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Title: Logographic reading


1
Logographic reading
Supporting Inclusive Education
Linda Siegel University of British Columbia,
Vancouver
2
Supporting Inclusive Education
Linda Siegel University of British
Columbia Vancouver, CANADA linda.siegel_at_ubc.ca

3
A European Framework for definitions
UN Declaration of Human Rights (1948) Resolution
217 Article 26 Everyone has the right to
education. Education shall be free, at least in
the elementary and fundamental stages.
Elementary education shall be compulsory. My
comment Education should be appropriate.
3
4
Salamanca Statement June 1994
Signatories to the Salamanca Statement agreed
that every child has unique characteristics,
interests, abilities and learning needs
education systems should be designed and
educational programmes implemented to take into
account the wide diversity of these
characteristics and needs
4
5
Salamanca Statement June 1994
The Salamanca guidelines included ... a need to
take full account of individual differences
(Statement 21) ... adapting to the needs of the
child (Statement 28) ... providing additional
assistance and support to children requiring it
(Statement 29)
5
6
Salamanca Statement June 1994
The Salamanca guidelines included ...
identifying difficulties and assist pupils to
overcome them (Statement 31) ... appropriate
teacher training (Statement 42)
6
7
Framework for Success
Policies Teamwork Resources Training Awareness
7
8
Successful inclusion
It is important to recognize these principal
areas Policies These are a legal aspects in a
particular jurisdiction. Resources These
should be evidence based Training Cannot be
performed without a good knowledge base and
resources. Teamwork- Professionals and parents
Awareness Knowledge about disabilities is
critical
9
Policies Education policies should recognise
that every individual has unique characteristics,
interests, abilities and learning needs, and
education systems should be designed to provide
informed evaluations and derive appropriate
educational programmes to accommodate the wide
diversity of these characteristics and needs.
Work and life related policies, e.g. disability
discrimination legislation, should ensure that no
individual is excluded or penalised because they
learn in a different way. All policies should
reflect that these rights are irrespective of
the individuals first language.
10
Resources Screening and assessment of the
individual with SPLD should be freely available
for all, using a well-researched, widely accepted
test (or range of tests) based on current
theories. These tests should be relevant to needs
and support, and provide the basis for the
formation of an individual education plan,
including additional resource support (e.g. ICT
requirements), and/or guidance for personal
development. Teaching and learning resources
(e.g. paper and computer based teaching
materials) should be available to teach the
individual literacy and life skills, and help
strengthen other area of weakness that may be
identified.
11
Resources (2) Support material and devices
(e.g. text readers) should be widely accessible
and acceptable for education and employment
purposes. Guidance and awareness information
should be widely available (e.g. web based) to
the general public, and to all professionals who
may be working with or supporting the individual
with SEN.
12
Training Every educational establishment should
have staff trained in the identification of
individuals with specific learning
difficulties. All staff in educational
establishments should be trained in the
awareness and understanding of SEN, and how to
provide accommodations within a normal
teaching/learning environment. All those
concerned with education (e.g. learning
support assistant and policy makers) should know
their responsibilities towards Individuals with
SEN. All those working with or caring for the
individuals with SEN, (e.g. parents, educational
and occupational psychologists, speech and
language therapists, disability officers, human
resources personnel, community workers) should be
trained to identify specific learning
difficulties using the latest tools, and to
provide recommendations with respect to the
latest developments, including ICT. Every
individual with SEN should be provided training
to understand, discover, explore and capitalise
upon their strengths and weakness to ensure they
gain the maximum benefit from support and
recommendations resulting from their needs
assessment.
13
Training Educational establishments and
employers Each educational establishment should
have individuals trained in the recognition of
the individual with SEN and their needs. All
employers should be aware of the special needs
and abilities of the Individual with SEN, and
should ensure their abilities, strengths
and weaknesses are fully utilised for the benefit
of the individual, the employer and society.
All staff should be trained in the awareness and
understanding of SEN, and how to accommodate the
individual within the normal learning and working
environment. All schools and employers should
have policy guidelines to ensure an inclusive
approach is adopted for individuals with SEN.
Any support provided should be seen as a
fundamental human right which ensure these
individuals are empowered within society, and are
not perceived as an advantage to the individual
by the general public.
14
Inclusive Education
Individual
Class
School
Parents
Individual Learning
Good for spld, good for all
Whole school approach
Parental support
Support including assistive technology
Classroom Management
Staff Support
Supporting the parent
14
15
Traditional Model
  • Deficit
  • Functional limitations stressed
  • Classification very important
  • Standardized assessment
  • Separate remedial instruction for each category

16
What is inclusive education?
  • Students are with their age and grade level peers
  • Few if any special classes and no special schools
  • All children in the same classroom, whatever the
    disability
  • There can be resource withdrawal

17
What is inclusive education?
  • Continuum of support service
  • Special education is integrated with regular
    education
  • Need to review student progress
  • Reading, spelling, writing (composition),
    mathematical problem solving, arithmetic
  • Not necessarily examinations. EPs play an
    important role in assessment either guiding
    teachers or doing individual assessments

