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Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis and Positive Behavior Supports

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Title: Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis and Positive Behavior Supports


1
Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis and
Positive Behavior Supports
  • Ed Sbardellati, Ph.D.
  • Washington County Mental Health
  • Sherri Rosenberg, M.A., BCBA
  • Washington County Mental Health
  • August 19, 2010

2
Training Overview
  • What Are ABA And PBS?
  • A Framework for Understanding Human Behavior
  • Basic Elements of Effective Interventions
  • Functions of Behavior
  • Antecedent-Based Interventions
  • Consequence-Based Interventions
  • Skill Building
  • Data Collection

3
What are ABA PBS?
4
What is ABA?
  • A discipline committed to the understanding and
    improvement of human behavior
  • Focuses on objectively defined, observable
    behaviors of social significance
  • Seeks to improve behavior while demonstrating
    reliability between applied interventions and the
    noted improvement

5
What is ABA?
  • The science in which procedures derived from the
    principles of behavior are systematically applied
    to improve socially significant behavior to a
    meaningful degree
  • BAER, WOLF AND RISLEY (1968)

6
ABA defined (cont.)
  • APPLIED
  • Refers to the social significance of the behavior
    (of immediate importance to the individual or
    society)
  • BEHAVIOR
  • Behavior is in need of improvement
  • Behavior must be observable and measurable

7
ABA defined (cont.)
  • ANALYSIS
  • Believability
  • Demonstrates a functional relationship between
    behavior and intervention
  • controls the occurrence and nonoccurrence of a
    behavior

8
What is Positive Behavior Support?
  • A set of research-based strategies used to
    increase quality of life and decrease problem
    behavior by teaching new skills and making
    changes in a person's environment

9
PBS combines
  • Valued Outcomes
  • Behavioral and Biomedical Science
  • Validated Procedures
  • Systems change to enhance quality of life and
    reduce problem behaviors

10
Human Behavior
11
Behavior
  • is the movement of an organism or of its parts
    in a frame of reference provided by the organism
    or by various external objects or field

  • (Cooper et al, 2008)

12
Behavior
  • Human Behavior
  • Behavior is LEARNED
  • Behavior is a function of the environment

13
Assumptions of ABA
  • BEHAVIOR IS LEARNED
  • B(F)E
  • New behaviors can be taught
  • Old behaviors can be unlearned

14
Assumptions of ABA
  • We change behavior by changing the ENVIRONMENT

15
Behavior
  • Overt
  • An action that can be observed and recorded by a
    person other than the one engaging in the
    behavior
  • Must pass the Dead Mans Test

16
Behavior
  • Covert
  • An action that can NOT be observed and recorded
    by a person other than the one engaging in the
    behavior
  • Private events
  • ABA predominantly addresses overt behaviors
  • Cognitive-Behavior Modification addresses covert
    behaviors

17
Key Terms Concepts
  • Stimulus
  • An environmental event that can be detected by
    one of the senses
  • Is any condition, event, or change in the
    physical world

18
Key Terms and Concepts
  • Response
  • One instance or occurrence of a particular
    behavior
  • A specific instance of a particular behavior
  • Are the focus of observation and measurement in
    behavioral studies
  • Is the measurable unit of analysis in the science
    of behavior

19
Stimulus Control
  • Stimulus Control
  • Increased probability that a behavior will occur
    in the presence of certain environmental
    conditions
  • If a principal yells
  • If a police officer approaches
  • If a telephone rings

20
Consequence
  • EEffects only future behavior
  • RResults in an increase, decrease or no effect on
    behavior
  • The probability that similar responses will be
    emitted under future similar stimulus conditions

21
Respondent Behavior
  • NNO LEARNING REQUIRED
  • It is a reflex
  • RRespond INVOLUNTARILY to certain stimuli

22
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23
Operant Behavior
  • Is VOLUNTARY
  • IInfluenced by the antecedents and consequences
    surrounding the behavior

24
Operant Behavior
25
Three Term Contingency
  • Reinforcement
  • Cue----------R----------C
  • Reductive Procedures
  • Cue----------R----------C-

26
Reinforcement
  • When a stimulus change immediately follows a
    response and increases the future frequency of
    that type of behavior in similar conditions

27
Reductive Consequence
  • When a stimulus change immediately follows a
    response and decreases the future frequency of
    that type of behavior in similar conditions

