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Implementing Differentiated Instruction

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Title: Implementing Differentiated Instruction


1
Implementing Differentiated Instruction
  • In the LANGUAGE! Classroom

2
Why havent we implemented Differentiated
Instruction before?
  • Lack of Instructional Time
  • Lack of materials
  • Need for Preplanning for Centers
  • Setting Expectations
  • Administrative Support

3
Each of these stumbling blocks are being chipped
away as LANGUAGE! is further implemented in Lee
County.
  • Instructional time The LANGUAGE! Program should
    have a 90 minute reading block allowing time for
    differentiated instruction.
  • LANGUAGE! curriculum provides integrated
    materials and planning for differentiated
    instruction.
  • Administrative support is enhanced through
    national and district research.
  • The district will be providing continued
    workshops on differentiated instruction, model
    classrooms, literacy centers, and other research
    based instruction.

4
What does current research indicate regarding
Differentiated Instruction?
5
The Neurobiology of Reading and Dyslexia
  • The provision of extra time is therefore
    an essential accommodation it allows them time
    to decode each word and apply their unimpaired
    higher order cognitive and linguistic skills to
    the surrounding context to get at the meaning of
    words that they cannot rapidly decode.
  • Shaywitz, 2001

6
Implications concerning Shaywitzs findings
  • Therefore, it is essential to differentiate to
    meet the needs of our students.
  • Research supports the need for differentiating
    instruction for underachievers. Struggling
    readers need something different

7
Reading Next A Vision for Action and Research in
Middle and High School Literacy
  • A full 70 per cent of U.S. middle and high
    school students require differentiated
    instruction, which is instruction targeted to
    their individual strengths and weaknesses.
  • (Biancarosa Snow)

8
Torgesons Chart
9
Implications of Torgesons findings
  • Students in Reading Level 1 and 2 have a larger
    deficit in FLUENCY than in VERBAL
    KNOWLEDGE/REASONING.

10
If we keep doing the same thing, well keep
getting the same results so
11
Teachers as Scientists
  • Students arrive in IR classes with a variety of
    assessments how can this data be used to plan
    instruction in the L! classroom the process is
    much like a scientist that problem solves.

12
The purpose of assessment is
  • provide teachers with data that they can use
    to adjust instruction to ensure that all students
    achieve maximum growth in reading. These tests
    help identify students who require corrective
    instruction, students who would from enrichment
    activities, and help teachers prevent minor
    difficulties from developing into major problems
    (Guskey, 2003)

13
The purpose of assessment is
  • provide teachers with data that they can use to
    adjust instruction to ensure that all students
    achieve maximum growth in reading. These tests
    help identify students who require corrective
    instruction, students who would from enrichment
    activities, and help teachers prevent minor
    difficulties from developing into major problems
    (Guskey, 2003)

14
Why Do Content Mastery?
  • Content Mastery is an integral part of the
    Language! program.
  • Success with the L! program hinges on the
    consistent use and monitoring of the assessments.
  • Assessment information is essential to drive the
    day to day instructional success.
  • Helps identify and intervene with those students
    who are falling behind and/or do not show growth
    in the critical areas of literacy development.

15
Content Mastery Tasks
  • Focuses on specific content covered in the unit
  • Measures new content and concepts taught
  • Offers students practice in a variety of testing
    formats such as multiple choice, recall/written
    response, spelling, and open-ended format

16
Content Mastery provides data in three
categories
  • Instructional Effectiveness
  • Individual Students
  • Other Considerations

17
Instructional Effectiveness
  • Provides teachers with a snapshot regarding the
    effectiveness of instruction
  • Informs teachers about areas that might need
    additional practice and modeling
  • Provides feedback about the pace of instruction

18
Instructional Effectiveness
  • The percent of students achieving mastery over a
    designated period of time (9 weeks or semester)
  • The percent of students achieving mastery within
    a unit
  • What differentiated instruction is needed to
    ensure mastery for all students

19
Consider how teacher and student behaviors affect
Content Mastery scores?
20
Points to Ponder When Analyzing Instructional
Effectiveness
  • Were the Content Mastery tasks examined prior to
    instruction and administration?
  • Was the teacher knowledgeable about what mastery
    should look like?
  • Has the expected response been modeled for the
    students?
  • Was there opportunity for approximate steps of
    mastery prior to content mastery being
    administered?