18
Why inclusive education?
  • Human rights concerns value all within the
    community
  • Increase social acceptance
  • Integrate individual into educational system
  • Prepare SPED student for living in a broader
    social context
  • Help prevent bullying and aggression
  • Help non SPED children

19
Opposition to inclusion
  • It costs too much
  • Other children will suffer
  • Individual student will not be able to cope
  • It is too difficult
  • People are not willing to accept it
  • Students will not get an appropriate education-
    their needs will not be met

20
Teamwork - Partners in Inclusion
21
What makes inclusion work?
  • Teacher preparation
  • Smaller class size
  • Not too many special ed students in one class
  • Classroom climate
  • Discussion of the individual differences with the
    students

22
What makes inclusion work?
  • Educators assume responsibility
  • Teachers work closely with all children
  • Children are prepared for difference
  • Characteristics of SPED children
  • 8responsiveness
  • 8strengths
  • Parent support

23
What are the characteristics of lessons that
support inclusion?
  • Recognize and build on the diversity of student
    experience
  • Reflect difference in student knowledge and
    abilities
  • Accommodate different rates at which students
    learn
  • Allow for differences in learning styles

24
What are the characteristics of lessons that
support inclusion?
  • Learning aims are clear
  • Recognize student strengths
  • Avoid mechanical copying
  • Work done by individuals/pairs/groups/whole class
  • Variety of activities discussion, oral
    presentation, audio-visual, writing, library
  • Variety of ways to record work

25
What are the characteristics of good teacher and
EP preparation for inclusion?
  • Fostering an understanding of how children
    develop reading, spelling, arithmetic,
    problem-solving and social skills
  • Developing an understanding of social and
    emotional development
  • Developing positive attitudes toward student
    diversity

26
What are the characteristics of good teacher
preparation and EP for inclusion?
  • Knowledge of the categories of special ed
    students
  • Practicum experience with special ed students
  • Understanding of working with paraprofessionals
  • Understanding the parents feelings and concerns

27
What is good leadership in regard to inclusion?
  • Knowledge of practice
  • Ability to communicate vision
  • Enthusiastic about inclusion
  • Maintain morale
  • Understand power structure
  • Provide support to teachers
  • Aware of parent concerns

28
Role of the Principals (Headmasters)
  • Select staff who agree with inclusion
  • Recognize the need for program and staff
    development
  • Total responsibility for all students
  • Understand the benefits of inclusion for all
    students
  • Identify services
  • Understand the role of technology
  • Develop the school climate

29
Family of Schools approach
  • Professionals meet together from a small number
    of schools and discuss problems and solutions.
  • Professionals learn to understand the roles of
    the individuals in the team and how they can work
    together

30
Sharing Practices
  • Best practices conference
  • Posters, booths and tables
  • Time for people to move around and visit the
    exhibits
  • Organized by SPED category

31
Group Activity
  • Describe a successful experience with inclusion.

32
Universal Design for Learning
  • Definition An approach to education that
    addresses the barriers to students learning
  • Goal making expert learners of all students

33
Universal Design for Learning
  • Goals appropriate instruction for all students
  • Materials- multiple representations of content
  • Methods- flexible and diverse
  • Assessment flexible, provides information to
    teacher and the learner

34
Identify Strengths and Weaknesses
  • Outline your own strengths and weaknesses in the
    learning areas.
  • Consider what are the ways in which you learn the
    best.
  • Consider how the educational system can adapt to
    your learning style.

35
Universal Design for Learning
  • Representation -the what of learning
  • how information is
    presented
  • Expression -the how of learning
  • how the learner expresses
    knowledge
  • Engagement -the why of learning
  • how the learner is
    motivated, engaged
  • intrinsic vs. external

36
Learning Styles
  • Students learn in different ways.
  • Some students grasp information easily when it is
    in print form.
  • Others prefer information presented in an
    auditory form.
  • Still others prefer a non-print visual format.
  • No one means of representation will suit all
    students.

37
Case Study - Paul
  • Dyslexic slow reader
  • P6
  • Difficulty with reading, spelling and writing
  • Problems with verbal memory
  • Above average mathematical skills
  • Shy, reluctant to speak
  • Good 3-dimensional visual-spatial skills
  • Artistic

38
Representation- Options for Perception
  • Customize display of information
  • Graphics, charts Paul grasps information more
    quickly in this form
  • Features of the text
  • Auditory Information
  • Tape record lectures Paul cannot take notes
    quickly
  • Students share notes
  • Visual information
  • Films, pictures, PowerPoint alternate ways of
    presenting information

39
Features of the Text
  • Make text easier to read
  • Size of the text or images
  • Amplitude and speed of the speech, video or
    sounds
  • Contrast between background and text
  • Colour used for information or emphasis
  • Layout of the visual material
  • Headings, boxes, white spaces, font

40
Universal Design for Learning
  • Representation -the what of learning
  • how information is
    presented
  • Expression -the how of learning
  • how the learner expresses
    knowledge
  • Engagement -the why of learning
  • how the learner is
    motivated, engaged

41
Universal Design for Learning
  • Representation -the what of learning
  • how information is
    presented
  • Expression -the how of learning
  • how the learner expresses
    knowledge
  • Engagement -the why of learning
  • how the learner is
    motivated, engaged

