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Theories of Personality

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Title: Theories of Personality


1
Theories of Personality
  • Observational Learning Chapter 13The
    Humanistic Perspective Chapter 14
  • April 25, 2003
  • Class 12

2
Albert Bandura (1925-present)
  • Pioneering researcher in observational learning
  • Was born in the small town of Mundare in northern
    Alberta, Canada
  • He received his bachelors degree in Psychology
    from the University of British Columbia in 1949
  • He  went on to the University of Iowa, where he
    received his Ph.D. in 1952
  • It was there that he came under the influence of
    the behaviorist tradition and learning theory

3
Banduras Background
  • In 1953, he started teaching at Stanford
    University
  • While there, he collaborated with his first
    graduate student, Richard Walters, resulting in
    their first book, Adolescent Aggression, in 1959
  • Bandura was president of the APA in 1973, and
    received the APAs Award for Distinguished
    Scientific Contributions in 1980
  • He continues to work at Stanford to this day

4
Social Learning Theory
  • Also called observational learning, this is
    learning that occurs by observing and imitating
    others (the person being observed is referred to
    as the model)
  • Major components involved in observational
    learning
  • Attention
  • Retention
  • Reproduction
  • Motivation
  • Performance (Self-efficacy)

5
Major Components
  • Attention
  • If you are going to learn anything, you have to
    be paying attention.  Likewise, anything that
    puts a damper on attention is going to decrease
    learning If, for example, you are sleepy, groggy,
    drugged, sick, nervous, etc you will learn less.
    Likewise, if you are being distracted by
    competing stimuli
  • Retention 
  • Second, you must be able to retain -- remember --
    what you have paid attention to
  • Imagery
  • Verbal coding (using language to help describe
    what was seen)
  • Mental rehearsal using both imagery and language
  • Production (Reproduction)
  • You have to have the ability to reproduce the
    behavior in the first place. 
  • For example Some people can watch Olympic ice
    skaters all day long, yet not be able to
    reproduce their jumps, because they cant ice
    skate at all!  On the other hand, if they could
    skate, their performance would in fact improve if
    they watch skaters who are better than they are

6
Major Components
  • Motivation 
  • Bandura feels that even with all this youre
    still not going to do anything unless you are
    motivated to imitate, i.e. until you have some
    reason for doing it
  • Bandura mentions a number of motives
  • past reinforcement
  • past rewards
  • promised reinforcements
  • incentives that we can imagine
  • vicarious reinforcement
  • seeing and recalling the model being reinforced

7
Major Components
  • Performance
  • Should I repeat what I just saw?
  • What are the consequences to model and observer?

8
Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1963) The Bobo" Doll
Experiment
  • Note Bandura did a large number of variations
    on the Bobo doll experimentwell look at a few
  • Phase 1
  • Pre-schoolers were divided into two groups and
    put into two separate rooms and allowed to play
    with "attractive" toys while Bobo an
    unattractive inflatable, adult-sized, egg-shaped
    balloon creature (the kind that bounces back
    after it's been knocked down) sat by itself at
    the far end of the rooms

9
Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1963) The Bobo" Doll
Experiment
  • Phase 2
  • Group 1 While playing with the attractive toys
    the children witnessed adults enter the room and
    start beating the daylights out of the clown
  • Group2 While playing with the attractive toys
    the children witnessed adults enter the room and
    play nicely with Bobo
  • Phase 3
  • The attractive toys were taken away from each
    group
  • Results What happened next?

10
Bandura (1965) The Bobo" Doll Experiment
  • In the 1965, version kids watched films of adults
    beating on Bobo but each had different endings
  • Film 1
  • Adult praised and rewarded with candy and soda by
    another adult who was heard saying, Youre a
    strong champion
  • Film 2
  • Adult is scolded by another adult, Youre very
    bad or Hey there, you big bully, you quit
    picking on that clown
  • Film 3
  • Neutral ending neither reward nor punishment

11
Who cares about what a kid does to a "Bobo" doll?
  • Well, thats what the critics saidthose things
    are made to punched arent they?
  • Responding to criticism that Bobo dolls were
    supposed to be hit, Bandura did a film of a young
    woman beating up a live clown
  • When the children went into the other room, what
    should they find there but -- the live clown! 
  • They proceeded to punch him, kick him, hit him
    with little hammers, and so on

12
Violence in Schools
  • 3M thefts and violent crimes (16000 per day)
    occur on school property each year (National
    Crime Survey, 2000)
  • 7 of teenagers have been victims of a violent
    crime (compare this to less than 3 of the
    population over 19)
  • Recent studies have found that 21 had seen
    weapons at their schools and 15 had actually
    taken a weapon into school
  • 22 report have been in a fight in the past year
    mostly boys but girls are on the increase as
    well
  • 35 fear being attacked at school
  • 24 fear being attacked going to and from school
  • 13 avoid certain areas inside the school out of
    fear of being attacked
  • 82 of school's nationwide have reported an
    increase in violence over the past 7 years

13
Is Television To Blame?
  • Bandura feels his theory applies here
  • Hundreds of studies say yes!
  • Why?
  • they become immune to the horrors of violence
    (they are desensitized)
  • they gradually come to accept violence as a
  • way to solve problems
  • they imitate the violence they observe on
  • television
  • they identify with certain characters (ex Bruce
  • Willis, WWF, etc.)