28
Present Stimulus () Withdraw Stimulus (-)
behavior Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement
behavior Positive Reductive Consequence Negative Reductive Consequence
29
Complexity of Human Behavior
  • Huge range of behaviors
  • Competing contingencies
  • Go out on the town or Study for the exam?
  • Single event has multiple effects
  • Reduce behavior
  • Increase behavior
  • Escape
  • Response chains

30
Complexity of Human Behavior
  • Complexity of Controlling Variables
  • Environmental constructs are complex
  • Multiple causation
  • Setting events

31
Complexity of Human Behavior
  • Individual Differences
  • Different responses to the same environmental
    conditions
  • NO two people experience the world in the same
    way
  • Histories of reinforcement
  • Individual motor sensory deficits

32
Reinforcer Assessment
  • Activity

33
Framework for Treatment
34
Basic Elements of Effective Interventions
  • PROACTIVE
  • Modify the environment
  • EDUCATIVE
  • Teach pro-social behaviors and social skills
    which are alternatives to challenging behaviors
  • FUNCTIONAL
  • Manage consequences of behavior

35
Why Bother?
  • Strong theoretical and empirical support for
    behavioral procedures
  • 40 years of research in behavior change with
    people behavioral and developmental disorders
    autism
  • Particularly in the areas of Functional
    Behavioral Assessment and positive approaches to
    behavior change

36
Why?
  • The use of the Positive Behavioral Supports
    model is becoming more and more widespread as
    reactive approaches have not proven uniformly
    successful

37
Reactive Approaches
  • PUNISHMENT
  • May teach what not to do, but not what to do
  • May punish the child, but may not actually reduce
    the behavior in the natural environment

38
Reactive Approaches (cont.)
  • EXCLUSION
  • May address an immediate need, but reduces the
    childs opportunity to learn how to successfully
    interact with the natural environment

39
So lets talk some more
about positive approaches
40
Proactive
  • Modifying the environment to reduce the
    probability that the challenging behaviors will
    occur
  • Requires assessment to identify the mismatch
    between the child and the environment
  • Can involve a myriad of possible interventions

41
May Involve a VARIETY of Interventions
  • Changes in settings and situations in which the
    behavior occurs
  • Alter or eliminate setting events associated with
    challenging behaviors
  • Identify and address precursor behaviors
    associated with challenging behaviors

42
Proactive Interventions (cont.)
  • Make instructional or curricular changes
  • Establishing predictable routines or changing
    expectations
  • Increase opportunities for making choices,
    exerting personal control

43
Skill Building
  • Specifically teach behaviors and skills which are
    functional alternatives to challenging behaviors
  • Behaviors may be in the learners repertoire or
    may have to be shaped over time

44
Functional
  • Developing management procedures which address
    the functions of behavior
  • Manage consequences such that pro-social
    behaviors are increased and challenging behaviors
    are reduced

45
Focus On Behavior
  • We need to clearly define the behavior(s) we want
    to increase or decrease
  • Identify the pro-social skill(s) we want to teach
    as a replacement behavior(s)
  • Include these pro-social skills or behaviors in
    the learners individualized behavior change plan

46
Focus on Behavior (cont.)
  • Focus procedures (like a laser beam) on the
    behaviors we want to increase and decrease
  • Carry out procedures consistently over time and
    across staff

47
Focus on Behavior (cont.)
  • Evaluate effects of procedures on chosen
    behaviors
  • Daily data collection
  • Revise procedures as necessary

48
Functions of Behavior
  • A note on behavior
  • Abruscatos Second Law

49
A Note on Behavior
  • Our behavior is related to and governed by its
    context
  • Can be interpreted as being functional, often
    communicative, purposeful and meaningful for the
    person
  • Can be affected by internal events
  • physiological conditions and emotional states

50
A Note on Behavior (cont.)
  • Is affected by factors outside the immediate
    context, including relationships, activity
    patterns and lifestyle issues
  • Behavior changes as people mature and develop new
    competencies

51
Abruscatos SECOND LAW
  • All behavior is rationale to
  • the person doing it.

  • Abruscato (1973)

52
Functions of Behavior
53
Functions of Behavior
  • FUNCTION
  • The reason why problematic behavior continues to
    occur
  • SOCIAL FUNCTION
  • Environmental events that maintain behavior
  • Treatment is based upon identified function, not
    on topography

54
Events Which Maintain Behavior
  • Positive Reinforcement
  • Gaining social attention, preferred items or
    activities
  • Negative Reinforcement
  • An escape or avoidance function
  • Automatic Reinforcement
  • Not socially mediated