42
Alternatives for auditory information
  • Speech to text
  • speech recognition writing difficulties, shy
  • Ideal for Paul but had to learn how to use it
  • Tape recorder also good for Paul
  • Visual symbols for important points
  • Bullets, font size
  • Visual equivalents for sound effects or alerts
  • Sound to turn the page

43
Alternatives for Visual Information
  • Graphics
  • Animation
  • Video nature, biology
  • Physical objects
  • Spatial models maps, 3 dimensional very good
    for Paul history, biology

44
Examples of Alternate Text
  • Text to speech screen reader good for Paul
  • Talking books and textbooks good for Paul
  • Aide or partner that can help with reading
    paired reading

45
Case Study - Paul
  • Dyslexic slow reader
  • P6
  • Difficulty with reading, spelling and writing
  • Problems with memory
  • Above average mathematical skills
  • Shy, reluctant to speak
  • Good 3 dimensional visual-spatial skills
  • Artistic

46
Biology-Endangered Species
  • Students work in groups to develop a board game
  • Students remember facts more accurately
  • Must do research must cooperate
  • Students with output problem good verbal skills
    but poor writing can speak
  • Students with artistic skills can draw the board
  • Encourages imagination and critical thinking
  • Autistic spectrum disorder - details

47
Dyslexic- Paul
  • Prefers colour coding helps his visual memory
  • Prefers charts
  • Wants to be allowed to tape record lectures

48
Group Activity
  • How can we help Paul learn biology in the
    endangered species game?

49
Case Study - Susan
  • S1
  • Difficulty with mathematics, impulsive errors,
    does not know multiplication tables
  • Poor handwriting and spelling
  • Trouble learning English
  • Attention deficit, appears unmotivated
  • Good reader, including reading comprehension
  • Good at rule learning
  • Likes acting and drama
  • Likes to play the drums and sing

50
Group Activity
  • How can we help Susan in the Endangered Species
    game?

51
Representation Options for Language
  • Define Vocabulary
  • Electronic dictionaries
  • Clarify syntax- Susan- stress rules, exceptions
  • Grammar checkers
  • Cross linguistic understanding Susan stress rules
  • Electronic translation
  • Decoding text/Mathematical symbols - Susan
  • Charts to help with impulsive errors
  • Illustrate concepts non-linguistically - Paul
  • Mind map

52
Techniques for Vocabulary Symbols
  • Pre-teach vocabulary - Susan
  • Prefixes, suffixes helps spelling, vocabulary
  • Morphology helps spelling, vocabulary
  • Compound words hairbrush, toothpaste
  • Embed information within text- illustrations,
    footnotes, explanations
  • Embed support within text - jargon,
    colloquialisms, idioms

53
Morphological - Words
  • They need to 1.diversionary
  • 2.diversity
  • 3.diversion
  • 4.diversify

54
Morphological - Pseudowords
  • The car is too 1.rendalize
  • 2.rendal
  • 3.rendment
  • 4.rendify

55
Vocabulary Activityfor each group
  • Think of as many prefixes and suffixes as you can
  • Think of as many morphological endings as you can
    and categorize them by part of speech

56
Techniques to Clarify Syntax and Structure
  • Highlight structural relations to make them more
    explicit
  • Offer less complex alternative
  • Verb tenses
  • Make relationships explicit
  • Link ideas in a concept map
  • Highlight transition words in an essay
  • Then, however, furthermore
  • Tie antecedents for anaphoric references
  • This, that, his, hers

57
Decoding Text or Mathematical Notation
  • Text to speech
  • Mathematical notation with voicing- Susan cannot
    remember the name of the symbols or draw them
  • Text with human voice talking books

58
Cross-linguistic Understanding
  • Present key information or definitions in first
    language in addition to English
  • If possible, find cognates
  • Provide electronic links to dictionaries, web
    translations

59
John
  • Autistic Spectrum Disorder Aspergers Syndrome
  • S1
  • Average decoding skills, poor comprehension
  • Very poor handwriting
  • Poor social skills
  • Fascinated with dinosaurs, automobiles, battles
  • Good visual memory, poor auditory memory
  • Math calculation skills are good but problem
    solving is difficult
  • Has trouble seeing the big picture, good
    attention to detail
  • Family has difficult coming to terms with his
    problems

60
Group Activity
  • How can we help John in the Endangered Species
    game?

61
Illustrating Key Concepts Non-linguistically
  • One form of symbolic representation complemented
    with an alternative form
  • Solar system description with a 3D model
  • Illustrations or diagrams complemented with
    verbal explanation - John
  • Link information in text to accompanying charts,
    illustrations, or diagrams - John

62
Representation Options for Comprehension
  • Provide background knowledge - John
  • Highlight important ideas - John
  • Guide information processing - John
  • Support memory and transfer guides for memory

63
Activating Background Knowledge
  • Relate new information to existing knowledge
  • Advance organizers KWL
  • Know Wonder Learn
  • Pre-teach critical concepts
  • Use analogies and metaphors
  • Susan likes rules and concepts

64
Highlight Critical Features and big ideas
  • Stress rule learning multiplication tables
  • Susan
  • Use outlines
  • Stress key elements
  • Use examples and non-examples- John
  • English plurals
  • Reduce irrelevant information John
  • Use cues and prompts to draw attention to
    critical features Paul

