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Assessment in Career Counseling

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Session 9 Assessment in Career Counseling Ethics in Testing Schedule Overview MBTI SII Ethics Overview Parsons (1909) encouraged assessment as first step in three ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Assessment in Career Counseling


1
Session 9
  • Assessment in Career Counseling
  • Ethics in Testing

2
Schedule
  • Overview
  • MBTI
  • SII
  • Ethics

3
Overview
  • Parsons (1909) encouraged assessment as first
    step in three-step model of career counseling
  • Test and Tell approach not current
  • Spokane purpose of career assessment is to find
    career possibilities congruent with clients
    attributes, assess conflicts and problems,
    motivate constructive behavior, acquire a
    cognitive structure for evaluating career
    alternatives, clarify expectation and plan
    interventions, and to establish the range of
    abilities

4
Career Assessment
  • Personality
  • MBTI
  • Interests
  • SII, Career Assessment Inventory, SDS, Kuder OIS,
    Kuder GIS, Jackson VI
  • Abilities and Skills
  • ASVAB, DAT, CISS
  • Values
  • Values Scale, Salience Inv, Minnesota Importance
    Qu
  • Career Decision Process
  • Career Dec Scale, My Vocational Situation,
    Assessment of Career Decision Making, CDM-Self
    efficacy, CDM-Difficulties
  • Career Maturity
  • CMI, Career Dev Inventory
  • Integrated system
  • Kuder Career Planning
  • Interest inventory
  • Skills assessment
  • Work values inventory
  • Available online
  • Computer assisted
  • Discover
  • SIGI-Plus

5
MBTI
  • Based on Jungian theory
  • Myers and Briggs began developing the test in the
    early 1940s to bring Jungs Personality Theory
    to the general public on the belief that it could
    help people in everyday life
  • Has over 50 years of research and development
  • It is the most widely used instrument for
    understanding normal personality differences.

6
Uses
  • Help people understand themselves and their
    behaviors
  • appreciate others so as to make constructive use
    of individual differences
  • make a start with personal development.
  • see that approaching problems in different ways
    can be healthy and productive for themselves and
    the groups they belong to or aspire to belong to
    (family, organization, collaborative teams).

7
Four dimensions
  • Extraversion (E) OR Introversion (I)
  • Sensing (S) OR Intuition (N)
  • Thinking (T) OR Feeling (F)
  • Judging (J) OR Perceiving (P)

8
Write about this painting
9
A one year trip
  • Visit the world
  • Stay together
  • 10 million dollars

10
Strong Interest Inventory
  • One of most widely used and most researched
    inventories
  • Results in six-page profile
  • Explores general interests, occupational
    interests, and lifestyle

11
Validity Check
  • At least 30 items answered
  • Infrequent responses-negative number means should
    explore why
  • Administrative indices
  • Provide distribution on like, indifferent to,
    and Dislike the Yes, ?, and the No and
    the left, middle or right choices
  • Look for extreme response percentages

12
Interpretation
  • Begin by discussing Holland codes
  • Focus on three areas
  • General Occupational Scales (GOTs)
  • Basic Interest Scales (BISs)
  • Occupational Scale (OSs)
  • While describing GOTs, relate to BISs under each
    theme
  • Explore specific OSs

13
Interpretation (cont)
  • Total of 211 OSs,107 for women and 104 for men
  • Explore occupations with T score of 40 or higher
  • Personal Styles Scale (cautious)
  • Work Style (people vs. ideas, data, things)
  • Learning Environment (academic to practical)
  • Leadership Style (directing vs. persuading)
  • Risk Taking/Adventure (play it safe or take
    risks)

14
Scoring, norms, psychometric information
  • Mean on all scales is 50 and SD 10
  • Test-retest for GOTs from .84 to .92 and .80 to
    .94 in BISs
  • Items chosen that differentiate interests of
    those in an occupation from the general sample
  • Separate gender norms are used

15
Scoring (cont)
  • 200 individuals for each occupational group
  • Satisfied
  • 3 years work experience
  • Perform typical job duties
  • Between 25 and 60
  • Cautious interpretation of OSs because scales
    vary in predictive and concurrent validity
  • Personal Style Scales are new and have less
    validity data

16
Case Study
  • Your team is working with a family who has come
    in for counseling. They are Mom, Dad, Maternal
    Grandmother (MG), a daughter, a son, and a male,
    14 year old cousin.
  • The cousins parents were killed in a car
    accident over a year ago. The cousin has been in
    grief counseling and has resolved many of the
    difficulties related to his parents deaths.
    The boy had been living with his grandparents,
    who it was deemed, were so strict with him that
    he would prefer to live with his aunt and uncle.
    Mom and Dad asked Cousin if he would like to join
    their family with Daughter (15) and Son (11).
    They have come to counseling as a family to learn
    how to purposefully integrate into a new family.
  • You administer the MBTI and come up with the
    following
  • Maternal Grandmother ESTJ Dad ISTJ Mom
    ENFJ Daughter ESFJ
  • Son INFP Cousin E/INTP
  • How might you work with this family to help them
    learn about themselves, appreciate one anothers
    uniqueness, predict possible rougher areas, and
    brainstorm alternative responses to possible
    rough areas?