55
Functions of Behavior
  • Demand (Avoidance/Escape)
  • Attention (Positive and/or Negative)
  • Tangible (Access to HPAS/Rewards)
  • Automatic Reinforcement (Alone)
  • Multiple Factors

56
Demand (Avoid or Escape)
  • Activities
  • Interactions
  • People
  • Cues or directions
  • Environmental stressors, events and situations we
    find aversive

57
Obtain Attention from Others
  • Positive Attention
  • Negative Attention

58
Obtain Activity or Object
  • Toy
  • Computer
  • Swings
  • Go outside
  • Etc.

59
Automatic (Self-Reinforcement)
  • Behaviors not mediated by the environment
  • Examples
  • Twirling hair
  • Spinning
  • Vocalizations (video talk)

60
Functions May Come In Pairs
  • Examples
  • Avoid and get attention
  • Avoid and obtain preferred activity

61
Multiple Functions
  • Some behaviors may serve multiple functions to
    the individual
  • Self-injurious behavior
  • Noncompliance

62
LETS PLAY!
  • Name That Function

63
Example 1
  • Student really dislikes math he feels he is not
    good at it
  • Math lesson begins
  • Student swears at teacher
  • Student is sent out of the room

64
Example 2
  • Client often vocalizes Disney songs when not
    engaged
  • Client is in direct 11 instruction
  • Client vocalizes songs to self which makes it
    difficult for his instructor to obtain his
    attention and cue responding

65
Example 3
  • Student always gets disruptive when spelling is
    cued
  • makes loud noises, gets out of seat, argues with
    the teacher
  • Student gets to use computer during spelling

66
Example 4
  • Student likes to be the center of attention
  • Student asks an off task, but somewhat
    interesting, question
  • Teacher has a conversation with the student about
    the question

67
Example 5
  • Student enters room when an activity was in
    progress
  • Student runs around the room, yells and touches
    other student
  • Teacher tries to redirect the student
  • Other student grabs the student and they wrestle
  • Student is physically removed from the room

68
Name That Function
  • Home Community Edition

69
Example 1
  • Dad leaves for work every morning at 730
  • Child cries
  • loud and long
  • Dad remains and consoles child, finally leaves
  • Mom tries to engage child in drawing
  • preferred activity

70
Example 2
  • Child is playing with preferred toy
  • Other child starts to play with toy
  • First child slaps second child
  • Second child cries and leaves
  • Adult hugs first child

71
Example 3
  • Child is sitting on the floor and raises hands
    and says up
  • Adult doesnt notice and continues conversation
  • Child bangs head on floor
  • Adult picks up child

72
Example 4
  • Child is playing on floor, it is time to go to
    school
  • Parent approaches with clothing
  • Child cries and runs away
  • Parent stands with clothing and feels like crying

73
Example 5
  • Time to get ready for bed
  • Dad asks child to go to the bathroom to brush
    teeth
  • Child cries and runs away
  • Dad asks mom to take over

74
Example 6
  • Child wakes up in the middle of the night
  • Child comes to parents bed and climbs in
  • Parents make room and hope everyone gets some
    sleep

75
Functions of Behavior
  • Demand
  • Avoidance/escape
  • Attention
  • Positive and/or negative
  • Tangible
  • Access to HPAs/rewards
  • Automatic reinforcement
  • Alone
  • Multiple factors

76
Antecedent Control Measures
77
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78
Antecedent Control Measures
  • Eliminate the cue for the problem behavior
  • Provide cues for alternative prosocial behavior
  • Reduce the motivation for the reinforcer
    maintaining the challenging behavior
  • Increase the motivation for the reinforcer
    maintaining the alternative, more desireable
    behavior
  • Increase the response effort for the problem
    behavior

79
Antecedent Control Measures
  • Decrease response effort for alternative behavior
  • Modify the environment to increase the
    consistency and predictability of expectations
  • Schedules
  • Maximize opportunities for choice and control
  • Clear, concise expectations
  • Modify curriculum/expectations to maximize
    independent success

80
Antecedent Techniques
  • Cueing Procedures
  • Obtain attention first
  • State cue/direction using only a few words known
    to be within clients repertoire
  • Wait for client to respond-- avoid repetitive
    verbal cues
  • Monitor cooperation
  • Praise/reinforce cooperation

