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Immune System Structures, Components and Functions

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Veterinary Science The Army Within Immune System Structures, Components and Functions By Tim Savelle Agriculture Teacher Morgan County High School – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Immune System Structures, Components and Functions


1
Veterinary Science
The Army Within
Immune System Structures, Components and
Functions By Tim Savelle Agriculture
Teacher Morgan County High School
2
The Army Within
Soldiers
Basic Training
Scouts
Outposts
Artillery
Infantry
Camps
Sentries
Roving Patrols
Officers
Special Forces
Intelligence
Headquarters
Reinforcements
Search Destroy
Supply Lines
3
Immune System
  • Protects body from harmful substances
  • Includes
  • Lymphatic system
  • Respiratory system
  • Gastrointestinal system
  • Integumentary system

4
Lymphatic System
  • Primary immune system component (Disease
    Defense System)
  • Functions
  • To control flow of lymph fluid
  • To produce lymph system components
  • To filter lymph fluid and blood

5
Lymphatic System Structures
  • Lymph Fluid
  • Interstitial fluid (fluid between cells)
  • Clear, colorless tissue fluid
  • Helps feed cells with nutrients
  • Moves hormones around body
  • Removes transports waste from cells

6
Lymphatic System Structures
  • 2. Lymph Vessels (capillaries)
  • Thin-walled tubes separate from blood vessels
  • Contain valves to prevent backflow
  • Move lymph fluid into lymph nodes for filtering

7
Lymphatic System Structures
  • 3. Lymph Nodes
  • Filter lymph fluid
  • Remove bacteria and viruses
  • Store white blood cells

8
Lymphatic System Structures
  • 4. Tonsils
  • Masses of lymph tissue
  • Contain lymph nodes and lymph vessels
  • Protect nose and upper throat

9
Lymphatic System Structures
  • 5. Spleen
  • Lymphatic tissue located in the cranial thoracic
    region
  • Produces white blood cells
  • Filters blood
  • Stores red blood cells

10
Lymphatic System Structures
  • 6. Thymus
  • Lymph gland located medially in the cranioventral
    area of the thoracic cavity
  • Most active in young animals
  • Place where some white blood cells produced in
    bone marrow reproduce and mature

11
Lymphatic System Structures
  • Bone Marrow
  • Located in the epiphysis of long bones
  • Produces white blood cells

12
Lymphatic System Components
  • White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)
  • Lymphocytes
  • Attack specific antigens
  • Formed in lymph structures bone marrow
  • Monocytes
  • Very large
  • Formed in bone marrow
  • Mature in thymus

13
Lymphatic System Components
  • Macrophages
  • Phagocyte (eats cells)
  • Develop from monocytes
  • Eats invading cells
  • Eats disabled antigens

14
Lymphatic System Components
  • T-Cells
  • A type of lymphocyte
  • Produced in bone marrow
  • Mature in thymus
  • Coordinate immune system defenses
  • Kill antigens directly on contact

15
Lymphatic System Components
  • B-Cells
  • Also called plasma cells
  • A type of lymphocyte
  • Produced in bone marrow
  • Do not kill antigens directly
  • Produce and release antibodies

16
Lymphatic System Components
  • Antibodies
  • Called Immunoglobins (Ig)
  • Produced by B-Cells
  • Composed of proteins
  • Attack and kill specific antigens
  • Lock and Key method of attack

17
The Antigen/Antibody Response
  • Antigens substances that the body regards as
    foreign.
  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • Viruses
  • Parasites
  • Allergens
  • Toxins

E.Coli Bacteria
18
The Antigen/Antibody Response
  • Antigens
  • Have unique, consistent surface patterns
  • Patterns cause body to recognize antigens as
    enemies
  • Contain surface features called antigenic
    determinants (binding sites)

19
The Antigen/Antibody Response
  • Antibodies disease-fighting proteins
    produced by the body in
    response to a specific antigen.
  • Have binding sites that match antigenic
    determinants on antigens
  • Binding sites are chemical, not physical

20
The Antigen/Antibody Response
The Lock and Key
  • Antibody binding sites match antigen surfaces
    like a key fits into a lock
  • Most antigen binding sites are keyed to a
    matching antibody in a healthy immune system.

21
The Antigen/Antibody Response
Search and Destroy
  • Antigens have many binding sites on their
    surfaces.
  • Antibody molecules locate antigens and bind to
    the surfaces, sometimes in chains.
  • Antibodies disable (kill) antigens
  • Antibodies block antigens from attaching to body
    cells
  • Antibodies call macrophages to come and consume
    disabled antigens

22
The Antigen/Antibody Response
Shackled Prisoners
23
The Antigen/Antibody Response
How does it work?
  • Antigens invade body
  • Patrolling macrophages locate, recognize antigens
    as enemies, and ingest them.
  • Macrophages read antigens and encode T-cells
    with antigen binding site instructions.
  • Macrophages dispatch T-cells with antigen codes.

24
The Antigen/Antibody Response
How does it work?
  • T-cells pass antigen binding instructions to
    B-cells (plasma cells)
  • Plasma cells produce and release antibodies that
    match antigen binding sites

25
The Antigen/Antibody Response
How does it work?
  • Macrophages find disabled antigens and consume
    them.
  • Some T-cells remember antigens for faster
    response the next time an attack occurs.

26
Search Destroy
27
The Army Within
Immune System Response
  • Primary Response (1st infection or vaccination)
  • Lymphocytes decode antigens
  • Lymphocytes produce antibodies
  • Secondary Response (future infections)
  • T-cells with memory stored in lymph nodes
  • Rapid response time at next infection

28
The Army Within
How can we help it fight its battles?
  • Good general health
  • Good nutrition
  • Vaccines (specific antigens)
  • Antitoxins (antibodies)
  • Immune system boosters
  • Stimulate lymphocyte production
  • Improve lymphocyte response time

29
The Army Within
Infantry Soldiers Antibodies
Basic Training B-Cells
Officers T-Cells
Outposts Lymph Nodes
Intelligence Macrophages
Headquarters Spleen
Special Forces B-Cells, T-Cells
Supply Lines Lymph Capillaries
Roving Patrols Macrophages
30
The Army Within
The End
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