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CPE/CSC 580: Knowledge Management

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Title: CPE/CSC 580: Knowledge Management


1
CPE/CSC 580 Knowledge Management
  • Dr. Franz J. Kurfess
  • Computer Science Department
  • Cal Poly

2
Course Overview
  • Introduction
  • Knowledge Processing
  • Knowledge Acquisition, Representation and
    Manipulation
  • Knowledge Organization
  • Classification, Categorization
  • Ontologies, Taxonomies, Thesauri
  • Knowledge Retrieval
  • Information Retrieval
  • Knowledge Navigation
  • Knowledge Presentation
  • Knowledge Visualization
  • Knowledge Exchange
  • Knowledge Capture, Transfer, and Distribution
  • Usage of Knowledge
  • Access Patterns, User Feedback
  • Knowledge Management Techniques
  • Topic Maps, Agents
  • Knowledge Management Tools
  • Knowledge Management in Organizations

3
Overview Knowledge Exchange
  • Motivation
  • Objectives
  • Knowledge Capture
  • Explicit Capture
  • Extraction From Text
  • Case-based Reasoning
  • Enhancement of Existing Documents
  • Transfer of Knowledge
  • Communication
  • Basic Concepts
  • Language and Communication
  • Natural Language
  • Formal Languages
  • Communication Models
  • Distribution of Knowledge
  • Knowledge Repositories
  • Distribution Models
  • Important Concepts and Terms
  • Chapter Summary

4
Logistics
  • Term Project
  • Documentation
  • Schedule
  • Lab and Homework Assignments
  • Schedule
  • Exams
  • Grading

5
The Need for Knowledge Exchange
Richer representations More ambiguous More
versatile
Introductory texts, expert hints, explanations,
dialogues, comments, examples, exceptions,...
Info. extraction templates, dialogue segments and
pegs, filled-out forms, high-level
connections,...
Knowledge Base
Descriptions augmented with prototypical
examples exceptions, problem-solving steps
and substeps, ...
More formal More concrete More introspectible
Alternative formalizations (KIF, MELD, CML,),
alternative views of the same notion (e.g.,
what is a threat)
((( )) ())))
(defconcept bridge ()))
Gil 2000
6
Knowledge Mobility
  • multiple views and versions of the same
    information
  • need to provide tools that establish connections
    among alternative versions/views of the same
    information
  • hyper-connectivity
  • need to provide tools that suggest further
    connections to related sources when users compose
    documents
  • need to annotate hyperlinks
  • basis to support information morphing
  • how one or more knowledge sources are used for
  • alternative purposes
  • track alternative knowledge transformations
  • various renderings and implementations of a
    knowledge source

Gil 2000
7
Pre-Test
8
Motivation
9
Objectives
10
Knowledge Capture
  • Explicit Capture
  • Extraction From Text
  • Case-based Reasoning
  • Enhancement of Existing Documents

11
Explicit Capture
  • conventional techniques for knowledge acquisition
  • interviews with experts
  • knowledge engineers
  • advantages
  • carefully constructed
  • suitable knowledge representation methods
  • usually common-sense evaluation
  • sometimes formal evaluation
  • consistency checks, other formal aspects

12
Extraction From Text
  • syntactic level
  • keywords
  • essentially construction of an index
  • descriptive features
  • semantic level
  • document structure
  • requires information about structure
  • tags, DDT, RDF
  • sentence structure
  • natural language processing (NLP)
  • pragmatic level
  • context
  • thesaurus, ontology, NLP

13
Case-based Reasoning
  • solutions to a problem in a specific context are
    collected
  • represented in a structured format
  • problem, context, solution
  • usable by a computer-based system
  • cases are often represented through frames or
    similar mechanisms
  • new cases are matched against existing ones
  • patterns in the frames provide the basis for
    matching
  • the suitability of the solution is judged by the
    user

14
Enhancement of Existing Documents
  • in addition to the methods mentioned above,
    collections of documents can be enhanced
  • addition of meta-knowledge
  • integration into an existing framework/ontology
  • manually through categorization
  • automatically through keyword extraction
  • indirectly through statistical correlations with
    other documents