81
Antecedent Techniques
  • Visual Prompts
  • Daily picture/icon/written schedule
  • Cue cards (portable/stationary)
  • In advance of transitions
  • In advance of novel situations
  • Advance review of expectations, consequences

82
Antecedent Techniques
  • Advance Verbal Cues/Rehearsal
  • With or without visual prompts
  • Examples
  • Novel activities
  • Difficult social interactions
  • Ending a preferred activity
  • Transitions
  • Where, what, reinforcement

83
Antecedent Techniques
  • Interruption
  • As response to low level challenging behaviors
    or precursors
  • Interrupt
  • Redirect
  • Reinforce

84
Antecedent Techniques Self-Relaxation
85
Self-Relaxation
  • Implement in regular training, at precursor level
    and/or after an incident.
  • Some portable techniques
  • Walking quietly
  • Deep breathing (diaphragmatic breathing)
  • Muscle tension and relaxation exercises
  • Attention focusing exercises

86
Other Proactive Techniques to Consider
  • Remove or modify a problem event
  • Intersperse easy or pleasant activities with more
    difficult or unpleasant activities
  • Reduce the impact of negative events
  • Allow temporary avoidance /reduce demands
  • Add events that promote appropriate behavior

87
Consequences
88
A Note On Consequences
  • Natural consequences
  • Logical consequences
  • Contrived consequences

89
Why Use Reinforcement?
  • To build prosocial behavior
  • To reduce challenging behaviors

90
Underlying Assumptions
  • Behavior is learned
  • New behaviors can be taught
  • Old behaviors can be unlearned

91
Underlying Assumptions
  • Consequences are defined by their effect upon
    behavior
  • We change behavior by changing the environment

92
Reinforcement
  • A behavior is followed by an event (consequence)
    which serves to strengthen the behavior
  • Increases the probability of the behavior
    occurring again

93
Reinforcement
  • Types of Reinforcement
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Obtain a reward
  • Negative reinforcement
  • Avoid an aversive event

94
Types of Reinforcers
  • Social
  • Activity
  • Token/Symbolic
  • Tangible
  • Edible/Drink
  • Premack Principle
  • Grandmas Rule

95
Increasing the Effectiveness of Reinforcement
  • Contingency
  • Immediacy
  • Power
  • Schedule or Timing of Reinforcement
  • Deprivation vs. Satiation

96
Building Behavioral Momentum
  • Layering Of Reinforcement
  • Immediately
  • Throughout The Day
  • End Of Day
  • Throughout The Week

97
A Simple Example
  • BehaviorTalking out in class
  • Present ReinforcerAttention
  • Prosocial SkillsRaising hand to obtain attention

98
A Simple Example (cont.)
  • Reinforcement
  • Immediate
  • Call on child when hand is raised, specific
    praise
  • Throughout the day
  • Stars on chart for raising hand to get attention
    or
  • Sticker on chart after classes in which hand
    raising happens, specific praise

99
A Simple Example (cont.)
  • Reinforcement (cont.)
  • Throughout/End of day
  • Activity reward/privilege for earning a specific
    number of stars
  • End of week
  • Bigger activity reward for having a good week

100
Building Behavior
  • Differential Reinforcement
  • Consistently reinforce alternative or
    incompatible behaviors while withholding
    reinforcement for problematic behaviors

101
Differential Reinforcement
  • Two Simultaneous Procedures
  • Reinforcement of prosocial behavior
  • Withholding of reinforcement for challenging
    behavior

102

Differential Reinforcement
  • As a Natural Process of Teaching
  • Consistently reinforce (attend to) prosocial
    behavior while withholding reinforcement for
    problematic behavior

103
Omission Training (DRO)
  • Omission Training is a reductive technique
    wherein we reinforce the absence of a targeted
    behavior at the end of a specified interval of
    time
  • First Line of Defense against aggressive
    behaviors

104
Systematic Reinforcement of Alternative or
Incompatible Behaviors
  • DRA/DRI
  • A procedure in which one or more specified
    desirable behaviors, which are alternative or
    incompatible with the targeted behavior
    (maladaptive behavior) are systematically
    reinforced
  • The desired effect is to increase these
    alternative or incompatible behaviors while the
    problematic behaviors will reduce

105
Behavioral Checklists
  • A useful procedure to focus feedback on targeted
    behaviors and skills to increase
  • Create a grid or checklist
  • Interval based
  • 5 minutes to the end of an activity

