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Questioning to Enhance Teaching and Learning


Questioning to Enhance Teaching and Learning Melanie Hot Handout * Jan and Melanie Jan (first two bullet points) Make questioning central to your planning ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Questioning to Enhance Teaching and Learning

Questioning to Enhance Teaching and Learning
A Brief Intro Your Presenters
Questioning Activity Why Question?
Who Needs To Be a Good Questioner?
Reporter Scientist Doctor Lawyer Auto
Mechanic Presenter Teacher and STUDENT!
What Kinds of Questions Do They Ask?
Information/Factual Research/Probing Provocative/I
rreverant Challenging Reflective Motivational/Inve
ntive Divergent Etc.
Our First Expert
  • Mckenzie, Jamie.
  • From Now On (Ed. Tech. Journal) http//
  • The Question Mark (Ed. Tech. Journal) http//quest
  • Beyond Cut-and-Paste. 2009.
  • Leading Questions. 2007.
  • Learning to Question to Wonder to Learn. 2005.

From Trivial Pursuit to Higher Order Thinking
  • The Question Press Jamie McKenzie
  • http//
  • The Biography Maker Jamie McKenzie
  • http//

The Questioning Toolkit
Jamie McKenzie
Essential Questions
  • Essential Questions probe the deepest issues
    confronting us, complex subjects with no simple
    answers. These should be the questions that offer
    the organizing focus for a unit.
  • A Few Examples . . .
  • Personal
  • How can I be a better person?
  • Educational
  • Why do we have to fight wars?
  • How could political issues or ideas ever become
    more important than family loyalties?

Subsidiary Questions
  • Subsidiary Questions help us build answers to our
    essential questions. Big (essential) questions
    lead to smaller (subsidiary) questions for
    providing insight.
  • A Few Examples . . .
  • Whats the worst that can happen if . . .?
  • What are the potential benefits of . . .?
  • What are the available resources to . . .?

Hypothetical Questions
  • Hypothetical Questions are suppose and if
    questions designed to explore possibilities and
    test relationships.
  • A Few Examples . . .
  • What if the South had won the Civil War?
  • Suppose the earth had no moon.

Telling Questions
  • Telling Questions lead us directly to the target.
    They focus on only the facts that illuminate the
    main question at hand.
  • An Example. . .
  • What is the violent crime rate for cities in
    Minnesota as reported by ?, and how has it
    changed over the last ten years? (This telling
    question would help answer which Minnesota city
    is the safest.)

Planning Questions
  • Planning Questions require that we think about
    the structure of our research, where we will
    look, what resources (time and information) we
    might use to develop a plan.
  • A Few Examples . . .
  • Who is an authority on this topic?
  • What is the best tool to gather the most reliable
    and relevant information?
  • How can we plan our time to match the resources
    available and our final product?

Organizing Questions
  • Organizing Questions provide structure for our
    research findings.
  • A Few Examples . . .
  • What is the best way to organize this
  • Chart for Compare/Contrast
  • Spreadsheet for Data Collection
  • Summary of Key Information (Bits and Bytes)

Probing Questions
  • Probing Questions take us below the surface and
    to the heart of the matter.
  • A Few Examples . . .
  • Are there clues that will help me get to the
    good stuff?
  • How can we use our prior knowledge to help guide
    our search for new information?

Sorting Sifting Questions
  • Sorting and Sifting Questions help us determine
    what information is reliable and relevant.
  • A Few Examples . . .
  • Is this data worth keeping?
  • Is this information reliable?
  • Is this information relevant to the topic?

Clarification Questions
  • Clarification Questions help define words and
    concepts, examine the coherence and logic of an
    argument, and determine underlying assumptions.
  • A Few Examples . . .
  • What do they mean by . . .?
  • How did they develop the case they are
  • Are there any questionable assumptions below the

Strategic Questions
  • Strategic Questions focus on ways to make
  • A Few Examples . . .
  • What do I do next?
  • What type of question would help me with this
  • Do I need to change my research plan? If so, how?

Elaborating Questions
  • Elaborating Questions extend and stretch what we
    are finding.
  • A Few Examples . . .
  • What does this mean?
  • What are the implied or suggested meanings?
  • What does this really mean?

Unanswerable Questions
  • Unanswerable Questions push the thought process
    to the greatest extent in the hopes of getting
    closer to the truth.
  • A Few Examples . . .
  • How will I be remembered?
  • What is the Good Life?

Inventive Questions
  • Inventive Questions make adjustments to our
    findings to help get closer to discovering
    something new.
  • A Few Examples . . .
  • What might still be missing?
  • Can I display this in a way that will help shed
    more light on my essential question?