65
Options to Guide Information Processing
  • Prompt each step in a sequential process
  • Scaffolding to support strategies
  • Chunking information into smaller elements
  • Progressive release of information
  • Wh questions

66
Supporting Memory and Transfer
  • Checklists, post-it notes, organizers, electronic
    reminders
  • Opportunities for review and practice
  • Templates for note taking
  • Mnemonics

67
Expression Options for Physical Action
  • Mode of physical response
  • Paper and pencil
  • Keyboarding
  • Means of navigation
  • Accessing tools and assistive technologies

68
Mode of Physical Response
  • Allow more time
  • Oral reports and examinations
  • Poor handwriting learn typing skills
  • Touch typing not hunt and peck

69
Means of Navigation
  • Voice
  • Joystick
  • Adapted keyboard

70
Accessing Tools Assistive Technologies
  • Touch screens
  • Keyboard commands for mouse actions
  • Instead of pull down menus
  • Control s for Save

71
Media for Communication
  • Text
  • Speech story telling, drama
  • Drawing, illustration
  • 3D models
  • Film, video
  • Multimedia web design
  • Music, visual art, sculpture

72
Composition Problem-Solving
  • Spell checkers, grammar checkers, word prediction
    software
  • Voice recognition, dictation, recording
  • Calculators
  • Sentence starters
  • Story webs, concept mapping tools
  • Computer aided design, music writing software

73
Scaffolds for Practice and Performance
  • Provide models
  • Provide different mentors
  • Provide scaffolds that yield increasing
    independence
  • Provide feedback often and differentiated

74
Expression- Options for Expressive Skills and
Fluency
  • Media for communication
  • Tools for composition and problem solving
  • Scaffolds for practice and performance

75
Expression Options for Executive Function
  • Effective goal setting- what are your dreams
  • Support planning and strategy development
  • Facilitate the managing of information and
    resources
  • Enhance capacity for monitoring progress

76
Effective Goal Setting
  • Prompts to estimate effort, resources and
    difficulties
  • Model or examples of effective goal setting
  • Guides and checklists for scaffolding goal-setting

77
Checklist - Composing a Paper
  • Select topic
  • Do some research
  • Narrow the topic
  • Write outline
  • Check to see that research fits outline
  • Write introductory sentence
  • Write one sentence summary/conclusion
  • Write sections
  • Check for transitions between sections
  • Check spelling and grammar
  • Write a one paragraph summary

78
Planning Strategy Development
  • Prompts to stop and think before acting
  • Checklists to set up priorities, sequence, and
    schedule of steps
  • Models of think-aloud of process
  • Guides for breaking long term goals into smaller
    ones

79
Managing Information and Resources
  • Graphic organizers for data collection and
    organizing information
  • Prompts for categorizing
  • Checklists and guides for note-taking

80
Enhancing Capacity for Monitoring Performance
  • Guided questions for self monitoring
  • Charts showing progress
  • Templates that guide self reflection

81
Template for Self Reflection for Composition
  • Have I chosen the topic carefully?
  • Have I searched the important sources?
  • Have I looked up any words I did not know?
  • Have I made an outline?
  • Have I paid attention to the transitions between
    paragraphs? Do I have any colloquial language?
  • Have I taken the role of the reader?
  • Have I written a one sentence conclusion?
  • Have I written a summary paragraph?
  • Have I checked for spelling and grammar errors?

82
Engagement Options for Developing interest
  • Increase individual choice and autonomy
  • Enhance relevance and value
  • Reduce threats and distractions

83
Options for Increasing Individual Choice
Autonomy
  • Allow some choice in tools for information
    gathering
  • Allow some choice in timing of completion of
    subtasks
  • Allow some choice in the design of activities
    individual vs. group and who they work with
  • Involve students in setting their own goals

84
Enhancing Relevance Value
  • Socially relevant activities
  • environment
  • Activities that communicate to real audiences
  • Provide tasks that allow for active participation
    and experimentation

85
Reduce Threats Distractions
  • Charts, calendars, and schedules that increase
    predictability of daily activities
  • Availability of breaks
  • Spaced vs. massed practice
  • Spaced practice shorter periods, learning over
    several days rather than in one long period

86
Salience of Goals
  • Prompt requirement to restate goals
  • Display concrete goal
  • Divide long term goals into short term objective
  • Hand held or computer based scheduling
  • Prompts for visualizing desired outcome

87
Challenge Support
  • Differentiation of degree of difficulty
  • More advanced students get special problems
  • Opportunities for collaboration
  • Variations in acceptable performance
  • Not counting spelling in the grade
  • Emphasize improvement and effort as alternatives
    to competition and external evaluation

88
Fostering Collaboration
  • Cooperative learning groups
  • Lessons in working together as a group
  • Prompts to guide students in when to ask for help
    from peers and teachers
  • Peer tutoring and support
  • Construction of virtual communities
  • Shy student

89
Increasing Mastery Oriented Feedback
  • Feedback to encourage perseverance and
    self-awareness
  • Feedback that emphasizes effort, improvement and
    achieving a standard rather than comparison with
    others
  • Frequent feedback
  • Feedback that encourages strategies for success
    trying again, understanding difficulty