106
James Really Cool Chart ?
ACTIVITY I Was Where I Was Supposed To Be I Only Used Gentle Touch I Worked Hard
CIRCLE
JOURNAL
MATH
SNACK
SPEECH
LUNCH
RECESS
107
Skills To Address
  • Identify the Behaviors/Skills to be taught or
    increased
  • Usually 1-3 behaviors/skills based upon the
    learners age and/or developmental level

108
When To Provide Feedback?
  • Determine when the checklist will be completed
  • More feedback is usually better than less
    feedback
  • Provide feedback at certain times of day and/or
  • Provide feedback when certain tasks or activities
    are completed

109
Symbols/Praise
  • Determine what symbols/words will be used to
    provide feedback
  • Age appropriateness
  • Learners choice
  • Always praise the learner when s/he earns
    positive feedback
  • Be specific and enthusiastic

110
Be Consistent
  • In which behaviors/skills we are reinforcing
  • In providing reinforcement regularly across the
    day
  • Predetermined schedule

111
Back Up Reinforcers
  • Negotiate the reinforcers the learner will earn
    for being successful
  • Privileges/ freedom
  • Preferred activities
  • Tangible items

112
Set Reasonable Objectives
  • Start at a lower level to ensure success
  • Slowly raise the expectation as the learner
    progresses

113
Cash In Frequently
  • At least daily for older learners
  • Multiple times per day for younger learners

114
Delayed Reinforcers
  • Be sure to include delayed reinforcers for
    improved behavior over time
  • End of day
  • Weekly or Bi-weekly

115
Evaluation
  • Save behavioral checklists for subsequent
    evaluation
  • Item and error analysis
  • Adjusting the criterion for reinforcement
  • Fading the checklist

116
ACTIVITY I WAS WHERE I WAS SUPPOSED TO BE I ONLY USED GENTLE TOUCH I WORKED HARD
CIRCLE
JOURNAL
MATH
SNACK
SPEECH
LUNCH
RECESS
117
Reductive Procedures
  • Extinction
  • Response Cost
  • Time Out from Positive Reinforcement

118
Extinction
  • Contingent removal of reinforcement leading to
    the nonoccurrence of the behavior
  • A necessary component of behavioral treatment

119
Extinction (cont.)
  • Extinction Burst
  • Not a conscious process
  • May include novel or emotional behaviors
  • Spontaneous Recovery

120
Response Cost
  • A reductive consequence that involves a loss of a
    specific reward or a specific amount of a reward

121
Increasing the Effectiveness of Response Cost
  • Must be a predictable reinforcement system
  • Identify (in advance) the behaviors which will
    result in the loss of reinforcement
  • Identify (in advance) the reinforcers or amount
    of reinforcement which will be lost

122
Response Cost (cont.)
  • Provide no more than one warning
  • Reduce conversation when using response cost
  • Do not escalate consequences or get involved in
    an argument with the learner

123
Response Cost (cont.)
  • Do not remove reinforcers until they have been
    earned
  • If using points or tokens-never go below zero
  • Be consistent
  • over time
  • across settings
  • across adults

124
Time Out From Positive Reinforcement
  • First Question
  • Is it?
  • Time away from positive reinforcement or
  • Escape from the activity

125
Time Out From Positive Reinforcement (cont.)
  • Second Question
  • Is there a better way to manage this behavior?

126
Time Out
  • Contingent loss of access to reinforcement
  • Should result in a decrease in the behavior
    which led to time out

127
Types of Time Out From Positive
Reinforcement
  • Observational
  • Exclusionary
  • Seclusionary

128
Important Aspects Of Time Out
  • Discrepancy between time in in the natural
    setting and time out setting
  • The time in environment must be more
    reinforcing
  • Consider environmental enrichment or increased
    reinforcement

129
Time Out (cont.)
  • Time out works best when
  • We focus upon one behavior
  • It is consistently used
  • No attention or other reinforcement is provided
    in time out

130
Time Out (cont.)
  • We assure that time out is appropriate for the
    learners age or developmental level and
    addresses the identified function of the behavior
  • We have a consistent exit criterion
  • Learner learns what s/he must do to leave time
    out

131
Time Out (cont.)
  • Consider teaching self-relaxation/self-calming as
    part of the exit criterion

132
TIME OUT ROOM DISADVANTAGES
  • STUDENT MAY PHYSICALLY RESIST MOVING TO THE TIME
    OUT ROOM
  • ELIMINATES THE STUDENTS ACCESS TO ONGOING
    INSTRUCTION
  • STUDENT MAY ENGAGE IN BEHAVIORS WHICH ARE UNSAFE
    IN TIME OUT (E.G., SIB) OR ARE REINFORCING
    (SELF-STIMULATION) OR NOVEL, MORE ESCALATED
    BEHAVIORS
  • SOCIAL STIGMA

133
Skill Building
134
Before you start
  • Ask two questions
  • What am I going to teach?
  • How am I going to teach it?