14
The Social-Cognitive Perspective Conceptualizing
Behavioral Problems
  • Can depression be a result of learning from our
    environment?
  • Can negative expectations from this learning also
    contribute to this?

15
The Social-Cognitive Perspective Conceptualizing
Behavioral Problems
  • Learned helplessness (Seligman, 1970s)
  • Uncontrollable events
  • Explanatory style (Seligman, 1980s)
  • How we explain events
  • Locus of Control (Rotter, 1954)

16
Learned Helplessness

17
Attributional/Explanatory Style Model of
Depression
  • Extension of Learned Helplessness model
  • We make attributions about events that happen in
    our lives

18
The I.S.G. Formula
  • Attributions can be
  • Internal/External Locus of Control
  • This is taken from Rotter (1954)
  • Related to affect and self esteem
  • Stable/Unstable
  • Consequences of the event?
  • (Long term? Short term?)
  • Global/Specific
  • Domain specificity?

19
Explanatory Style IllustrationWhy did you fail
that math test?
  • Internal Im stupid
  • External The test was unfair
  • --------------------------------------------------
    -------------
  • Stable I always do poorly on tests
  • Unstable Ill do better on the next one
  • --------------------------------------------------
    -------------
  • Global Ill never get my degree
  • Specific Im not doing well in this
    particular class, but Im doing well in my
    other classes

20
Optimistic vs. Pessimistic Styles
  • Optimistic explanatory style
  • Good event internal/stable/global
  • Bad event external/unstable/specific
  • Pessimistic explanatory style
  • Good event external/unstable/specific
  • Bad event internal/stable/global

21
The Humanistic Perspective
  • Theories of Personality
  • Chapter 14

22
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
  • The son of prosperous businesspeople
  • He was reared in a strict religious environment
    that placed great emphasis on the value of hard
    work, the sharing of responsibility, and
    education
  • Strict upbringing led to Rogers being quite
    isolated as a youth but also very
    self-disciplined
  • Started school in the second grade as even before
    kindergarten he could read at this level

23
Biography
  • Rogers enrolled in the University of Wisconsin
    with the intention of studying agriculture
  • However, he soon decided to prepare for the
    ministry
  • Leaving Wisconsin in 1924, he entered the Union
    Theological Seminary in New York

24
Biography
  • While at this famous religious institute he took
    a student organized seminar course called Why am
    I entering the seminary?
  • Shortly after taking that course he left the
    seminary
  • What was religions loss however became
    psychologys gain
  • Rogers became deeply involved in clinical work
    with disturbed children, and his interests
    shifted to clinical psychology
  • He received his doctorate from Columbia
    University in 1931 and went to work at a guidance
    clinic in Rochester, New York

25
Biography
  • He later taught at Ohio State University, the
    University of Chicago, and the University of
    Wisconsin, before settling at the Center for
    Studies of the Person in La Jolla, California
  • Throughout his career, Rogers continued to work
    extensively with delinquent and underprivileged
    children, gathering the experience that led to
    his theory of nondirective or person-centered
    therapy
  • He was a leader of the humanistic psychology
    movement until his death in 1987

26
Rogers views
  • His view of human behavior is that it is
    "exquisitely rational" (1961)
  • Furthermore, in his opinion
  • "the core of man's nature is essentially
    positive" (1961)
  • man is a "trustworthy organism" (1977)
  • These beliefs are reflected in his theory of
    personality

27
Client-Centered non-directive therapy
  • Carl Rogers came to the conclusion that Freudian
    techniques did not work and that the less he
    tried to manipulate the therapy, the more likely
    was improvement in his patients
  • Out of this experience he developed his notion of
    client-centered therapy
  • He called it 'client-centered' because it is the
    intention that the patient should arrive at the
    insights rather than the therapist
  • It is non-directive because the therapist does
    not try to direct the patient's attention to
    particular topics, such as early childhood
    experiences
  • Unlike Freud, who wanted his patients to talk
    about their feelings, Rogers wanted them to
    experience them

28
Changed the name
  • Later, Rogers changed the name of his theory to
    person-centered
  • He felt this better described the process
  • Either name though suggests that the client or
    person has responsibility for his or her own
    improvement