90
Goal Setting and Expectations
  • Prompts, checklists, guides that focus on small
    goals to reduce frustration
  • Coaches that understand strengths and weaknesses

91
Coping Skills and strategies
  • Managing frustration
  • Seeking support
  • Develop internal controls
  • Cognitive behavioural skills self talk
  • Positive self reinforcement

92
Self-assessment and Reflection
  • Devices to help students collect and record data
    from their progress
  • Monitoring progress should be timely, frequent
    and understandable
  • Testimonials from other students

93
Engagement - Options for sustaining Effort and
persistence
  • Heighten salience of goals and objectives
  • Vary levels of challenge and support
  • Foster collaboration and communication
  • Increase mastery oriented feedback

94
Engagement Options for Self-Regulation
  • Guide personal goal setting and expectations
  • Scaffold coping skills and strategies
  • Develop self-assessment and reflection

95
Challenges for Inclusive Education
  • Assessment
  • Team work
  • Teacher preparation
  • Restructuring of Lessons
  • Individual Education Plan - IEP

96
Assessment Examination Accommodations
  • Increased time
  • Oral examinations
  • Allow the use of a computer
  • Allow the use of a calculator
  • Reader person, screen reader
  • Scribe writes down what the student says

97
Increased Time for Examinations
  • What would we do for Paul, Susan, John?
  • Written on transcript if there are accommodations

98
The Individual Education Plan (IEP)
  • A description of the students current functioning
    in all areas, including strengths
  • A description of what should be done to help the
    student with areas of difficulty
  • A description of what will be done in the
    classroom to help the student
  • A description of what resource people will help
    the student and in what areas

99
What would you like to know?
  • Behaviour
  • Past history of learning
  • Past difficulties, if any
  • What interventions have been tried?
  • First language
  • Strengths

100
Suggestions for an IEP
  • Level of functioning
  • Specific problems- types of errors
  • What will you do to help her?
  • Who will help her?
  • What accommodations will be made in the classroom
  • How will you monitor her progress?

101
Template for an IEP
  • Major concerns
  • Difficulties
  • Strengths
  • Factors first language, family factors
  • Past history of interventions
  • Planned interventions
  • supports needed
  • People responsible
  • Team meetings planned

102
John
  • Autistic Spectrum Disorder Aspergers Syndrome
  • Average decoding skills, poor comprehension
  • Very poor handwriting
  • Poor social skills
  • Fascinated with dinosaurs, automobiles, battles
  • Good visual memory, poor auditory memory
  • Math calculation skills are good but problem
    solving is a problem
  • Has trouble seeing the big picture, good
    attention to detail
  • Family has difficult coming to terms with his
    problems

103
IEP - John
  • Major concerns
  • Reading comprehension
  • Mathematics problem solving algebra, geometry
  • Social skills
  • Strengths
  • Attention to detail
  • Visual memory
  • Interest in dinosaurs, machines, battles,
    computer games
  • Adequate decoding and math calculation skills

104
John - IEP
  • Factors
  • Troubled family, parents highly educated and have
    difficulty accepting his difficulties
  • Past history of interventions
  • IH classroom IQ 79- some good verbal skills,
    fine motor difficulties, good rote memory

105
John
  • Planned interventions
  • Typing tutor
  • Writing practice
  • Group work Endangered Species Game
  • Use of highlighting for text
  • Text to speech screen reader
  • Break down any new concepts into small steps

106
IEP
  • Supports needed
  • Group work classroom teacher
  • Reading comprehension classroom and SPED teacher
  • Social support for family
  • People responsible
  • Classroom teacher, SPED, social worker
  • Team meetings planned
  • Beginning, middle and end of the year

107
The following 3 slides are for group work
108
Task 1
  • Prepare an IEP for a S1 student in English
  • Dyslexic
  • Poor vocabulary, handwriting, and spelling
  • Inadequate phonics skills
  • Stumbles over longer words
  • Trouble with English grammar
  • Difficulty in English composition
  • Strengths artistic, excellent computer skills,
    good imagination

109
Task 2
  • Prepare an IEP for a P1 student for a Chinese
    language class
  • Dyslexic
  • Poor handwriting
  • Makes mistakes in stroke placement
  • Poor composition skills
  • Composes music, sings and plays the guitar very
    well
  • Has attention difficulties
  • Likes movies, especially Jackie Chan movies

110
Task 3
  • Develop an IEP for a student in S3 with a
    Mathematics disability
  • Student reads English and Chinese quite well but
    has some problems speaking English
  • Poor fine-motor co-ordination
  • Poor handwriting and composition skills
  • Student has difficulty with mathematics
  • Student has trouble remembering formulas
  • Student is very anxious about his performance
  • Attention and motivation difficulties
  • Difficulties with English spelling and
    composition

111
Task 4
  • S2 student with ASD
  • Attention difficulties
  • Is interested in dinosaurs and airplanes
  • Good decoding skills but poor comprehension
  • Trouble with Chinese writing but good speaking
    skills
  • Difficulties reading and speaking English

112
Task 5
  • P3 student with mild mental handicap
  • Good singing voice
  • Good social skills
  • How can the English, Chinese and mathematics
    curriculum be adjusted to help her?