15
Transfer of Knowledge
  • Communication
  • Basic Concepts
  • Language and Communication
  • Natural Language
  • Formal Languages
  • Communication Models

16
Basic Concepts
  • communication
  • exchange of information
  • requires a shared system of signs
  • greatly enhanced by language
  • speaker
  • produces signs as utterances
  • general not only spoken language
  • listener (hearer)
  • perceives and interprets signs

17
Purpose of Communication
  • sharing of information among agents or systems
  • query other agents for information
  • responses to queries
  • requests or commands
  • actions to be performed for another agent
  • offer
  • proposition for collaboration
  • acknowledgement
  • confirmation of requests, offers
  • sharing
  • of experiences, feelings

18
Communication Problems
  • intention
  • what is the expected outcome (speakers
    perspective)
  • timing
  • when is a communication act appropriate
  • selection
  • which act is the right one
  • language
  • what sign system should be used
  • interpretation
  • will the intended meaning be conveyed to the
    listener
  • ambiguity
  • can the intention be expressed without the
    possibility of misunderstandings

19
Language and Communication
  • Natural Language
  • used by humans
  • evolves over time
  • moderately to highly ambiguous
  • Formal Languages
  • invented
  • rigidly defined
  • little ambiguity

20
Natural Language
  • formal description is very difficult
  • sometimes non-systematic, inconsistent, ambiguous
  • mostly used for human communication
  • easy on humans
  • tough on computers
  • context is critical
  • situation, beliefs, goals

21
Formal Languages
  • symbols
  • terminal symbols
  • finite set of basic words
  • not alphabet, characters
  • non-terminal symbols
  • intermediate structures composed of terminal or
    non-terminal symbols
  • strings
  • sequences of symbols
  • phrases
  • sub-strings grouping important parts of a string

22
Formal Languages Cont.
  • sentences
  • allowable strings in a language
  • composed from phrases
  • grammar
  • rules describing correct sentences
  • often captured as rewrite rules in BNF notation
  • lexicon
  • list of allowable vocabulary words

23
Communication Models
  • encoded message model
  • a definite proposition of the speaker is encoded
    into signs which are transmitted to the listener
  • the listener tries to decode the signs to
    retrieve the original proposition
  • errors are consequences of transmission problems
  • situated language model
  • the intended meaning of a message depends on the
    signals as well as the situation in which they
    are exchanged
  • mis-interpretation may lead to additional problems

24
Communication Types
  • telepathic communication
  • speaker and listener have a shared internal
    representation
  • communication through Tell/Ask directives
  • language-based communication
  • speaker performs actions that produce signs which
    other agents can perceive and interpret
  • communication language is different from the
    internal representation
  • more complex
  • involves several mappings
  • language needs to be generated, encoded,
    transmitted, decoded, and interpreted

25
Telepathic Communication
Russell Norvig 1995
26
Language-Based Communication
Russell Norvig 1995
27
Communication Steps Speaker
  • intention
  • decision about producing a speech act
  • generation
  • conversion of the information to be transferred
    into the chosen language
  • synthesis
  • actions that produce the generated signs

28
Communication Steps Listener
  • perception
  • reception of the signs produced by the speaker
  • speech recognition, lip reading, character
    recognition
  • analysis
  • syntactic interpretation (parsing)
  • semantic interpretation
  • disambiguation
  • selection of the most probable intended meaning
  • incorporation
  • the selected interpretation is added to the
    existing world model as additional piece of
    evidence

29
Communication Example
Russell Norvig 1995
30
Distribution of Knowledge
  • Knowledge Repositories
  • Digital Libraries
  • Distribution Models

31
Knowledge Repositories
  • persistent storage of digital documents
  • internal representation in the original format
  • loss-less transformation may be acceptable
  • transparent internal organization
  • multiple presentation methods for various users
    and usage methods
  • multiple access methods
  • according to users needs and capabilities

32
Digital Libraries
  • collections of documents and artifacts stored and
    accessed via computers
  • remotely accessible through networks
  • enhanced functionality compared with paper-based
    libraries
  • access methods
  • organization principles
  • duplication
  • implementation and usage unclear

33
Vision...
  • a network of learning environments and
    resources for Science, Mathematics, Engineering
    and Technology education, will ultimately meet
    the needs of students and teachers at all
    levelsK-12, undergraduate, graduate, and
    lifelong learningin both individual and
    collaborative settings.

