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Title: B368 Business Issues and Ethics


1
B368 Business Issues and Ethics
  • Group 9
  • Tutorial 2
  • C.S. Lai
  • Oct. 2010

2
Welcome! todays agenda
  • Introduction and review of last
    tutorial 20 mins.
  • Unit 2 Making ethical business
    decisions 120 mins.
  • Break 10 mins.
  • Unit 3 Tools and techniques to manage business
    ethics (will not be discussed in details in the
    tutorial)
  • TMAs 15 mins.
  • QA, Your Suggestions 15 mins.

3
Summary of Tutorial 1
  • What is business ethics?
  • Why is business ethics important?
  • Globalization a key context for business ethics?
  • Sustainability a key goal for business ethics?

4
What is business ethics?
  • Business ethics is the study of business
    situations, activities, and decisions where
    issues of right and wrong are addressed.

5
The relationship between morality, ethics and
ethical theory
6
Why is business ethics important?
  1. Power and influence of business in society
  2. Potential to provide major contribution to
    society
  3. Potential to inflict harm
  4. Increasing demands from stakeholders
  5. Lack of business ethics education or training
  6. Continued occurrence of ethical infractions
  7. Evaluating different ways of managing business
    ethics
  8. Interesting and rewarding

7
Globalization a key context for business ethics?
8
What is globalization?
  • According to Scholte (2000) globalization is not
  • internationalization
  • liberalization
  • universalization
  • westernization
  • Globalization is the progressive eroding of the
    relevance of territorial bases for social,
    economic and political activities, processes and
    relations
  • deterritorialization

9
Ethical impacts of globalization
10
Sustainability a key goal for business ethics?
11
The three components of sustainability
Economic
Social
Environmental
12
Triple bottom line
  • Coined by John Elkington
  • Bottom line thinking suggests sustainability as a
    goal
  • Three dimensions
  • Environmental perspectives
  • Economic perspectives
  • Social perspectives

13
Framing Business Ethics Corporate
Responsibility, Stakeholders, and Citizenship
14
Activity
  • What is a Corporation?
  • Do companies / corporations have social
    responsibilities?

15
Overview
  • Analyse the notion of responsibility for
    corporations
  • Distinguish the various concepts of corporate
    social responsibility
  • Present the stakeholder theory of the firm
  • Outline the concept of corporate accountability
  • Critically examine the notion of corporate
    citizenship
  • Discuss specific European implications of these
    mostly US-born - concepts

16
Towards a framework for business ethics
17
Key features of a corporation
  • A corporation is essentially defined in terms of
    legal status and the ownership of assets
  • Corporations are typically regarded as
    artificial persons in the eyes of the law
  • Corporations are notionally owned by
    shareholders, but exist independently of them
  • Managers and directors have a fiduciary
    responsibility to protect the investment of
    shareholders

18
Can a corporation have social responsibilities?
  • Milton Friedman 1970 classic article The social
    responsibility of business is to increase its
    profits
  • Vigorously argued against the notion of social
    responsibilities for corporations based on three
    main arguments
  • Only human beings have a moral responsibility for
    their actions
  • It is managers responsibility to act solely in
    the interests of shareholders
  • Social issues and problems are the proper
    province of the state rather than corporate
    managers

19
Can a corporation be morally responsible for its
actions?
  • Evidence to suggest that legal designation of a
    corporation makes it unable to be anything but
    self-interested (Bakan 2004)
  • Long and complex debate but generally support
    from literature for some degree of responsibility
    accredited to corporations
  • Argument based on
  • Every organisation has a corporate internal
    decision structure which directs corporate
    decisions in line with predetermined goals
    (French 1979)
  • All organisations manifest a set of beliefs and
    values that lay out what is generally regarded as
    right or wrong in the corporation
    organizational culture (Moore 1999)

20
Corporate Social Responsibility
21
Why do corporations have social responsibilities?
  • Business reasons (enlightened self-interest)
  • Extra and/or more satisfied customers
  • Employees may be more attracted/committed
  • Forestall legislation
  • Long-term investment which benefits corporation
  • Moral reasons
  • Corporations cause social problems
  • Because they are powerful, corporations should
    use their power and resources responsibly
  • All corporate activities have social impacts of
    one sort or another
  • Corporations rely on the contribution of a wide
    set of stakeholders in society rather than just
    shareholders

22
Activity
  • Pick an organization that youre familiar with
  • Identify the activities that this organization
    have done in order to fulfill its social
    responsibilities.
  • E.g.
  • Diageo is promoting responsible drinking (Ethics
    in Action 2.1)
  • CLP is planting trees.
  • https//www.clpgroup.com/SocNEnv/SER/Community/Pag
    es/CommunityInvestment.aspx
  • If you re the boss of that organization, will
    you support the social responsibility initiatives
    by contributing and time? Why and why not?