135
Fair Pair Rule
  • For every behavior identified for reduction, a
    functional replacement behavior must be taught

136
What to Teach?
  • Activity
  • Five behaviors for group activities
  • Aggression maintained by obtaining reinforcement
  • Work refusal maintained by escape and attention
  • Noncompliance with directions maintained by
    escape
  • Interrupting maintained by attention
  • Bolting maintained by escape

137
Some Alternative Skills To Teach
  • On Task
  • Following class routine
  • Work completion
  • Making eye contact
  • Following directions
  • Gentle hands
  • Polite words
  • Self-calming
  • Taking good time-outs
  • Friendship skills
  • Complementing others
  • Greeting others
  • Asking for help
  • Manding
  • Personal space/boundaries
  • Specific problem solving skills

138
ACTIVITY Selecting Alternative Behaviors
  • Organize groups
  • Assign behaviors to groups
  • Find a volunteer with real life example
  • Discuss behavior and context
  • Identify alternative skills to teach

139
How to Teach
  • Considerations
  • Learning strengths challenges, for example
  • Language (receptive and expressive)
  • Imitation, Discrimination
  • Social Skills
  • Learning history
  • Reinforcement history
  • Topography of the skill
  • Functional context
  • HIGHLY INDIVIDUALIZED

140
Behavior Change Procedures
  • Shaping
  • Task analysis
  • Chaining
  • Prompting
  • Prompt Fading
  • Evaluation of procedural effectiveness

141
Shaping
  • The differential reinforcement of successive
    approximations of the same behavior
  • Small step learning
  • Success oriented
  • If unsuccessful, its us, not them!

142
Shaping
  • Define target behavior
  • Do you need to shape this behavior?
  • Identify the starting behavior
  • Determine the shaping steps
  • Choose reinforcers
  • Differentially reinforce each successive
    approximation
  • Move through the steps at a proper pace
  • Be prepared to move backwards

143
Shaping of Problem Behavior
  • Shifting topographies of behavior
  • Accidental shaping/Accidental reinforcement
  • How do we do this?
  • Prompting
  • Fading
  • Reinforcement
  • Extinction

144
Shaping Example
  • For example, John never does his math homework.
    You would like to have him complete his homework
    on a daily basis.  You realize that if you wait
    for him to complete his homework before you
    reinforce him in some way, you may never (or
    infrequently) have the opportunity to administer
    a positive consequence.

145
Shaping Example
  • John will write his name at the top of the
    worksheet.
  • John will complete one problem of his choice.
  • John will complete five problems of his choice.
  • John will complete either all the odd numbered
    problems or all the even numbered problems.
  • John will complete all problems except one.
  • John will complete all problems.

146
Task Analysis
  • Breaking a complex skill or series of behaviors
    into smaller, teachable units
  • The product of a task analysis is a series of
    sequentially ordered steps or tasks

147
Constructing a Task Analysis
  • The sequence of behaviors that one individual may
    use to perform skill may not be the same as
    another individual
  • Must be individualized according to
  • Age
  • Skill level
  • Prior experience
  • Some task analyses have a limited number of
    steps, but these steps may be broken down into
    subtasks

148
Constructing a Task Analysis
  • Methods
  • Observe a competent individual perform the task
  • Consult with an expert or persons skilled in
    performing the task
  • Perform the behavior yourself
  • Systematic trial error procedure
  • Initial task analysis is generated
  • Can refine it as you use it, if necessary

149
Task Analysis Example
  • Brushing Teeth
  • Pick up the tooth brush
  • Wet the brush
  • Take the cap off the tube
  • Put paste on the brush
  • Brush the outside of the bottom row of teeth
  • Brush the outside of the top row of teeth
  • Brush the biting surface of the top row of teeth
  • Brush the biting surface of the bottom row of
    teeth
  • Brush the inside surface of the bottom row of
    teeth
  • Brush the inside surface of the top row of teeth
  • Brush the front surface of the bottom and top
    rows
  • Spit
  • Rinse the brush
  • Replace the brush in the holder
  • Grasp cup
  • Fill cup with water
  • Rinse teeth with water
  • Spit
  • Replace cup in holder
  • Wipe mouth
  • Screw cap back on tube