NSF
NEEDS 2000
34
NEEDS
  • National digital
  • library emerging
  • from the Synthesis Coalition (1990 - 1999)
  • Integrated database of multimedia courseware
  • Multilevel courseware evaluation system
  • Community of Engineering Educators

Berkeley
UMBC
Stanford
Virginia Tech
Northern Arizona
NEEDS 2000
35
www.needs.org - Contents
NEEDS 2000
36
www.needs.org - Communities
  • Community - a group of individuals who engage in
    communication through a common bond.
  • Faculty prefer to learn where they are a member
    of a community that is built upon shared values
    and interests regarding teaching, learning, and
    pedagogy
  • GOAL Provide faculty a means to learn from one
    another unconstrained by barriers of time,
    distance, technology, and geography.

NEEDS 2000
37
Towards A National SMETE Digital Library...
Should NSF Establish and Fund a National Science,
Mathematics, Engineering and Technology Education
Digital Library?
  • April 1996 - NSF Committee Meeting (LIBUSE)
  • Towards a National Library for Undergraduate
    Science Education Resources in Science,
    Mathematics, Engineering and Technology
  • August 1997 National Research Council
  • Digital National Library for SMET Education
    Workshop
  • July 1998 National Science Foundation
  • SMETE-Lib Workshop
  • January 1999 National Science Foundation
  • Digital Libraries and Education Workshop

Funding through Digital Libraries Initiative
Phase 2 And NSDL Programs
NEEDS 2000
38
www.needs.org
  • Development
  • Courseware Studios
  • Instructional Labs
  • Faculty Offices Residences
  • Libraries
  • Anywhere
  • Delivery
  • Classrooms
  • Instructional Labs
  • Small Study Groups
  • Residences
  • Libraries
  • Anywhere

Database
NEEDS is the foundation for the National SMETE
Digital Library at www.smete.org.
NEEDS 2000
39
NEEDS Aspects
  • Digital Library of Multimedia Engineering
    Courseware
  • Bibliographic records with downloadable
    courseware
  • Multimedia elements - downloadable movies,
    images, and text
  • Multilevel Courseware Evaluation System
  • Peer Review of Courseware
  • Premier Award for Excellence in Engineering
    Education Courseware
  • Expanding Services and Features

NEEDS 2000
40
How does NEEDS help users re-use learning
materials?
  • Provides mechanisms to help user locate materials
  • Uses standardized descriptions (metadata) to
    describe resources
  • Provides mechanisms to help users evaluate the
    quality of materials
  • Developed upon an extendable platform to
  • Support multiple uses
  • Integrate new services and features
  • Integrate research

NEEDS 2000
41
Quality Review of Coursewareon the NEEDS Database
  • Establish credibility of NEEDS as a source of
    Quality educational material
  • Enhance recognition of scholarly and creative
    effort of courseware developers
  • Peer/Expert Review of Courseware
  • Premier Award for Excellence in Engineering
    Education Courseware

NEEDS 2000
42
The Premier Award for Excellence in Engineering
Education Courseware
  • A national competition to identify and reward the
    authors of high-quality, non-commercial
    courseware designed to enhance engineering
    education.
  • The Premier Award is about the entire experience
    of using the courseware by learners, not just the
    courseware itself
  • A dissemination system to distribute the Premier
    Courseware (via CDs and presentation at
    engineering education conferences).

43
Premier Courseware of 1997-1999
  • Virtual Disk Drive
  • Design Studio
  • Drill Dissection and
  • Bicycle Dissection
  • Mars Navigator
  • Della Steam Plant
  • MDSolids
  • Structural Engineering Visual Encyclopedia - UNH
  • Engineering Graphics
  • Cracking Dams

6,700 CD-ROMs Distributed
For more info or to receive copies go to
http//www.needs.org/engineering/premier/
44
Needs Assessment with Members of the Math,
Science and Engineering Community
  • Purpose
  • To understand the math, science and engineering
    communities of educators and examine their needs
    in order to design services and structures to
    support users from multiple communities.
  • Research Questions
  • What services, features programs are integral
    to success?
  • What do users expect with regards to quality of
    the holdings?
  • Who makes up the SMETE digital library community?