23
What is the nature of corporate social
responsibilities?
  • Corporate social responsibility encompasses the
    economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic
    expectations placed on organizations by society
    at a given point in time
  • (Carroll Buchholtz 200035)

24
Carrolls four-part model of corporate social
responsibility
Desired by society
Philanthropic Responsibilities
Expected by society
Ethical Responsibilities
Required by society
Legal Responsibilities
Required by society
Economic Responsibilities
Source Carroll (1991)
25
CSR in a European context
  • CSR particularly strong concept in US and only
    more recently become so influential in Europe
  • Difference due to explicit CSR is US and implicit
    CSR in Europe
  • Could argue that all levels of CSR play a
    different role in Europe
  • Economic responsibility
  • USA strongly focused on responsibility to
    shareholders
  • Europe focused on the economic responsibility to
    employees and local communities as well
  • Legal responsibility
  • State accepted as prominent force in enforcing
    rules of the game rather than as interfering in
    it
  • Ethical responsibility
  • Europeans tend to exhibit greater mistrust of
    modern corporations than US
  • Philanthropic responsibility
  • In Europe mostly been implemented compulsorily
    via the legal framework rather than via
    discretionary acts of successful companies (US)

26
CSR and strategy corporate social responsiveness
  • Corporate social responsiveness refers to the
    capacity of a corporation to respond to social
    pressures (Frederick 1994)
  • 4 philosophies or strategies of social
    responsiveness (Carroll 1979)
  • Reaction
  • Defence
  • Accommodation
  • Proaction

think about the activity you just donewhich
strategy the organization you mentioned was using?
27
Outcomes of CSR corporate social performance
  • Outcomes delineated in three concrete areas
  • Social policies
  • Social programmes
  • Social impacts

28
Stakeholder theory of the firm
29
Stakeholder theory of the firm
  • Theory developed by Edward Freeman (1984)
  • A stakeholder in an organization isany group or
    individual who can affect, or is affected by, the
    achievement of the organizations objectives
    (Freeman 198446)
  • More precise definition of affects and
    affected by (Evan and Freeman 1993)
  • Principle of corporate rights - the corporation
    has the obligation not to violate the rights of
    others
  • Principle of corporate effect companies are
    responsible for the effects of their actions on
    others

30
Stakeholder theory of the firm traditional
management model
31
Stakeholder theory of the firm
32
Stakeholder theory of the firm a network model
33
Activity
  • Identify the stakeholders of an organization that
    youre familiar with, or OUHK.

34
Why stakeholders matter
  • Milton Friedman businesses should only be run
    in the interests of their owners
  • Freeman - others have a legitimate claim on the
    corporation
  • Legal perspective
  • Stake in corporation already protected legally
    in some way (e.g. legally binding contracts)
  • Economic perspective
  • Externalities outside contractual relationships
  • Agency problem short term interests of owners
    vs. long term interests of managers, employees,
    customers etc.

35
A new role for management
  • According to Freeman, this broader view of
    responsibility towards multiple stakeholders
    assigns a new role to management.
  • Rather than simply being agents of shareholders,
    management has to take into account the rights
    and interests of all legitimate stakeholders
  • Stakeholder democracy
  • Corporate governance

36
Stakeholder thinking in a European context
  • One could argue that although the terminology of
    stakeholder theory is relatively new in Europe,
    the general principles have actually been
    practised for some time
  • German supervisory board
  • Covenant Approach in environmental regulation
    in the Netherlands

37
Different forms of stakeholder theory
  • Donaldson Preston (1995)
  • Normative stakeholder theory attempts to provide
    a reason why corporations should take into
    account stakeholder interests
  • Descriptive stakeholder theory attempts to
    ascertain whether (and how) corporations actually
    do take into account stakeholder interests
  • Instrumental stakeholder theory attempts to
    answer the question of whether it is beneficial
    for the corporation to take into account
    stakeholder interests

38
Activity
  • Ethical Dilemma 2
  • What are the ethical issues?
  • E.g. Ballistico has contractual obligation to
    publish his results
  • What are the options? How would you assess the
    options (hint using the stakeholders approach)
  • E.g. Publish anyway
  • How should he proceed? How can he prevent similar
    issues in future?