113
Other Aspects of Inclusion
114
How can we help students learn together?
  • Build interpersonal and communication skills
  • Teach about bullying and teasing
  • Role play and simulation about disabilities
  • Blind
  • Deaf
  • Wheelchair
  • Learn Arabic writing copy script

115
Learner Centered Classroom
  • Chairs around tables comfortable places to work
  • Walls students work not just the best
  • Schedule information
  • Charts that help
  • Class discussion
  • Students question each other
  • Students ask questions
  • Tasks- different activities simultaneously

116
Tools to Evaluate Inclusion
  • Staff development help staff respond to students
  • Support is coordinated
  • All students are welcome
  • Staff and manage work well together
  • Policy is inclusion
  • Staff appointments and promotions are fair
  • Physically accessible buildings
  • School resources are fairly distributed

117
The voices of children
  • Boy with cerebral palsy
  • People think he is helpless and unable to
    understand anything
  • People feel sorry for me
  • Adults make decisions without consulting me as if
    I have no brain
  • Wants to be involved in decision making

118
Problems of SPED students
  • Asking for help
  • Ignoring
  • Saying stop
  • Making friends need to know how
  • Supporting each other
  • Giving help
  • Negotiation -accept others ideas and give their
    own

119
Learning Together
  • Negative behaviour of others toward them
  • Shouting
  • Not listening
  • Dominating
  • Excluding them
  • Picking on them
  • Influences feeling of self worth

120
Joining In
  • SPED children feel useless, sometimes bored
    because they are left out
  • Felt they do not have the language skills
  • Aggression is a problem
  • Should teach social communication and
    collaborative skills

121
Adult help
  • Can facilitate
  • Some students felt it prevented them from finding
    their own ways to solve things
  • May be embarrassing

122
Being dyslexic
It is hard to believe in yourself It can be
boring to have to drill and practice the things
that other find easy. It may be irritating that
others cannot keep up with you when you are full
of good ideas.
122
123
Being dyslexic
It can be difficult to see beyond your own
difficulties It doent seem fair that you have
to work so much harder than other sometimes. It
is frustrating, on a bad day, to realise that you
cannot remembre things you did with ease the day
before.
123
124
Dyslexia management
Individual
Classroom
School
Parents
124
125
I
Use multisensory letter learning techniques
include plastic letters, ...
125
126
I
... drawing in sand with eyes open and with eyes
closed ...
126
127
I
... or using clay to form letters.
127
128
I
128
129
I
129
130
I
130
131
I
131
132
I
132
133
I
133
134
I
134
135
I
135
136
I
136
137
I
137
138
I
138
139
I
139
140
I
Also practice the order of the alphabet as this
will help dictionary skills.
140
141
I
Help the child with the tasks, but learn to know
when to help, and when to let them try
themselves.
141
142
I
Make activities fun, and there is no reason why
it cannot be a shared experience
142
143
I
You do not have to be sitting at a table to be
working.
143
144
I
Practice regular and well known words
144
145
I
Do not just work on just whole words. Try parts
of words, based on suggestions of the teacher.
145
146
I
Teach the child how to break words down into
syllables. Spelling at the syllable level is a
lot easier than the whole word level. If they can
break the word down into the syllables, the task
of spelling is much easier.
146
147
I
Provide books that look interesting and give
guidance for appropriate level whilst still
allowing for choice.
147
148
I
Have useful words available around the classroom
for reference. Make sure the child knows where to
access them (i.e. on word lists that the child
can take to the table, not have them try to copy
from the wall).
148
149
I
Starting a personal word bank for the child. They
should carry this with them at all times.
149
150
I
Encourage the child to look at the shape of the
word and count the letters.
150
151
I
Look, Cover, Write, Check - This is a common
teaching which means first LOOK at the word,
COVER the word, WRITE the word from memory, CHECK
results.
151
152
I
A better method if you have plastic letters (or
letters on cards) is to first MAKE, then Look,
Cover, Write, Check. By having the child MAKE the
word, they can assemble the letters to make the
target word before they look at it.
152
153
I
Handwriting is very important. Many children have
to concentrate so hard on the appearance of their
handwriting that they forget about spelling!
Practice letter formations.
153
154
I
Check the way the child is sitting and holding
the pen as this can influence handwriting.
154
155
I
When practicing handwriting, concentrate on one
thing at a time, such as letter height
consistency.
155
156
I
Computers can be a great benefit to children in
many ways. As well as being multisensory, with
great sound and pictures, they can also provide
practice in the specific area of needs.
156
157
I
Word processing can allow children to submit
material without mistakes, allowing them to
concentrate on content more than spelling.
157
158
I
Do not neglect the area of maths. Many children
have difficulties, but try to find out if it is
because of the numbers, or difficulty with
reading the question.
158
159
I
Maths skills start with counting. Only once that
skill is acquired can other skills be considered.
Finger work can be good to start with.
159
160
I
Remember that some children have problems with
maths just because they cannot read the
questions. In maths some children may prefer to
use real objects for counting.
160
161
Classroom management
YES
162
Classroom management
YES
163
C
Try to put the dyslexic child near the front of
the class so you can watch their progress.
163
164
C
Check that children are keeping up, and not just
sitting passively, during shared reading and
writing times.
164
165
C
Discuss the main ideas or concepts in a passage
before having the child read it. Discuss new or
unusual vocabulary. Comprehension can be a
continuing problem for dyslexic people of all
ages.
165
166
C
Adapt the classroom so that, wherever possible,
dyslexic children sit alongside well-motivated
children or a 'study buddy' who they can ask to
clarify instructions for them.
166
167
C
Organise the class so that there is little
movement around the room, as some dyslexic
children find background noise and visual
movement distracting.
167
168
C
With each task ask what is important - spelling,
grammar or content, and mark appropriately. Where
reading and writing are involved, allow extra
time.
168
169
C
When marking work, try where appropriate to
indicate the nature of the error, particularly if
it is a consistent one and back up with an oral
explanation.
169
170
C
Gather as many interested adult helpers as you
can teach them together in a small group how to
teach your dyslexic children, (using blind-folds,
sand trays, cursive handwriting, practice
crib-cards etc).
170
171
School
Individual
Class
School
Parents
Individual Learning One-to-one
Good for dyslexics, good for all
Whole school approach
Parental support
Support including assistive technology
Classroom Management
Staff Support
Supporting the parent
171
172
S
Make sure all staff know who is dyslexic. Have a
central registry of who is dyslexic, and what are
their difficulties.
172
173
S
Ensure that all staff are trained in how to
support the dyslexic individual, not just those
teaching literacy. Ensure that they do not think
this is an excuse, not that expectations should
be reduced.
173
174
S
One of the biggest difficulties faced by the
dyslexic is when a new teachers or replacement
teacher takes the class, and asks them to read
out loud. Ensure that all teachers know how to
work with all children.
174
175
S
Develop a series of resources that may be used in
all lessons and shared by all staff. They may be
simple word lists, or games to play.
175
176
S
Find books that are age and language appropriate.
That it, they may be a content age of 11, but a
reading age of 8.
176
177
S
Keep files on all individuals, and ensure they
get passed on to the next school when the child
moves.
177
178
Training
Individual
Class
School
Parents
Individual Learning One-to-one
Good for dyslexics, good for all
Whole school approach
Parental support
Support including assistive technology
Classroom Management
Staff Support
Supporting the parent
178
179
Group Activity
  • What questions will parents ask when they find
    out their child has a spld?