21
Other Considerations
Content Mastery can provide data regarding other
considerations that may include
  • Needs of specific populations
  • Needs of specific class periods
  • (time of day/composition)
  • Needs of specific levels (A-F)
  • Student motivation
  • Patterns of Attendance
  • Parent Support

22
Points to Ponder When Analyzing Other
Considerations
  • Are there additional interventions that can be
    implemented to support specific populations?
  • Are there viable reinforcers that can increase
    achievement for specific students?
  • Can other school personnel impact attendance for
    truant students?
  • How visable/involved is the administration in the
    Intensive Reading classes?

23
The Road Map for Data Driven Instruction
Content Mastery provides a roadmap by targeting
students who need
  • Re-teaching
  • Reinforcement
  • Acceleration

To insure mastery for all students.

24
Administering, Recording and Interpreting
Content Mastery Tasks
25
Administering the Content Mastery
  • The Content Mastery tasks are incorporated into
    lessons 5, 9 and 10.
  • Directions for how-to administer specific tasks
    are incorporated in the unit lessons found
    throughout the Teacher Editions for Books A-F.
  • Students complete the Content Mastery tasks in
    their individual Assessment Content Mastery
    booklets.

26
Recording of Content Mastery Task Scores
  • Student scores should be recorded on the
    reproducible Content Mastery Class Roster in each
    level Assessment Teacher Edition.
  • Teachers should prepare a roster for each unit of
    instruction.

27
Content Mastery Task Class Roster
28
Interpreting Content Mastery Results
Content Mastery Tasks for Steps 1-4 require
students to answer multiple choice and written
spelling tasks in
  • Phonemic Awareness and Phonics
  • Word Recognition and Spelling
  • Vocabulary and Morphology
  • Grammar and Usage

29
What is Mastery for Steps 1-4?
  • Students who achieve 80
  • (4/5 correct or 8/10 correct on individual
    tasks)

30
? A Prescriptive Teaching Box follows every
Content Mastery task at the point of use in the
Teacher Edition.? These boxes guide teachers to
reinforce or reteach based on performance.
When students fall below the 80 mastery level
IF
Then Students who score below 80
Reinforce Word Meanings Use
Sortegories, Unit 9 Categorize It, and
Sort It Word Meanings, Lesson 6, Step
3 Students who score at or
Reteach Below 60
Word Meanings Use Word Networks
Homophones, Unit 9 Lesson 3, Step
3, and Multiple Meaning Map, Lesson 5
Step 3.
31
Reinforcement or Re-teaching?
  • Review and Acceleration appears at the beginning
    of every unit for students whose performance on
    assessment falls below the cutoff test scores.
  • Students can repeat these activities to review
    areas of weaknesses.
  • Special Instructional Support provides activities
    to customize teaching materials an provide
    opportunities for individualized instruction.

32
L! Pacing Guide for School Year 2006-07
33
Interpreting Content Mastery Steps 5 and 6
Content Mastery Tasks for Steps 5-6 require
students to
Interpretation types of questions Use
content from reading materials to write short
answers to comprehension questions
34
  • Teachers need to be very familiar with the
    scoring rubric in order to shape the students
    writing as they progress throughout the unit to
    meet the expectations on the Content Mastery
    tasks.
  • Teachers expectations need to encompass all
    previously taught concepts.

35
Scoring on CM Tasks 5-6
The students overall score is based on the
average rating of the five questions
  • Ideas and Development
  • Organization
  • Voice and Audience Awareness
  • Word Choice
  • Sentence Fluency
  • Written Language Conventions

36
Guidelines for Scoring Writing
37
What is Mastery of CM Tasks 5-6?
  • Students should achieve an average of at least
    4.0 (80) on open ended questions.
  • When performance falls below a score of 4.0,
    those areas may need to be re-taught in
    subsequent units.