29
The Phenomenal World
  • According to Rogers we enter the world with no
    self-concept and no self
  • All we have is sensory impressions, biological
    processes, motor activities
  • Rogers said every individual exists in a
    continually changing world of experience
  • He called this the phenomenal world

30
The Phenomenal World
  • As we grow, we learn to differentiate our self
    from the other parts of the phenomenal world and
    eventually come to see ourselves as an
    independent self
  • In Rogers' view, people came to him for
    counseling because, as a result of experiences as
    they had grown up, they had become someone they
    were not
  • As a result, they would be suffering from
    anxiety, stress, low self-esteem

31
Core of Personality
  • Core Tendency
  • The tendency to actualize one's inherent
    potentialities
  • This potential exists in all living organisms,
    even plants
  • Humans possess an additional form
  • The attempt to actualize the self
  • Referred to as self-actualization

32
Core Characteristics of Personality
  • Self
  • The person's conscious sense of who and what you
    are
  • Is available to awareness, although not always in
    awareness.
  • Gradually emerges through experiences with verbal
    labels such as "I" or "Me"
  • Phenomenological Reality
  • A person's private perception of reality (whether
    or not it agrees with objective reality).
    Experience is the highest authority. If you think
    you are not good-looking or smart, this is part
    of your self concept regardless of reality

33
Core Characteristics of Personality
  • Need for Positive Regard
  • The universal need for acceptance, love, and
    approval from others
  • Particularly important during infancy
  • Need for Positive Self-Regard
  • When acceptance and approval come from within the
    individual and forms part of the self-concept

34
Development
  • Rogers does not specify any developmental stages,
    but does make some comments concerning
    development in general
  • Of basic importance is the fact that one's
    inherent potentialities are genetically
    determined, while the self-concept is socially
    determined
  • Thus, there is the possibility of a difference
    between the two

35
Development
  • The important influences are
  • Conditional Positive Regard
  • Conditions of Worth
  • Incongruence
  • Unconditional Positive Regard
  • Congruence

36
Conditional Positive Regard
  • The granting of love and approval only when
    behaving in accordance with parent's wishes, or
    when parents withdraw love if the child
    misbehaves.
  • Leads to next influence (see next slide)

37
Conditions of Worth
  • The individual's belief that he/she is worthy of
    affection only when expressing desirable
    behaviors
  • Sounds similar to Freuds superego???

38
Incongruence
  • When there is a split between experience and
    self-concept (disorganization)
  • Prevents self-actualization
  • Leads to defensive behavior
  • Major defenses
  • Preventing threatening experiences from reaching
    awareness at all
  • Distortion of experience
  • Sounds like Freuds repression and
    rationalization???

39
Unconditional Positive Regard
  • The granting of love and approval regardless of
    individual's behavior
  • Does not mean lack of restraint
  • If a child runs out in front of a truck, stop him
    and tell him it is dangerous, but don't spank him
    and tell him he is a bad, evil boy
  • Note
  • Rogers was totally against punishment as a means
    of controlling behavior

40
Congruence
  • When the self concept is in agreement with
    inherent potentialities and there are minimal
    conditions of worth
  • Leads to openness to experience and a fully
    functioning person

41
Periphery of Personality
  • Rogers discussed only two broad types
  • One where the self-actualizing tendency is
    vigorously functioning
  • One where it is not

42
Fully Functioning Person
  • The ideal person
  • Has received unconditional positive regard, has
    few conditions of worth, and has congruence
    between self and potentialities

43
Fully Functioning Person
  • Characteristics
  • Openness to Experience
  • Existential Living
  • Organismic Trusting
  • Experiential Freedom
  • Creativity

44
Characteristics of a Fully Functioning Person
  • Openness to Experience
  • opposite of defensiveness
  • Is reflective and much emotional depth (for both
    pleasure and pain)
  • Existential Living
  • Living fully in each and every moment
  • The absence of rigidity, is flexible, adaptable,
    and spontaneous

45
Fully Functioning Person
  • Organismic Trusting
  • intuitive living
  • the ability to accept information from all bases
  • experience is the highest authority
  • if it feels right, it probably is
  • very different from Freudian views
  • Experiential Freedom
  • the freedom to choose among alternatives
  • Creativity
  • the ability to produce new and effective ideas
    and things

46
Maladjusted Person
  • Has received conditional positive regard and
    developed conditions of worth
  • There is incongruence between self and
    potentialities

47
Maladjusted Person
  • Characteristics
  • Defensive Living
  • Not open to experience
  • Live According to preconceived plan
  • generally laid down by parents
  • Disregards organism
  • not intuitive
  • Feels manipulated
  • not free to choose
  • Common and conforming
  • Conforms despite reservations