180
Some Answers
  • Why?
  • What causes it?
  • What can I do to help?
  • Is it because I did not read to him? Ate the
    wrong food when I was pregnant?

181
Parental involvement
182
P
Parents should help the child explore the book
and understand the basic principles, including
where the book starts, what is the title, how the
pictures relate to the title.
182
183
P
Parents should be encouraged to read aloud with
their children. They should be taught not to
correct, comment or do anything other than read
the words out loud. Making no attempt to correct
etc takes all the pressure off the child.
183
184
P
Have regular meetings with the parents to ensure
they understand the difficulties and how they can
help. Remember that the parents may also be
dyslexic.
184
185
P
Finally, don't forget to nurture talents and
interests, as it is important to not only help in
the areas of weakness, but to also build on the
areas of strength.
185
186
Dyslexia management the DOs
Be enthusiastic about what you do Try to be
interesting and vary resources Be flexible and
willing to change your plans Keep each
activity short and have a variety in each
session Have some extra activities in
reserve Remember to talk over what you have
done in previous sessions
186
187
Dyslexia management the DOs
Repeat what has been learnt, perhaps in a
different way Allow time to work out
strategies Remember some people do not like to
read aloud Give praise and encouragement
Think about trying to set achievable targets with
the student for one or more sessions Let the
student feel in control and that you value his
ideas
187
188
Dyslexia management the DOs
Try to correct and criticise in a positive
way Try to finish each lesson with the student
feeling successful Be a good listener Take
a break - everyone needs it Relax and enjoy
188
189
Dyslexia management the DONTs
Be too ambitious Try to rush Ignore the
students interests, hobbies and pastimes
Compare your students to others Be surprised
at what your student cant do Interrupt too
quickly to correct reading
189
190
Dyslexia management the DONTs
Show your frustration if he gets if wrong
Overload with too many activities in one
session Pick out all errors - only the
important ones Panic if things go wrong.
Change the activity and return later.
190
191
191
192
192
193
193
194
194
195
Neurophysiology of Dyslexia
  • There is a strong genetic component to dyslexia
  • Even early in development there is evidence that
    infants who later become dyslexic process sounds
    differently
  • The brains of dyslexics show less activity in the
    temporal-parietal areas associated with reading

196
Treatment Resistors
  • Significant correlations splenium and thalamus
    activity and
  • Word reading, pseudoword reading, and reading
    comprehension
  • Differences from controls on DTI
  • Left splenium
  • Left thalamus
  • Left putamen

197
Gifted and Talented
  • High Ability
  • Problem with the definition

198
Multiple Intelligences
  • Group discussion
  • What are the multiple intelligences?
  • How does one assess these intelligences?