American Association of Physics Teachers,
American Mathematical Society, American
Association for the Advancement of Science,
members of the NSF Chemistry Consortia and the
NSF Engineering Education Coalitions
NEEDS 2000
45
Translating Findings into Services Features
  • Quality
  • System to rapidly identify the quality of holding
  • Place to comment about a learning object or
    regarding something of interest to the community
  • Reviewers should include experts in pedagogy and
    content

NEEDS 2000
46
Translating Findings into Services Features
  • Community
  • Embedded structures for developing and
    maintaining communication links
  • Developing community should be on par with
    building content
  • Build on discipline based communities to
    establish connection to a broader community
  • Content
  • Useful content and community interaction ensures
    user participation as authors, reviewers,
    adapters/adopters, and consumers

NEEDS 2000
47
Prototype www.smete.org
John Wiley
Math Forum
Berkeley
UMBC
ENC
UCOP
Stanford
Virginia Tech
Northern Arizona
  • Prototype Goals (1998-2001)
  • Develop a Prototype National SMETE Digital
    Library
  • test interoperability of federated
    searches/shared services with partners
  • expand requirements analysis to include K12
  • develop criteria and standards to assess the
    impact of learning objects across disciplines
  • implement community feedback systems, evaluate
    services

NEEDS 2000
48
Building a National SMETE Digital Library at
www.smete.org
  • Searching for learning resources
  • Cataloging (adding) learning resources
  • Standards, IEEE and IMS
  • Evaluating the quality of learning resources
  • User reviews
  • Expert reviews
  • Forming a community of users in SMETE
  • PKAL workshops and seminars
  • Research on adapters

NEEDS 2000
49
Systems Development
  • Expanding www.smete.org/NEEDS platform
  • Continuing to participate in the development of
    IEEE/IMS Learning Object Metadata Standards
  • Adopting emerging IEEE standards
  • Expanding user comments
  • Implementing discussion systems
  • Implementing customized
  • user profiles
  • Expanding Collections
  • Expanding into Chemistry,
  • Physics, and Mathematics

Total Collection Engineering 58 Chemistry 21
Physics 14 Math 5 Other 2
NEEDS 2000
50
Collaborating with Partners
  • Working with University of California Office of
    the President - (10 campuses)
  • Identifying courseware under development
    systemwide
  • Developing TLT_at_UC Website to showcase teaching
    and learning with technology at the University of
    California

NEEDS 2000
51
Challenges Toward the Future...
  • Continuing to understand and support changing
    user needs
  • Improving ability to encapsulate the
    instructional intent and use of materials
  • Metadata standards and cataloging practice
  • Supporting communities of use and practice
  • pedagogy
  • content

NEEDS 2000
52
Challenges Toward the Future...
  • Continuing to understand and support changing
    user needs
  • Improving ability to encapsulate the
    instructional intent and use of materials
  • Metadata standards and cataloging practice
  • Supporting communities of use and practice
  • pedagogy
  • Content
  • Which allows for a user to find what theyre
    really looking for as well as personalization of
    content.

NEEDS 2000
53
www.smete.org
NACME
WebCT
BioQUEST
John Wiley
Math Forum
Berkeley
UMBC
ENC
AAAS
ILT
UCOP
Utah State
PKAL
Stanford
DLESE GDL
Virginia Tech
Northern Arizona
Cisco Sun
Eduprise
SRI
MAA
TI
  • NSDL Goals (2000- )
  • Develop the National SMETE Digital Library
  • Provide seamless access to services and resources
  • Create a dynamic learning community that promotes
    and supports SMET education in the 21st century
  • Expand Partnerships
  • Expand Services and Community

NEEDS 2000
54
UNC Digital Library Project
  • Digital Services Grants (In-Kind)
  • REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS (RFP)
  • Spring 2001

Agenda Overview QA for RFP Digital Library
Background
UNC Digital Library 2000
55
Overview
  • Current and Future Project Services
  • Current Structure of the DLP
  • Prototype Interface for DLP