39
Corporate accountability
  • The firm as a political actor

40
Corporate accountability
  • Corporate accountability refers to whether a
    corporation is answerable in some way for the
    consequences of its actions
  • Firms have begun to take on the role of
    political actors taken up many of the
    functions previously undertaken by government
    because
  • Governmental failure
  • Increasing power and influence of corporations

41
Reasons for the political role of the firm
  • Government failure
  • Risk society thesis
  • Rise of subpolitics
  • Organized irresponsibility
  • Corporate power on the rise
  • Liberalization and deregulation results in more
    power and choice for private actors
  • Privatization of public services
  • Responsible for employment decisions
  • Globalization
  • Governments increasingly encourage self-regulation

42
The problem of democratic accountability
  • Who controls corporations?
  • To whom are corporations accountable?
  • Key to corporate accountability is transparency
  • Transparency is the degree to which corporate
    decisions, policies, activities and impacts are
    acknowledged and made visible to relevant
    stakeholders

43
Corporate citizenship
44
Defining corporate citizenship three perspectives
  • A limited view of CC this essentially equates
    CC with corporate philanthropy
  • An equivalent view of CC this essentially
    equates CC with CSR
  • An extended view of CC this acknowledges the
    extended political role of the corporation in
    society

45
Commitments to corporate citizenship
46
Three views of corporate citizenship
47
An extended view of CC
48
Assessing corporate citizenship as a framework
for business ethics
  • Extended view of CC adds something significant
    that helps us frame business ethics in new ways
  • Helps us better see the political role of the
    corporation
  • Clarifies the demand for corporate accountability
  • Helps to understand business in relation to
    common citizenship rights within different
    cultures and some of the challenges posed by
    globalisation
  • The rights of citizenship have strong links to
    the goal of sustainability
  • More in keeping with the European tradition of
    business ethics

49
Summary
  • Business ethics is related to the social role of
    the corporation
  • Confining corporations to commercial activities
    too limited
  • Different perspectives and their relevance in
    European context
  • CSR
  • Stakeholder theory
  • Corporate accountability
  • Effects of globalization on role of corporation
  • Corporate citizenship is latest concept in the
    field

50
Evaluating Business Ethics What makes a
business decision ethical?
51
Normative vs. Descriptive theories of business
ethics
52
What are normative ethical theories?
  • Ethical theories are the rules and principles
    that determine right and wrong for any given
    situation
  • Crane and Matten (2007)
  • Normative ethical theories are those that propose
    to prescribe the morally correct way of acting
    (will not be covering in depth in this Course).
  • As opposed to descriptive ethical theories which
    seek to describe how ethics decisions are
    actually made in business

53
The role of ethical theory
54
The role of ethical theory
  • Two extreme positions (De George 1999)
  • Ethical absolutism claims there are eternal,
    universally applicable moral principles
  • Right and wrong are objective qualities that can
    be rationally determined
  • Typically traditional ethical theories
  • Ethical relativism claims morality is context
    dependent and subjective
  • No universal right and wrongs that can be
    rationally determined depends on person making
    the decision and culture in which they are
    located
  • Typically contemporary ethical theories

55
Normative ethical theories
  • A European perspective

56
A European perspective
  • Differences between Anglo-American and European
    approaches based on philosophical arguments
  • Individual versus institutional morality
  • US tend to individualistic perspective
  • Europe towards wider economic and governing
    institutions
  • Questioning versus accepting capitalism
  • US tend to accept the capitalist framework
  • Europe tend to question the ethical justification
    of capitalism
  • Justifying versus applying moral norms
  • US tend to focus on application of morality
  • Europe focus on justification and ethical
    legitimation of norms
  • In contrast, Asian perspectives tend to be based
    on religion (e.g. Islam, Buddhism, traditional
    community values in Chinese communities)

57
Traditional Ethical Theories
58
Traditional ethical theories
  • Generally offer a certain rule or principle which
    one can apply to any given situation
  • These theories generally can be differentiated
    into two groups

Motivation/ Principles
Action
Outcomes
Consequentialist Ethics
Non-consequentialist Ethics
Source Crane and Matten (2007)
59
(No Transcript)
60
Egoism
  • Theory of egoism - an action is morally right if
    the decision-maker freely decides in order to
    pursue either their (short-term) desires or their
    (long-term) interests.
  • Adam Smith (1793) pursuit of individual
    interest morally acceptable through invisible
    hand of market as creates benefit for all
  • Relies on free competition good information
  • Enlightened egoism
  • However, markets do not function perfectly
  • Anti-globalisation movement
  • Sustainability debate