48
Criticisms
  • Common Carl we all have the capacity for evil
  • Critics say Rogers didnt appreciate this
  • His world wasnt real
  • Critics also say that there is a certain amount
    of selfishness in Roger's theory
  • One critic has called Humanistic Psychology "the
    narcissism of our culture"
  • that we are so lost in self love that we fail to
    relate to outside reality

49
Characteristics of successful therapists
  • Congruence
  • Empathy
  • Learn from Client
  • Unconditional Positive Regard
  • Rogers believed that these four characteristics
    of the person doing therapy were more important
    than the therapist's philosophy or technique

50
Successful Therapists
  • Congruence
  • Good therapists can't be phony
  • they must be able to relate to others honestly
    and sincerely
  • They don't have to be perfect, but can't be
    defensive when relating to others
  • Can't play games with clients

51
Successful Therapists
  • Empathy
  • Must be able to put yourself in your client's
    shoes
  • Must be accurate empathy
  • Not just "Yeah, I know what you are feeling,
    because I...".

52
Successful Therapists
  • Learn from Client
  • Good therapists can shut up and listen
  • Therapy is a two-way street, and the therapist
    should benefit from therapy also
  • Note
  • Rogers always worked 12 - 20 hours of
    therapy/week
  • Felt it helped him

53
Successful Therapists
  • Unconditional Positive Regard
  • You must genuinely like the client
  • You do not have to approve of his or her
    behavior, but must be able to separate the sins
    from the sinner

54
Basic Rogerian fundamentals
  • People have this natural tendency for growth
  • We have the freedom to choose
  • Free will, etc.
  • Self-actualization is our primary goal
  • The focus was a 100 positive outlook
  • People are basically good

55
Existential Psychology
  • Another part of the humanistic perspective
    include those that believe in basic Rogerian
    beliefs but add some cautions
  • Existential psychologists say that growth and
    reaching ones highest potential has a negative
    side
  • A cost is involvedtoo many responsibilities

56
Rogers makes free will sound very good
  • Existential psychologists add this warning
  • Well, since we have free will to make choices if
    they turn out to be wrong choices
  • Who do we blame???
  • Only ourselvescant blame it on some unconscious
    force, etc.
  • We are alone in the universe

57
Existential Psychology
  • Existentialism is a philosophy developed chiefly
    in the 20th century that attempts to find meaning
    in a seemingly meaningless world
  • The central themes of existentialism
  • Dasein
  • We are an autonomous, separate, and evolving
    entity
  • We have no existence apart from the world we live
    in
  • An individual must assume all responsibilities
    for his or her acts of free will without any
    absolute knowledge of what is right or wrong

58
Existential Psychology
  • But some people dont accept the responsibilities
    of their life choices
  • Maybe even commit suicide to get out of the
    responsibilities
  • But humanistic psychologists say that even this
    is a choice
  • Their choice

59
Okay, now that Ive finally made the choice
  • Well, first there was existential anxiety
    involved in making the choice
  • So, I guess I have this free will to do what I
    think is rightbut am I smart enough to know what
    is rightam I sure I will be doing the right
    thing?
  • Okay, I finally made the choice but now Im
    second-guessing myself
  • Existential Guilt
  • The onus is on me
  • I have to live with my decision

60
A hostile world?
  • Existentialism analyzes the somewhat dismal
    situation mankind has been thrown into, and
    produces a model for how an individual should
    live his or her life
  • However, why should someone attempt to live a
    life of morals and meaning in the cold and
    indifferent world that these psychologists
    depict?

61
Emptiness and Loneliness
  • Well, this is a concern for existentialists
  • They are afraid that people have lost faith in
    values
  • They feel powerless against big businesses and
    government and even those they love
  • I worked my butt off for my company for 25 years
    and now they lay me off and hire some young kid
    whos good at video games to take my place
  • I gave him the best years of my lifeand now he
    leaves me for his young secretary
  • I try to be a good person but for what reason
    everybody takes advantage of my good nature
    anyway
  • Nice guys finish last
  • So its no more Mr. Nice Guy (Ms. Nice Woman) for
    me

62
Emptiness and Loneliness
  • Existentialists feel that when individuals have
    lost their commitment to their earlier set of
    values they experience the emptiness of despair
  • The hostile world is victorious
  • But wheres the real blame for this desperate
    existence that they now live?
  • The existential psychologists points to the
    individual
  • The problem is within the individual who must be
    responsible for their own actions

63
What is the aim of existential psychotherapy?
  • The goals of existential therapy are
  • To enable people to become more truthful with
    themselves
  • To widen their perspective on themselves and the
    world around them
  • To find clarity on how to proceed in the future
    while taking lessons from the past and creating
    something valuable to live for in the present 
  • The aim is to offer the means for individuals to
    examine, confront and clarify and reassess their
    understanding of life, the problems encountered
    throughout their life, and the imposed limits
    inherent in our lives
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