150
Prompting
  • Stimuli provided before or during a behavior to
    facilitate the performance of the behavior to
    access reinforcement

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Fading
  • Transferring stimulus control from the prompt to
    the SD
  • Gradual removal of prompts until the behaviors
    occurs in the presence of the SD without prompts

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Types of Prompting
  • Response Prompts
  • Modeling/Imitation
  • Verbal Prompts
  • Gestural Prompts
  • Visual Prompts
  • Physical Prompts
  • Partial
  • Full

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Types of Prompting
  • Stimulus Prompts
  • Involves change in the stimulus
  • Positional prompts
  • Within stimulus prompts
  • Change the salience of the SD
  • Size, shape, color, intensity
  • A versus B
  • Extra stimulus prompt
  • Adding a stimulus

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Prompt Delay/Time Delay
  • Time Delay Procedure
  • Present the Sd
  • Wait a certain number of seconds
  • If the correct response is not made, prompt the
    response
  • The time delay may be consistent or it may be
    faded over attempts/prompts/Sds

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Stimulus Control
  • Training/teaching is not complete until we
    eliminate prompts and the behavior occurs at the
    right time and without assistance
  • Avoid prompt dependency

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Prompt Fading
  • Gradual removal of a response prompt over time
    until the use of the prompt is eliminated

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Prompting Options
  • Graduated Guidance
  • Guiding performance with hands
  • visual prompts
  • Verbal cues
  • Least to Most Method
  • Least amount of assistance each opportunity
  • Most to Least Method
  • Guide individual through entire sequence and
    gradually fade assistance

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Prompt Fading
  • Consequences to gradual changes in form,
    position, or intensity

159
Prompt Fading
  • Prompt Delay/Time Delay
  • Constant Prompt Delay
  • Graduated/Progressive Prompt Delay
  • Be prepared to back up to previous steps

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Stimulus Fading
  • Removal of a stimulus prompt

161
Using Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control
  • Determine Cant do. vs. Wont do.
  • Ability vs. Compliance
  • Choose the most appropriate prompting strategy
  • Get the learners attention
  • Present the SD
  • Prompt the correct response
  • Reinforce correct behavior
  • Transfer stimulus control

162
Evaluation
  • Before you end a program or terminate a protocol,
    ask yourself
  • How well have I taught the skill?
  • Your data should tell you!

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Putting It All Together-Picking
  • Proactive/Preventative
  • Measures
  • Keep student well hydrated
  • Keep nails trimmed
  • Apply lotions several times per day
  • Behavior Management
  • If bx occurs, redirect
  • If bx occurs again, redirect
  • No points for interval
  • If bx occurs again, band-aid

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Putting It All Together-Picking
  • Instruction
  • Nail care
  • Visuals as a flip chart and checklist
  • Measures include independence duration of task
  • Physical modification of care materials
  • Reinforcement
  • Point system for the occurrence of positive
    behaviors
  • Safe body
  • Following directions
  • Nice words
  • Doing your work

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Data Collection
166
Data Collection
  • Functional Behavioral Assessment
  • The process of obtaining information on events
    which precede and follow a behavior to determine
    which antecedents and consequences are reliably
    associated with the occurrence and nonoccurrence
    of the behavior

167
How To Conduct An FBA
  • ABC Assessment
  • Descriptive Analysis (aka Direct Assessment)
  • Structured interview/checklists with parents and
    other caregivers (aka Indirect Assessment)
  • Functional Analysis
  • Experimental approach using analog conditions

168
FBA (cont.)
  • ALWAYS conduct a functional assessment before
    developing a treatment plan for a child with
    seriously challenging behaviors

169
FBA
  • Descriptive Analysis
  • Descriptive Analysis refers to the process of
    obtaining direct and daily information concerning
    the context of challenging behavior
  • Usually done through ABC analysis

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A-B-C (Operant Behavior)
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ABC Data
  • Antecedent
  • Events or interactions that happen before the
    behavior occurs immediate or delayed/internal or
    external
  • Behavior
  • The behavior or sequence of behavior which
    occurred
  • Consequence
  • Events/interactions which happen after the
    behavior what one gets and what one avoids