61
Utilitarianism
  • According to utilitarianism, an action is morally
    right if it results in the greatest amount of
    good for the greatest amount of people affected
    by the action
  • Also called the greatest happiness principle
  • Based on cost-benefit analysis

62
Problems with Utilitarianism
  • Subjectivity
  • Led to refinement of theory
  • Act utilitarianism
  • Rule utilitarianism
  • Problems with quantification
  • Distribution of utility

63
Act- and Rule-Utilitarianism
  • Act utilitarianism looks to single actions and
    bases the moral judgement on the amount of
    pleasure and the amount of pain this single
    action causes.
  • Rule utilitarianism looks at classes of action
    and ask whether the underlying principles of an
    action produce more pleasure than pain for
    society in the long run.

64
Ethics of duties
  • Categorical Imperative (Kant)
  • Maxim 1 Consistency Act only according to that
    maxim by which you can at the same time will that
    it should become a universal law.
  • Maxim 2 Human Dignity Act so that you treat
    humanity, whether in your own person or in that
    of another, always as an end and never as a means
    only.
  • Maxim 3 Universality Act only so that the will
    through its maxims could regard itself at the
    same time as universally lawgiving.

65
Problems with ethics of duties
  • Undervaluing outcomes
  • Complexity
  • Misplaced optimism?

66
Ethics of rights and justice
  • Natural rights are certain basic, important,
    unalienable entitlements that should be respected
    and protected in every single action.
  • Base on consensus about nature of human dignity
  • Strongly based in western view of morality
  • Justice can be defined as the simultaneously fair
    treatment of individuals in a given situation
    with the result that everybody gets what they
    deserve
  • Fair procedures (procedural justice)
  • Fair outcomes (distributive justice)

67
John Rawls Theory of Justice
  • Each person is to have an equal right to the most
    extensive total system of basic liberties
    compatible with a similar system of liberty for
    all.
  • Social and economic inequalities are to be
    arranged so that they are both
  • to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged
    and
  • attached to offices and positions open to all
    under conditions of fair equality of opportunity.

68
Limits of traditional theories
  • Too abstract
  • Too reductionist
  • Too objective and elitist
  • Too impersonal
  • Too rational and codified

69
Contemporary ethical theories
70
Virtue ethics
  • Virtue ethics contends that morally correct
    actions are those undertaken by actors with
    virtuous characters. Therefore, the formation of
    a virtuous character is the first step towards
    morally correct behaviour
  • Acquired traits
  • Intellectual virtues
  • Moral virtues

71
Feminist ethics
  • Feminist ethics is an approach that prioritizes
    empathy, harmonious and healthy social
    relationships, care for one another, and
    avoidance of harm above abstract principles

72
Feminist ethics Contrasting gender-based views
of business ethics
73
Discourse ethics
  • Discourse ethics aims to solve ethical conflicts
    by providing a process of norm generation through
    rational reflection on the real-life experiences
    of all relevant participants
  • Ultimate goal of ethical issues in business
    should be the peaceful settlement of conflicts
    (Steinmann and Löhr, 1994)
  • Different parties in a conflict should sit
    together and engage in a discourse about the
    settlement of the conflict, and ultimately
    provide a situation that is acceptable to all
  • ideal discourse criteria (Habermas 1983)

74
Postmodern perspectives on business ethics
  • Postmodern ethics is an approach that locates
    morality beyond the sphere of rationality in an
    emotional moral impulse towards others. It
    encourages individual actors to question everyday
    practices and rules, and to listen to and follow
    their emotions, inner convictions and gut
    feelings about what they think is right and
    wrong in a particular incident of decision-making.

75
Postmodern business ethics
  • Postmodern business ethics emphasises (Gustafson,
    200021)
  • Holistic approach
  • Examples rather than principles
  • Think local, act local
  • Preliminary character

76
Activity
  • Ethical Dilemma 3
  • Purchasing from developing country using child
    labour.
  • What would be your immediate gut reaction?
  • Based on the above, what are your reasons?
  • Use Fig. 3.8 as a guide, re-consider options and
    decisions.