UNC Digital Library 2000
56
Services for Curators
  • Improved access to collections
  • Support for a variety of media types
  • 24x7 storage services
  • Standards-based metadata schema
  • Capability to support discipline-specific
    vocabularies
  • Mini-grant program for digitizing high-impact
    collections

UNC Digital Library 2000
57
Services for Instructors
  • Flexible rights management (limit access to
    students in a course, departments, etc.)
  • Improved access to other supporting materials
  • Presentation options
  • Web-based slide show
  • Side-by-side object comparison
  • Integration with desktop applications
  • Support for annotations and other associated data
  • Documentation, training

UNC Digital Library 2000
58
Services for Scholars
  • Common web interface to many digital collections
  • Customizable My Digital Library user interface
  • Multiple search options (keyword, browsing, etc.)
  • Compliance with guidelines for disability access

UNC Digital Library 2000
59
Structure of the DLP
INTERFACE
DATABASE
MIDDLEWARE
OBJECT STORAGE
OTHER PROJECTS
UNC Digital Library 2000
60
Structure of the DLP
  • Metadata Directory
  • User Management
  • Crosswalk Repository
  • Schema Repository
  • Controlled Vocabularies

UNC Digital Library 2000
61
Structure of the DLP
  • Metadata Transformer
  • Authentication and Authorization
  • Discovery Tools
  • Object Manipulation
  • Presentation Tools
  • Class Rolls

UNC Digital Library 2000
62
Structure of the DLP
  • My Folders
  • Administration, Display, and Search
  • The Buzz Whats New?

UNC Digital Library 2000
63
Prototype Interface
Admin, Display, Search ADMIN Allows the digital
library visitor to publish his own material for
others to use as well as arrange the contents of
his My Folders space. DISPLAY Allows for
different ways of showing off an individual
object or group of objects within ones space.
Some common displays here would include
slideshows and thumbnails. SEARCH Allows for
basic keyword searching at any point in time, as
well as access to more extensive search
capabilities.
My Folders A personal space where your uploaded
objects as well as links to other objects can be
organized. This space will also show the classes
and projects you are currently involved in, in
the capacity of instructor and/or student.
The Buzz / Whats New? This space will include
recent additions to the digital library,
particularly those related to the visitors
established areas of interest. The Buzz will
specifically display the most accessed objects
overall, within my field, etc. This space will
also ultimately contain other information, such
as live news feeds, both local and world-wide.
UNC Digital Library 2000
64
Digital Library in-a-Box
Sweeney Kurfess 1998
65
The EXPECT Project at USC/ISI (I)
  • EXPECT architecture to develop knowledge based
    systems that uses highly declarative
    representations
  • Swartout and Gil, KAW-95, Gil and Melz,
    AAAI-96
  • http//www.isi.edu/expect
  • Application focus
  • knowledge-rich planning tools, often integrated
    within a larger architecture
  • Research focus
  • knowledge acquisition tools that exploit
    declarative representations to help end users
    augment KBs
  • exploiting declarative representations to mediate
    agent communication BlytheGilChalupskyMacGrego
    r 00

Gil 2000
66
The What-to-How Spectrum Feigenbaum 96
The history of software development
Specification-level languages
Expert Systems
Intelligent Agents
Assembly language
Fortran, Lisp, SQL
Excel, Lotus
AI
Software translates WHAT to HOW
Gil 2000
67
The Good News gt The Bad News
  • As we develop more advanced and higher-level
    languages, we still require formalisms and logic
  • Complete information
  • Consistent statements
  • Executable/compilable
  • Requires putting knowledge in a straightjacket
  • Represent knowledge once it is digested
  • captures only the result of the modeling process
  • Represent only a subset of the overall knowledge
  • i.e., whatever fits what the formalism requires
  • Represent only what there is time to represent
  • the rest is assumed unnecessary
  • Represent only what is well understood