17
1994 School-to-Work Opportunities Act
  • Stipulated that students should identify career
    goals prior to entering high school and begin an
    actual career plan
  • American School Counselor Association and U. S.
    Army developed materials available on ASCAs web

18
  • Gender and Racial Issues in Career Assessment

19
Gender
  • Differences between men and woman
  • Interest inventories should use same sex norms
  • Opportunity dominance vs. socialization dominance
    low interest may be a result of experiences and
    opportunities so low interest scores should be
    explored

20
Ethnic and Cultural Differences
  • Culturally Appropriate Model
  • Culturally encompassing information gathering
  • Culturally appropriate selection of instruments
  • Culturally appropriate administration
  • Culturally appropriate interpretation of
    assessment data

21
Legal and Ethical Issues in Assessment
  • Ignorance is no defense

22
Sources for Ethical Decisions
  • ACA Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice
  • Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education
  • Standards for School Counselor Competence in
    Assessment and Evaluation
  • Other Resources

23
Invasion of Privacy
  • Informed consent
  • Relevance

24
Right to Results
  • Regardless of scoring mechanism, counselors are
    responsible to provide appropriate explanations
  • Must interpret in terms that client can understand

25
Least Stigmatizing Label
  • If categories are used, must be described
    precisely
  • Sometimes diagnosis is related to treatment and
    even if counselor is trying to be helpful, it is
    both illegal and unethical to change a diagnosis

26
Computerized Assessment
  • Ethical issues in the use of computerized
    assessment

27
  • Legal Issues in Assessment

28
Civil Rights Act of 1991
  • Griggs v. Duke Power Company
  • If instrument has an adverse or disparate impact,
    employer must show that hiring procedures are job
    related
  • Brought about stronger focus on validity of
    employment tests

29
  • Ban on separate norms
  • U. S. Employment Services used separate norms for
    African Americans and Hispanics on GATB
  • Act said this is illegal

30
Policies and Procedures for Processing Complaints
of Ethical Violations
  • ACA
  • Consult with colleagues
  • Clients can charge
  • Must indicate specific ethics violated
  • Due process

31
Disabilities Acts
  • American with Disabilities Act of 1990
  • Focus on employment and unemployment testing
  • Fair measures and assessment procedures needed

32
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of
    1997
  • PL 94-142
  • Use variety of tools and strategies, no single
    procedure, technically sound instruments
  • Attend to multicultural issues

33
Family Rights and Privacy Act of 1974
  • Student right to privacy
  • No release of records without permission
  • Counseling records kept in separate locked
    cabinet and accessible only to the counselor are
    not considered part of educational record

34
  • Without parental permission kids cannot be given
    psychological testing or treatment that may
    reveal information concerning mental and
    psychological problems potentially embarrassing
    to student or students family

35
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability
Act of 1996 (HIPPA)
  • Very complicated
  • Concerns security and privacy of health
    information
  • State laws take precedence
  • If involved with third party payment, HIPPA is
    involved
  • Must develop, maintain, and account for
    disclosures of private client information for 6
    years

36
Truth in Testing
  • New York state
  • Nadar and SAT
  • Mandated that if student asked, copy of questions
    and correct answers must be provided
  • Only CA passed similar legislation

37
  • Litigation

38
Test Bias and Placement
  • Issue is use of intelligence tests with African
    American students because of discrimination
  • Larry P. v. Riles (1979)- Judge Peckham bans use
    of intelligence testing in CA because
    discriminatory
  • PASE v. Hannon (1980) judge ruled opposite way
  • 1992, Judge Peckham lifts ban

39
Minimum Competency
  • Minimum competency kids graduating from high
    school and cant balance check book
  • Controversy centers on discrimination
  • Debra P. v. Turlington (1981) in FL

40
  • Ruling set precedent about need for relationship
    between curriculum and minimum competency testing
  • If students not taught material covered on test,
    students Constitutional rights (equal protection
    and due process) are violated

41
Right to Privacy
  • Soroka et al. v. Dayton-Hudson Company (1991)
  • Target used personality inventory for employment
    screening
  • Court ruled that constitutional right to privacy
    and statutory prohibition against improper
    inquiries and discriminatory conduct was violated
    by asking about religious beliefs and sexual
    orientation
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