77
Summary
  • Towards a pragmatic use of ethical theory?

78
Typical Perspective
79
Pluralistic Perspective
80
Pluralism?
  • Crane and Matten (2007) argue that for the
    practical purpose of making effective decisions
    in business
  • Not suggest one theory or one approach as the
    best or true view of a moral dilemma
  • Suggest that all these theoretical approaches
    throw light from different angles on one and same
    problem
  • Complementary rather than mutually exclusive
  • Advocate position of pluralism
  • Middle ground between absolutism and relativism

81
Considerations in making ethical decisions
summary of key insights from ethical theories
82
Making Decisions in Business Ethics Descriptive
Ethical Theories
83
Overview
  • Examine the question of why ethical and unethical
    decisions get made in the workplace
  • Determine what an ethical decision is
  • Examine the prominent ethical decision-making
    models
  • Discuss the importance of differences between
    individuals in shaping ethical decision-making
  • Critically evaluate the importance of situational
    influences on ethical decision-making (issues and
    context based)
  • Identify points of leverage for managing and
    improving ethical decision-making in business

84
Descriptive Ethical Theories
  • Descriptive business ethics theories seek to
    describe how ethics decisions are actually made
    in business, and what influences the process and
    outcomes of those decisions.

85
What is an ethical decision?
86
Main factors in deciding the moral status of a
situation
  • Decision likely to have significant effects on
    others
  • Decision likely to be characterised by choice, in
    that alternative courses of action are open
  • Decision is perceived as ethically relevant by
    one or more parties

87
Models of ethical decision-making
88
Stages in ethical decision-making
Ethical decision-making process
Source Derived from Rest (1986), as cited in
Jones (1991).
89
Relationship with normative theory
  • The role of normative theory in the stages of
    ethical decision-making is primarily in relation
    to moral judgement
  • Moral judgements can be made according to
    considerations of rights, duty, consequences,
    etc.
  • Commercial managers tend to rely on
    consequentialist thinking
  • However, the issue of whether and how normative
    theory is used by an individual decision-maker
    depends on a range of different factors that
    influence the decision-making process

90
Influences on ethical decision-making
  • Two broad categories individual and situational
    (Ford and Richardson 1994)
  • Individual factors - unique characteristics of
    the individual making the relevant decision
  • Given at birth
  • Acquired by experience and socialisation
  • Situational factors - particular features of the
    context that influence whether the individual
    will make an ethical or unethical decision
  • Work context
  • The issue itself including
  • intensity
  • ethical framing

91
Framework for understanding ethical
decision-making
92
Limitations of ethical decision-making models
  • Models useful for structuring discussion and
    seeing the different elements that come into play
  • Limitations
  • Not straightforward or sensible to break model
    down into discrete units
  • Various stages related or interdependent
  • National or cultural bias
  • Model is intended not as a definitive
    representation of ethical decision-making, but as
    a relatively simple way to present a complex
    process

93
European perspectives on ethical decision-making
  • Research on individual factors influencing
    ethical decision-making has a strong US and Asian
    bias
  • Consistent with choice within constraints
  • Research on situational factors originated by
    European authors
  • Consistent with concern for constraints themselves

94
Individual influences on ethical decision-making
95
Individual influences on ethical decision-making
96
Age and gender
  • Age
  • Results contradictory
  • However experiences may have impact
  • Gender
  • Individual characteristic most often researched
  • Results contradictory
  • These categories too simplistic

97
National and cultural characteristics
  • People from different cultural backgrounds likely
    to have different beliefs about right and wrong,
    different values, etc. and this will inevitably
    lead to variations in ethical decision-making
    across nations, religions and cultures
  • Hofstede (1980 1994) influential in shaping our
    understanding of these differences our mental
    programming
  • Individualism/collectivism
  • Power distance
  • Uncertainty avoidance
  • Masculinity/femininity

98
Education and employment
  • Type and quality of education may be influential
  • E.g. business students rank lower in moral
    development than others and more likely to cheat
  • Amoral business education reinforces myth of
    business as amoral

99
Psychological factors
  • Cognitive moral development (CMD) refers to the
    different levels of reasoning that an individual
    can apply to ethical issues and problems
  • 3 levels (details next slide)
  • Criticisms of CMD
  • Gender bias
  • Implicit value judgements
  • Invariance of stages
  • An individuals locus of control determines the
    extent to which they believe that they have
    control over the events in their life