199
Multiple Intelligences
  • Linguistic
  • Musical
  • Spatial
  • Logical/Mathematical
  • Bodily Kinesthetic
  • Artistic
  • Personal intelligences
  • Sense of self
  • Sense of others
  • Cultural sensitivity

200
Strategies for Gifted Education
201
Strategies for Gifted Education
  • Special projects
  • Community mentors
  • Contests
  • School productions
  • Exhibitions Chinese lanterns

202
3 Tier Model
  • 1. Classroom instruction
  • Early screening
  • 2. Resource withdrawal
  • 3. Intensive help

203
Characteristic of the 3 Tier Model
  • Excellent, evidence based classroom instruction
  • Frequent monitoring of performance
  • Help as soon as it is needed
  • Intensive assessment only as a last resort

204
Traditional Model
  • WAIT UNTIL THEY FAIL deficit model
  • Functional limitations stressed
  • Classification very important
  • Detailed assessment
  • Separate remedial instruction

205
3 Tier Model
  • Tier 1 Classroom instruction
  • Early screening
  • Tier 2 Resource withdrawal
  • Tier 3 Intensive assessment and remediation

206
Tier 1
  • Early identification
  • Monitoring of academic skills at least yearly
  • Good classroom instruction

207
Tier 1 strengths
  • Easier to remediate problems when the child is
    younger
  • Saves money
  • Reduces severe behaviour problems and school
    dropout
  • Helps prevent drop in self-esteem

208
Tier 1 Challenges
  • Finding the financial resources
  • Training and empowering teachers
  • Developing the assessment tools
  • The pervasive classification mentality
  • Developing mechanisms to change attitudes

209
RTI
  • Tier 1 Quality Core
  • Enhanced general education classroom
    instruction.
  • Universal and whole class
  • Tier 2 Secondary Intervention
  • Child receives more intense intervention in
    general education, presumably in small groups.
  • Tier 3 Tertiary
  • Intervention increases in intensity and
    duration. Support typically needed across years.
    Intervention is individualized

210
RTI Principles
  • If a child experiences difficulty, he or she
    moves to the next level.
  • Criteria must be clearly set out.
  • Monitoring of performance is essential.

211
Assessment
  • Tier 1 Screening and Progress Monitoring
  • Tier 2 Progress monitoring
  • Tier 3 Progress monitoring and comprehensive
    evaluation

212
5 Year Olds Before Learning To Read
Right
Left
Right
Left
Simos, P.G., Fletcher J.M., Foorman, B.R.,
Francis, D.J., Castillo, E.M., Davis, R.N.,
Fitzgerald, M., Mathes, P.G., Denton C.
Papanicolaou, A.C. (2002). Brain activation
profiles during the early stages of reading
acquisition. Child Neurology.
213

Good Intervention Normalizes Brain Activation
Patterns
Before Intervention
After Intervention
normalized
Left
Right
214
Curriculum Based Measurement
  • Writing for 10 minutes mark 5 7 10
  • Examine spelling errors, amount written
  • Relate it to examinations

215
Self-regulated Learning
  • Through the courtesy of Dr. Nancy Perry

216
What is SRL?
  • SRL involves metacognition, motivation, and
    strategic action (Winne Perry, 2000 Zimmerman,
    1990).
  • Self-regulated learners are successful in and
    beyond school (McCaslin Good, 1996 Zimmerman
    Bandura, 1994).
  • Research indicates students benefit from
    instructional contexts that promote SRL (Graham
    Harris, 2003 Wong et al., 2003).
  • High-SRL teaching practices are student-centered
    and prompt teachers to consider the needs of all
    learners.

217
Metacognition
  • Awareness of learning strengths and weaknesses
  • Ability to analyze the demands of
    tasks/activities
  • Use of effective thinking and problem solving
    strategies to cope with the challenges tasks
    present

218
Motivation for Learning
  • Genuine interest in learning
  • Belief that ability is incremental
  • Focus on personal progress
  • Willingness to try challenging tasks
  • View that errors present opportunities to learn
  • Belief that effort and effective strategy use
    will lead to success

219
Strategic Action
  • Choose from a repertoire of strategies those best
    suited to the learning situation
  • Apply strategies effectively and efficiently

220
Supporting SRL
  • Designing complex tasks
  • address multiple goals,
  • involve large chunks of meaning,
  • extend over long periods of time,
  • enable students to engage in a variety of
    processes,
  • and create a wide range of products.

221
Supporting SRL
  • Give students meaningful choices,
  • opportunities to control challenge,
  • evaluate their work,
  • and collaborate with peers.

222
Supporting SRL
  • Provide instrumental support
  • through scaffolding/co-regulating learning,
  • establishing familiar participation structures,
  • teaching strategies,
  • and talking about learning and SRL.
  • Nurture a community for learning
  • pair individual responsibility with group
    support,
  • encourage students to share ideas and strategies,
  • make allowances for individual differences.

223
Supporting SRL
  • Using non-threatening evaluation practices
  • embedded in daily activities,
  • emphasize processes as well as products,
  • focus on personal progress,
  • encourage children to view errors as
    opportunities to learn,
  • involve students in setting criteria for
    evaluation and self-evaluation.

University of Oslo Institute of Educational
Research
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