Provocative Questions
  • Provocative Questions push and challenge and may
    throw conventional wisdom off balance.
  • A Few Examples . . .
  • Wheres the beef?
  • Whats the point?
  • Is there any worthwhile information here?

Irrelevant Questions
  • Irrelevant Questions divert us from the task at
    hand (and thats not always a bad thing).
  • A Few Examples . . .
  • What if we . . .?
  • Have you thought about . . .?

Divergent Questions
  • Divergent Questions use existing knowledge as a
    base from which to kick off like a swimmer
    making a turn. (These questions seem more logical
    than irrelevant questions.)
  • An Example . . .
  • What are some related topics that might give us
    some insight or send us in a new direction?

Irreverent Questions
  • Irreverent Questions explore territory which is
    off-limits or taboo.
  • An Example . . .
  • Think of the story of The Emperors New Clothes.
    This classic story shows what happens when
    irreverent questions are discouraged and
    obedience and compliance are prized.

Our Second Expert
  • Loertscher, David.
  • Ban Those Bird Units! 2005.
  • Beyond Bird Units. 2007.
  • (website of David Loertscher)

From Trivial Pursuit to Higher Order Thinking
  • Beyond Bird Units David Loertscher, Carol
    Koechlin, and Sandi Zwann
  • What is a Bird Unit?
  • By the way, we and they have nothing against

The Think Models
  • apply critical and creative thinking.  
  • build cross curricular literacy skills and new
  • are engaging and effective.  
  • empower students to build deeper understanding.  
  • are knowledge building learning experiences.  

The Think Models
  • are a framework for designing successful
  • effectively utilize information and technology
    rich learning environments. 
  • provide opportunity for differentiated

The Think Models
  • Appetizers
  • Background to Question Model
  • Sense-making Model
  • Read, View, and Listen Model
  • Advice to Action Model
  • Compare and Contrast Model 

The Think Models
  • Main Courses
  • Concept Building Jigsaw Puzzle Model  
  • Problems/Possibilities Jigsaw Puzzle Model  
  • Decision Matrix Model
  • Patterns and Trends Matrix Model
  • Timeline Model
  •  History Mystery Model
  •  Take a Position Model

The Think Models
  • More Main Courses
  •  Re-Create Model
  •  Reinvent Model
  •  Learn By Doing
  •  The Teacher-Directed Quest Model
  • On-Line Quest Projects
  •  The Report
  •  The Research Paper
  •  The WebQuest as a Research Model

The Think Models
  • More Main Courses
  • Learner Directed Quest
  • Heros Journey 
  •  Become an Expert
  •  I Search
  • Dessert 
  • Mix It Up!

Another Expert
  • Porter, Bernajean. Turning Up the H.E.A.T.
    Workshop (TIES 2009)

Bernajean Porter Presentation in Second
Life http//
From Trivial Pursuit to Higher Order Thinking
  • Turning Up the H. E. A. T. Bernajean Porter
  • H Higher Order Thinking
  • E Engaged Learning
  • A Authentic Tasks
  • T Added Value Technology Uses

From Trivial Pursuit to Higher Order Thinking
  • Consciously ask better questions
  • Encourage students to ask good questions
  • Transform one bird unit
  • Turn one lecture into a discussion
  • H.E.A.T. up one assignment

A Few Ideas
  • Thought-Provoking Question of the Day (or Week)
  • E-Projects (To Generate Questions) Beyond All
    About . . .
  • Pathfinders
  • Virtual Tours http//
  • Interactive Video Conferencing
  • Use artifacts, photos, quotations, film clips,
    etc. to model and teach good questioning.

Can you guess what these locks are doing at the
Great Wall of China? A. When workers at the
Great Wall find lost locks in the bicycle parking
lot, they place them in this "lost and found"
display. B.When tourists come to the Great wall,
they can rent a lock and store their things in a
locker. C.When newlyweds come to the Great Wall,
they place a lock in the chain.
More Ideas
  • Technology Tools for Higher Order Thinking
  • Concept Mapping Tools
  • SMART Notebook
  • PowerPoint and Word
  • Inspiration
  • Graphic Organizers

Note the types of visual organizers available in
Smart Art in Powerpoint
Resources We Recommend
  • Blooms Taxonomy (1950s)
  • Blooms Revised Taxonomy

Blooms Taxonomy Blooms Digitally
Resources We Recommend
  • http//
  • What Are the Types of Questions?    
  • What Is the Value of Wait Time?    
  • Questioning and Brain Research    
  • Teaching in the Interrogative    
  • Dimensions of Learning and the Questioning
  • A Checklist for Effective Questioning      
  • Resources for Questioning to Promote Higher-Order

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