172
Functional Behavioral Assessment The ABCS
  • Antecedent
  • Immediate/Delayed
  • Medical
  • Physiological
  • Environmental
  • Interactional
  • Personal/Control

Behavior What a person says or does
Consequence Social Attention Tangible Activity Esc
ape Avoidance Combinations
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Information Gained Through a FBA
  • Describe the problem behavior
  • Identify the antecedents to the behavior
  • Identify the consequences of the behavior
  • Consider alternative behaviors to teach
  • Develop hypotheses regarding the occurrence of
    the behavior
  • Identify potential reinforcers
  • Describe previous interventions used

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Data Collection
  • Direct And Daily Data
  • Clearly define the behavior we are measuring
  • Operational Definition
  • a clear description of the behavior which is
    written in simple, lay terms such that anyone can
    determine if the behavior did or did not occur

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Quantitative Measures
  • Frequency
  • Tallies of the total number of behaviors which
    occurred or the number of incidents of behavior
    which occurred in a specified time period

178
Quantitative Measures
  • Duration
  • The elapsed time a behavior occurred

179
Quantitative Measures
  • Intensity
  • Descriptions or ratings of the severity of
    behavior
  • Can focus upon
  • the number of behaviors within an incident and/or
  • the duration of the incident and/or
  • specific Likert-type scale or checklist

180
Interval Recording
  • Coding the presence or absence of a specific
    behavior during a predetermined time
    period-i.e., whole, partial, momentary
  • May include frequencies of behavior within an
    interval or measures of the rate of the behavior

181
Activities
  • How would you measure THIS behavior?
  • Video data collection

182
Interobserver Agreement (IOA)
  • A measure of validity
  • Multiple calculations
  • This is TOTAL COUNT IOA
  • Total of agreements
  • ____________________________ X 100
  • Total of agreements disagreements

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IOA Example-Swearing
  • Observer 1
  • 7 instances of swearing
  • Observer 2
  • 9 instances of swearing

of Agreements7 of Disagreements2 IOA 7
gt 7 gt .77 X 10077 72 9
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Graphic Displays
  • Use of line, bar or pie graphs to describe the
    occurrence of a behavior over time or the
    proportions of behavior
  • Very helpful in evaluating the effectiveness of a
    treatment procedure and in determining when to
    change a procedure

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Ethics
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Ethics
  • Definition
  • The discipline dealing with what is good and bad
    and with moral duty and obligation
  • A theory or system of moral values
  • The principles of conduct governing and
    individual or group

188
Americans with Disabilities Act
  • The Congress finds that physical or mental
    disabilities in no way diminish a persons right
    to fully participate in society

189
Special Education
  • Basic Rights
  • Services are free to parents under the federal
    law Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
    (IDEA) and its regulations
  • Each state has special education laws and
    regulations that govern special educations
    services

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Confidentiality
  • FERPA
  • Family Educational and Rights to Privacy Act
  • Protects the privacy of student education records
    and applies to all schools that receive funds
    under an applicable program of the U.S.
    Department of Education

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Confidentiality
  • HIPAA
  • The Health Insurance Portability and
    Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) Privacy Rule 
  • The Privacy Rule provides federal protections for
    personal health information held by covered
    entities and gives patients an array of rights
    with respect to that information and permits the
    disclosure of personal health information needed
    for patient care and other important purposes
  • http//www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/index.html

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Least Restrictive Environment
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
  • Opportunity to be educated with non-disabled
    peers, to the greatest extent possible
  • Access to the general education curriculum,
    extracurricular activities or any other program
    that non-disabled peers would be able to access

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Least Restrictive Environment
  • Should be provided with supplementary aids and
    services necessary to achieve their educational
    goals if placed in a setting with non-disabled
    peers
  • Generally, the less opportunity a student has to
    interact and learn with non-disabled peers, the
    more that the setting is considered to be
    restricted

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Right to Least Restrictive Intervention
  • Least Restrictive, Most Effective
  • Consider lesser intense interventions if it is
    believed meaningful behavior change can be
    obtained

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Related Websites
  • http//apbs.org/whatsnew.htmlstandards_of_practic
    e
  • http//www.bacb.com
  • http//www.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/fpco/ferpa/index
    .ht
  • http//www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/index.html

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THANK YOU AND GOOD NIGHT
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