100
Psychological factors Stages of cognitive moral
development
Source Adapted from Ferrell et al. (2002)
Kohlberg (1969) Trevino and Nelson (1999)
101
Psychological factors Stages of cognitive moral
development
Level Level Stage Stage Explanation Illustration
III Postconventional 5 Social contract and individual rights Individuals go beyond identifying with others expectations, and assesses right and wrong according to the upholding of basic rights, values and contracts of society. The public affairs manager of a food manufacturer may decide to reveal which of the firms products contain genetically modified ingredients out of respect for consumers rights to know, even though they are not obliged to by law, and have not been pressurised into by consumers or anyone else.
III Postconventional 6 Universal ethical principles Individuals will make decisions autonomously based on self-chosen universal ethical principles, such as justice, equality, and rights, which they believe everyone should follow. A purchasing manager may decide that it would be wrong to continue to buy products or ingredients that were tested on animals because he believes this doesnt respect animal rights to be free from suffering.
102
Personal values, integrity moral imagination
  • Personal values
  • an enduring belief that a specific mode of
    conduct or end-state of existence is personally
    or socially preferable to an opposite or converse
    mode of conduct or end-state (Rokeach 19735)
  • Personal integrity
  • Defined as an adherence to moral principles or
    values
  • Moral imagination
  • Concerned with whether one has a sense of the
    variety of possibilities and moral consequences
    of their decisions, the ability to imagine a wide
    range of possible issues, consequences, and
    solutions (Werhane, 199876)

103
Situational influences on decision-making
104
Situational influences on ethical decision-making
105
Moral Intensity
  • Jones (1991374-8) proposes that the intensity of
    an issue will vary according to six factors
  • Magnitude of consequences
  • Social consensus
  • Probability of effect
  • Temporal immediacy
  • Proximity
  • Concentration of effect

106
Moral framing
  • The same problem or dilemma can be perceived very
    differently according to the way that the issue
    is framed
  • Language important aspect of moral framing
  • E.g. Layoff restructuring
  • Moral muteness (Bird Walters 1989) because of
  • Harmony
  • Efficiency
  • Image of power and effectiveness

107
How ethical decisions are justified
rationalization tactics
108
Systems of reward
  • Adherence to ethical principles and standards
    stands less chance of being repeated and spread
    throughout a company when it goes unnoticed and
    unrewarded
  • What is right in the corporation is not what is
    right in a mans home or in his church. What is
    right in the corporation is what the guy above
    you wants from you. Thats what morality is in
    the corporation (Jackall, 19886)

109
Authority and Bureaucracy
  • Authority
  • People do what they are told to do or what they
    think theyre being told to do
  • Bureaucracy
  • Jackall (1988), Bauman (1989, 1993) and ten Bos
    (1997) argue bureaucracy has a number of negative
    effects on ethical decision-making
  • Suppression of moral autonomy
  • Instrumental morality
  • Distancing
  • Denial of moral status

110
Work roles and organisational norms culture
  • Work roles
  • Work roles can encapsulate a whole set of
    expectations about what to value, how to relate
    to others, and how to behave
  • Can be either functional or hierarchical

Organisational norms and culture
  • group norms delineate acceptable standards of
    behaviour within the work community
  • E.g. ways of talking, acting, dressing or
    thinking etc.

111
National and cultural context
  • Instead of looking at the nationality of the
    individual making the decision now we are
    considering the nation in which the decision is
    actually taking place, regardless of the
    decision-makers nationality
  • Different cultures still to some extent maintain
    different views of what is right and wrong

112
Summary
  • Discussed the various stages of and influences on
    ethical decision-making in business
  • Presented basic model of decision-making
  • Outlined individual and situational influences on
    ethical decision-making
  • Suggested that some individual factors such as
    cognitive moral development, nationality and
    personal integrity are clearly influential
  • Suggested that in terms of recognising ethical
    problems and actually doing something in response
    to them, it is situational factors that appear to
    be most influential

113
About submitting TMA
  • By Post or by Online Submission.
  • Send your TMA well before the due dates.
  • You should submit each assignment by the cut-off
    date. Late submissions cannot be accepted.
  • If you send by post, enclose the TMA form,
    acknowledge card with stamp
  • Put down my CORRECT address
  • DONT use registered mail. I NORMALLY IGNORE
    REGISTERED MAIL!

114
TMAs
  • You MUST pass (i.e. 40) BOTH assignments and
    final examination in order to pass the course
  • Keep a copy of each assignment
  • TMA should arrive MY MAILBOX on / before the due
    date
  • 7 days extensions will NOT normally be granted,
    unless you have GOOD reasons and with prior
    permission. (Do you know the official procedure
    of requesting extension?)
  • OUHK does not accept postal loss as a reason for
    extension

115
Reminders
  • TMA 1 due on Nov. 25, 2010

116
Enjoy the course and Good Luck See you next
time
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