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Material Handling and Storage

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Material Handling and Storage Material Handling and Storage Objectives Discuss the basics of ergonomics and functions of the spine Describe the various types of order ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Material Handling and Storage


1
Material Handling and Storage
2
This material was produced under grant number
46B4-HT15 from the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does
not necessarily reflect the views or policies of
the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of
trade names, commercial products, or
organizations imply endorsement by the U.S.
Government.  
3
Material Handling and Storage
4
Objectives
  • Discuss the basics of ergonomics and functions of
    the spine
  • Describe the various types of order picking
    systems
  • Describe proper lifting techniques
  • Identify material handling hazards associated
    with various warehouse operations
  • Transport techniques
  • Storage
  • Packaging
  • Work practices

5
Basic Functions of the Spine
  • Supports the bodys weight
  • Structure for body
  • Flexibility to bend and rotate
  • Maintains natural S curve for maximum strength

6
Proper Lifting Techniques
  • No tripping or slipping hazards
  • Plan rest stops
  • Easiest route
  • Avoid stairs
  • If it is too heavy - GET HELP!

Plan the Job
7
Proper Lifting Techniques (contd)
  • A ddress the item
  • B end at the knee
  • G et a good grip
  • R aise with the legs

8
Keep the Load Close
  • Closer to your spine
  • Less force on back
  • 10 pound load at arms length is 100 pounds on
    the back

9
Lifting Techniques
  • Diagonal lift
  • Power lift

10
PivotDont Twist
  • Pivot your feet
  • Turn entire body

11
Materials Handling Hazards in Warehouses
  • Consist of job features which have a potentially
    harmful effect on the body
  • Work station layout/environment
  • Improper work methods
  • Improper tools
  • Job design problems
  • Poor housekeeping

12
Transport Techniques
  • Placing boxes on pallets
  • Maintenance

See http//www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/grocerywareh
ousing/transport_techniques_animation.html
13
Placing Boxes on Pallets
  • Repeated bending at the waist to place boxes on
    the lowest level of pallets
  • Heaviest units are placed on the bottom layer for
    stability
  • Requires employees to lift the heaviest loads
    using their worst body postures

14
Solutions
  • Raise height of the bottom level
  • Provide height-adjustable picking equipment
  • Educate employees about the hazards of bending
    while moving heavy loads
  • Stack empty pallets on the pallet jack to elevate
    bottom of load
  • Place palletizer on forks of pallet jack to keep
    product at waist height
  • Utilize power equipment

See http//www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/grocerywareho
using/transport_techniques_animation2.html
15
Storage
  • Low locations
  • High locations
  • Double or triple slots
  • Reaching
  • Aisle width

16
Low Locations
  • Pallets are stored in pick bins a few inches from
    the floor
  • Low racking requires employees to bend at waist
  • Is a significant problem since the heaviest load
    is in shortest stack
  • Storing pallets in taller slots still requires
    employees to bend at waist

17
Solutions
  • Elevate pallets within slot bin
  • Place empty pallets under load
  • Raise bottom level of racking so loads are at
    heights where bending is not necessary
  • Provide a forklift with built-in vacuum hoist

18
Solutions (contd)
Empty pallets stacked to raise product to waist
height
Raised shelving
19
Solutions (contd)
Vacuum hoist
20
High Locations


  • Reaching above shoulder to access products on
    upper shelves
  • Results in stress to back and shoulders
  • Requires awkward hand and wrist postures




Reaching above shoulder height
21
Solutions
  • Use elevated rack locations
  • Provide "Pick Sticks" or "Bow Peep" hooks

Bow Peep hook
22
Multi-slot Hazards
  • Maximizes shelving space
  • Increases ergonomic stressors
  • Forces workers to bend to access product
  • Workers must reach above shoulders to access
    materials

Double slotting
Triple slotting requires elevated reaches to
access product
23
Solutions
  • Provide full slotting
  • Use gravity feed flow rack for slow moving
    product

Full slotting
Gravity fed flow racks
24
Reaching
  • Product is often removed from the front of
    pallets first
  • Leaves remaining product in the back of pallets
  • Creates additional stress on the shoulders and
    back

Reaching to the back of the pallet
25
Solutions
  • Develop product rotation process
  • Place pallets on turntables
  • Use roller and channel devices
  • Provide wider slots for heavier products
  • Train stockers to allow sufficient space to move
    pallet during selection

For optimal access, place product on turntable
26
Aisle Width
  • Insufficient access to faster-moving product
  • Creates congestion
  • Forces selectors to stop farther from pick slot
    and carry product longer distances to pallet jack
  • To save trips, selectors may be tempted to carry
    multiple parcels at the same time

Congested aisle
27
Solutions
  • Increase aisle width of aisles where fast-moving
    product is located
  • Will allow pallet jacks to get closer and reduce
    distance loads must be carried
  • Stagger the start times at beginning of day
  • Results in fewer selectors hitting the same
    slots at the same time

28
Packaging
  • Heavy containers
  • Inadequate handholds
  • Plastic wrapping
  • Wooden pallets
  • Wrapping pallets
  • Opening boxes

5-Gallon (40 lbs)
29
Heavy Containers
  • Boxes are extremely heavy in cold or freezer
    warehouses
  • Weigh as much as 100 lbs.
  • Manually lifting places stress on employees
    muscles
  • Repeated lifting can result in back injuries,
    muscle strains and disc injury

30
Solutions
  • Work with suppliers to provide product in
    smaller, lighter containers
  • Improve access to heaviest items
  • Provide handhold cutouts or handles on all heavy
    products
  • Work with suppliers to ensure container integrity
    is adequate
  • Load pallets with lighter product in center and
    heavier on outer edges

Some suppliers are willing to modify weight of
packages
31
Solutions (contd)
Heavier packages on the outside
32
Inadequate Handholds
  • Many packages do not have handles or handle
    cut-outs
  • Makes heavy cases difficult to grasp
  • Forces employees to use awkward posture

Boxes without handles are difficult to grasp
33
Solutions
  • Encourage suppliers to provide product in stable
    boxes with hand hold cut-outs or handles
  • Is especially important for product that is
    extremely heavy



Examples of handhold devices
34
Wooden Pallets
  • Weigh between 40 and 70 pounds
  • Lifted several times during work shift
  • Repeated lifting causes stress to lower back
  • Splinters from handling wood is also a hazard to
    worker


Workers bend to lift pallets several times
during a shift
35
Solutions
  • Request lighter, plastic pallets
  • Easily nest together to reduce space of stacking
  • Eliminates splinters and uneven surfaces
  • Provide a pallet dispenser to reduce handling of
    pallets

Pallets weigh 20 to 30 lbs.
Pallet dispenser
36
Training New Employees
  • New employees may not recognize ergonomic hazards
    or understand effective techniques used to
    minimize these hazards

37
Solutions
  • Provide general ergonomics and work-task specific
    training at time of orientation
  • Explain risk factors and proper work techniques
    to minimize hazards
  • Provide video tapes of proper work practice for
    employee review
  • Retrain injured employees regarding ergonomic
    risks pertinent to their injuries
  • Mentor new employees with experienced workers
  • Explain the medical management system

38
Summary
  • Discussed the science of ergonomics and functions
    of the spine
  • Described the various types of order picking
    systems
  • Described proper lifting techniques
  • Identified various material handling hazards
    associated with warehouse operations
  • Transport techniques
  • Storage
  • Packaging
  • Work practices
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