Gil 2000
68
Connections Are Missing!
  • There is a real conflict between the logicians
    goal and the educators. The logician wants to
    minimize the variety of ideas, and doesnt mind a
    long thin path. The educator (rightly) wants to
    make the paths short and doesnt mind - in fact,
    prefers - connections to many other ideas.
    Minsky 1969
  • Knowledge turns up piecemeal
  • Compartmentalized and seldom rejoined
  • Only truly necessary views/opinions are
    represented
  • Only truly necessary connections are represented
  • As long as the information is there, the system
    should figure it out
  • No value to redundancy/alternatives

Gil 2000
69
The Need for Knowledge Mobility HPKB Challenge
Problem - Year 1

LOOM
HPKB Upper Ontology
BS Ontologies (military units, vehicles, etc)
Features and Terrain (Stub) Ontology
COA Ontology
Eng. Techniques Ontology
Eng. Equpt. Ontology
KB of Eng. Actions

Temporal Estimation/ Assessment Problem Solver
Methods for Time Estimation
COA Generation Problem Solver
EXPECT
Gil 2000
70
The Need for Knowledge Mobility HPKB Challenge
Problem - Year 2
Gil 2000
71
The Need for Knowledge MobilityJFACC ISTI
Architecture
JTF Plan Server (CORBA)
Plan
CJTF Objectives
Refined plan
JMTK Map Visualization
Plan
Expanded Plan
Plan
Plan Critiques
CPET/APAT Targeting (Automated)
Knowledge Base Server (LOOM)
Gil 2000
Gil 2000
72
The Need for Knowledge MobilityARPI MAPViS
MPA Planning Agents
MPA Agent Evaluation Toolkit
Process Monitor
APAT GUI Plan Viewer
ACS
VISAGE
Advisable Planner (SIPE-2) Planner
(SIPE-2) Scheduler (OPIS) Planning-Cell Manager
(PRS)
Beddown Critic
Inspect
Gil 2000
73
The Need for Knowledge Mobility
  • Reuse and integration Valente et al., IEEE IS
    99
  • Ontology/theory manipulation operations
    KnightLuk, AAAI-94 Hovy et al. 94
    MacGregor Chalupsky 99
  • Aligning, merging, slicing, etc.
  • Morphing Chalupsky, KR-2000
  • Transformation-based knowledge morphing
  • Repeated mergers and imports are the norm
  • Ontology-based translation
  • Mismatches resolved on a case by case basis, on
    demand
  • Hub and spokes model
  • n-degrees of indirection if agents have n-degrees
    of ontological separation
  • Knowledge Mobility is becoming increasingly more
    challenging

Gil 2000
74
What is Needed Resilient Hyper Knowledge Bases
(RHKB)
  • Extend our view of what a KB contains
  • Support a variety of knowledge
    media/formats/representations
  • Include alternative renderings of knowledge
  • Everything should remain part of the knowledge
    base
  • Initial sources introductory texts, expert
    hints, explanations, dialogues, comments,
    examples, exceptions,
  • Intermediate analysis and models of those sources
    as they are digested
  • Final representations
  • Emphasis on knowledge connectivity
  • Among progressively more digested renderings of
    the same knowledge
  • Among related pieces of knowledge
  • Among alternative views on the same knowledge
  • Among different kinds of knowledge
    media/formats/representations

Gil 2000
75
Evaluation Criteria
76
Reference Kearns 00
Kearns 00
77
Reference Sommerville 01
  • Sommerville 01

Sommerville 01
78
Post-Test
79
Evaluation
  • Criteria

80
References
  • Gil 2000 Yolanda Gil, Knowledge Mobility.
    Dagstuhl Workshop Semantics for the Web, March
    2000.
  • NEEDS National Engineering Digital Library,
    www.needs.org
  • Russell Norvig 1995 Stuart Russell and Peter
    Norvig, Artificial Intelligence - A Modern
    Approach. Prentice Hall, 1995.

Gil 2000
81
Important Concepts and Terms
  • natural language processing
  • neural network
  • predicate logic
  • propositional logic
  • rational agent
  • rationality
  • Turing test
  • agent
  • automated reasoning
  • belief network
  • cognitive science
  • computer science
  • hidden Markov model
  • intelligence
  • knowledge representation
  • linguistics
  • Lisp
  • logic
  • machine learning
  • microworlds

82
Summary Chapter-Topic
83
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