocket
Liquid propellant rocket
26
SSME(Space shuttle main engine)
27
Characteristics of Liquid Propellant
Expansion from 6.94Mpa(1000psia) to 1 atm
C
Isp
Oxidizer
Fuel
OF ratio
Ta
Density
4.13
389
3013
0.29
2416
2.58
300
3676
1.03
1799
7.94
411
3962
0.46
2556
288
1.19
1745
2.17
3396
288
1.12
1747
1.98
3368
28
Ideal Complete Combustion
with excess H2
Heat of Reaction /H2O mole
29
Equilibrium Combustion
Composition is determined by thermodynamic
equilibrium
30
Non-Equilibrium Combustion
31
Comparison of Isp of 3 chemical model
32
S-3D
Thrust 150,000lbf
Burning time 150sec
Powered Jupiter Intermediate range ballistic
missile(IRBM)
33
Solid propellant rocket
Category
Typical Characteristics
Booster and 2nd stage motor
L/D27
t 60120sec
High-altitude motors
L/D12
t 40120sec
Tactical missile
L/D413
t 0.251sec
To create high-pressure, energetic gas
Gas generator
34
Separation of Solid propellant booster
35
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36
Types of Solid Propellant
DB
Double Base
Composite
CMDB
Composite Modified DB
37
Typical Double Base Propellant
Material
Weight
Purpose
Polymer
51.40
Nitrocellulose
42.93
Explosive plasticizer
Nitroglycerin
3.20
Diethyl Pthalate
Nonexplosive plasticizer
Ethyl Centralite
1.00
Stabilizer
Flash suppresor
Potassium sulfate
1.20
Opacifying agent
Carbon black
0.20
Die lubricant
Candelilla wax
0.07
38
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39
Burning Rate
r Burning rate(cm/sec)
??? ??
a, n
????
0.4ltnlt0.7
40
Non-chemical propulsion
Electric propulsion
41
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42
Types of Electric propulsion
  • Electrothermal
  • -Arcjet
  • -Resistojet
  • -MICROWAVE ELECTROTHERMAL THRUSTER (MET)
  • Electrostatic
  • -Ion Electron bombardment ion thruster
  • -Hall Thruster Stationary plasma thruster(SPT)
  • Electrodynamic
  • -MPD (magneto-plasma-dynamic)
  • -PPD (pulsed-plasma-dynamic)

43
  • Electrothermal

ARCJET
  • DC ARCJET
  • AC ARCJET
  • RF ARCJET
  • Microwave ARCJET

44
DC Arcjet
Hydrogen
Ammonia
Hydrazine
45
Resistojet
46
Microwave Electrothermal Thruster (MET)
47
  • Electrostatic Propulsion

Ion Thruster
48
Ion bombardment thruster
49
Hall thruster (gridless ion engine)
Invented by Russia and introduced 1992 to west
50
Stationary Plasma Thruster(SPT)
51
  • Electrodynamic

MPD (magneto-plasmadynamic)
Utilize Lorenz Force in the magnetic field
52
Pulsed MPD thruster from Princeton University
using Ar
53
Advanced propulsion
SSTO(Single stage to orbit)
Tactical Mission
Airbreathing engines
High specific impulse
Low T/W
Rocket engines
Low specific impulse
High T/W
Any propulsion systems can not be optimum over
entire flight regime.
54
Maximum Thrust (Full Augmentation)
23,770 pounds (105.7 kN)
Intermediate Thrust (Nonaugmented)
14,590 pounds (64.9 kN) Weight

3,2324 pounds (1467 kg) Length

191 in. (4.85 m) Inlet
Diameter
34.8 in. (0.88 m) Maximum
Diameter
46.5 in. (1. 18 m) Bypass Ratio

0.6 Overall Pressure Ratio
25 to 1
55
F-15
56
Types of Propulsion
Jet engines
Rocket engines
Airbreathing engines
Liquid R.
Turbojet
Turbofan
Turboprop
Ram/Scramjet
Solid R.
Hybrid Rocket
Hybrid engines
Turbojet/Ramjet
Turbofan/Ramjet
Turborocket
Ram-Rocket
ScRam-Rocket
57
Hybrid Rocket
58
Hybrid Rocket ??
??? ?? ???
?? ???, Shutdown ??
System Isp(sec) ?Isp (g-s/cm3)
Liquid Bi-Propellant 260-410 (LOX/H2 399) 100-430 (LOX/H2 100)
Classic Hybrid 280-380 (LOX/HTPB 330) 300-520 (LOX/HTPB 350)
Solid Propellant 190-270 (AP/HTPB 270) 290-470 (AP/HTPB 470)
??? ???
??? ???? ??? ??
????? ???
???? ???
??? ???
????? Booster
?? ??? ???
??? ???
59
Hybrid rocket test fire(AMROC)
60
Turboramjet for tactical missile
Turbojet at low speed
Ramjet at high speed
61
Air Turbo Rocket(ATR)
Up to M6
Candidate for TSTO
Combination of turbojet, ramjet and rocket
62
??-???(IRR) ??
?? ????? ????
???? ?? ??? (10001500sec)
???, ???? ?? ? ??? ????, ?? ???
?? ????? ?? ??
????? ?? ??? ??
??? IRR ?? ??(??? ?? ? ??? ??)
63
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64
? ?? IRR-Fasthawk
65
?????.
66
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67
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68
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69
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70
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