38
Fluency Tasks
Teachers need to be knowledgeable of the fluency
expectations for each level of Language!
  • L! Book Grade Level Target
    of
  • Taught in
    Curriculum WCPM
  • A Grade 3 120
  • B Grade 4 130
  • C Grade 5 140
  • D Grade 5 145
  • E Grade 6
    150
  • F Grade 6-8 150-180

39
Florida Oral Reading Fluency
  • Although the FORF has set grade level standards,
    the leveled LANGUAGE! fluency expectations may
    provide a more realistic number of words correct
    per minute for students who are achieving far
    below grade.

40
Fluency Tasks
  • A wide range of fluency tasks are incorporated
    throughout every level.
  • Book A letters-to-sounds-to-words-to-phrase-to-se
    ntence fluency
  • Book B passage fluency
  • A time saving approach to evaluate
    progress is to record students performance on a
    limited set of results.

41
Fluency Task Student Record Form
  • Fluency rates (WCPM) should be recorded on the
    reproducible Fluency Task Student Record Form in
    the Assessment Teacher Edition booklet.

42
Word Fluency Record
43
Differentiating Fluency Goals
Language! Assessment Teachers Edition provides
guidance on establishing individual goals for
  • Students with severe reading difficulties
  • Repeated readings of texts

44
Looking towards the Differentiated Classroom
45
Planning for the Differentiated Lesson
  • First and foremost realize that a differentiated
    classroom doesnt happen overnight
  • Start smallset achievable goals

46
Teacher and Students
  • Learn new classroom routines
  • Use of new materials
  • Set new expectations learning and behavior

47
The FORES Questions
For every differentiated lesson the teacher
should be able to answer these five questions
48
  • F First, are the materials and technology
    available?
  • O What is the objective of the lesson?
  • R How does the objective of the lesson relate
    to the students
  • needs?
  • E Do the students know and understand the
    expectations of the lesson?
  • S Does the class schedule permit it?

49
  • Look at a sample lesson from Book A
  • Lets apply the FORES questions

50

My students are new to sound counts. I want to
reinforce this skill before going on. What can I
do?
Teacher
51
In your TE manual notice the blue box labeled
Special Instructional Support. It states that
Step 1 (PA and Phonics) can be supported through
the use of Sortegories Instructional CD, Unit 1
Sound Count.
Coach
52
Do you have the CD and the technology to use it
in your classroom?
Coach
53
I have the CD, but I need to think about how I
can effectively use it in my classroom.
Teacher
54
Coach
GREAT! Let me help you think it through. Have
your students used independent literacy centers
before?
55
No, Ive not incorporated centers into my
instructional planhowever, I am willing to try
if itll help the students.
Teacher
56
It might be a good idea to model the procedure of
how to use the material and technology before
you expect them to function independently.
Coach
57
How can I do that? Will it work?
Teacher
58
Sure, its easy! You can begin by hooking your
teacher computer to a presentation station or
classroom TV. This way the entire class can
become familiar with the program and how it works.
Coach
59
Perhaps I can work with my schools Tech
Specialist if I need help.
Teacher
60
Most importantly---preview the program to make
sure that it meets your learning objectives and
it relates to your students needs and the desired
outcome of your lesson
Coach
61
Thanks! Ill preview it and well talk again
Teacher
62
As you preview it, determine the expectations for
the lessonboth yours and the students. This
will allow you to determine ahead of time if the
lesson will be a success.
Coach
63
Later..
  • Lets visit the teacher who decided to try
    Sortegories in her class
  • Well find out if she had success or did she
    encounter problems

64
I previewed the skills covered in Sortegories,
Unit 1. It looks great and meets what I want my
students to learn. I plan to use tiles because
my students like them and Ill be able to see if
they are getting the concepts.
Teacher
65
So the last question is when?
Coach
66
Since this was my first attempt I am doing it as
a whole class activity. When my students learn
the routine I can move this to an independent
activity. I have all the materials and Im ready
to go tomorrow. Come and assistso I can improve
it for the next time I do it.
Teacher
67
See you tomorrow.
Coach
68
After the first trial
Coach
Teacher
69
WOW! That went great! You and your students
seemed to enjoy the change of instructional
delivery . I am sure glad you tried the
projector set up yesterdaystarting with no bulb
would have been a disastrous situation.
Coach
70
Youre right about that. Ill have to practice
adjusting shortening the length of my
instructional time. Im sure my students and I
will get better and faster.
Teacher
71
As you continue to perfect the Sortegories
activitylook for other activities in the
Teachers Edition that allows you to keep the
same lesson format, but modify the delivery
method.
Coach
72
Look for activities that invite group work or
cooperative learning.
Coach
73
The purpose of small groups is to reinforce
previously taught concepts.
  • Relevant examples include
  • Idioms and Expressions of the Day
  • Fluency Practice
  • Vocabulary activities
  • Explore It
  • Phrasing
  • Handwriting Practice
  • Masterpiece Sentences

Coach
74
Remember that the Planning and Pacing Guide
indicates content and activities that teachers
can use to differentiate instructionusing the
following tools
75
Tools that help teachers implement differentiated
instruction
  • Instructional Planning Tool CD
  • LANGUAGE! Words for Teachers
  • e-Reader CD
  • Sortegories Interactive CD
  • Folder Activities
  • Speaking and Listening to the English Language
    kit

76
Instructional Planning Tool CD
  • Allows teachers to customize lesson plans for
    daily or weekly differentiated lessons
  • Permits printing of Interactive Text pages
  • For additional practice or remediation purposes

77
LANGUAGE! e-Reader CD
  • Read selections aloud and highlights each phrase
  • Includes Interactive versions of Instructional
    Text
  • Links to strategic vocabulary
  • Allows students to copy and paste text into notes
    or outlines to facilitate writing

78
Sortegories Interactive CD
Offers nine interactive activities for each unit
  • Sound Count
  • Sort It
  • Morph It
  • Build It
  • Categorize it
  • Relate It
  • Grammar Sort
  • Analogy Building
  • Phrase Building

79
General Principles for Folder Activities
  • Manipulatives have been shown to aid retention
    and foster learning
  • Provides students with opportunities to practice
    skills and interact with classmates
  • Helps to build academic vocabulary that follow
    the scope and sequence of the LANGUAGE! Program
  • Folder activities are found in Teacher Resource
    Guide pp 100-105

80
LANGUAGE! Folder Categories
  • Individual and Partner Friendly
  • Alphabetize
  • Word Sorts
  • Phoneme Discrimination
  • Grammar Sort
  • Semantic Sort
  • Syllable Sort
  • Word and Phrase Sort
  • Sentence Unscramble
  • Fill-in-the-Blanks
  • Tic-Tac-Toe
  • Essential Words
  • Syllable Types

81
Teacher Created Folder Activities
  • Masterpiece Sentences helps students construct
    excellent sentences and strengthens their
    understanding of grammar and syntax
  • ELL Activities facilitates opportunities for
    students to practice vocabulary
  • Sentence Diagramming allows students to identify
    parts of speech
  • Multiple Meaning Maps requires students to
    examine word meanings at a deeper level

82
LANGUAGE! Words for Teachers
Fluency Builder Grid, Word Search and Word
Unscramble
  • Step 2 Word Recognition and Spelling Activities
  • Unit Vocabulary Words
  • Essential Words
  • Words with prefixes and suffixes
  • Homophones
  • Words with short or long vowels
  • Words with blends
  • Multi-syllable words
  • Words with nouns, verbs or adjective suffixes

83
LANGUAGE! Words For Teachers CD
Word Card Generator and Word Study Guide
  • Step 3 Vocabulary and Morphology Activities
  • Sort by noun, verb or adjective suffixes
  • Sort by prefixes or suffixes
  • Sort by words with multiple meanings
  • Open word sorts
  • Student generated synonym, antonym, rhyme,
    definition or picture
  • Step 4 Grammar and Usage Activities
  • Sort by parts of speech
  • Build sentences by unit grammar concepts
  • Sort prepositions by time, space or both
  • Sort comparative and superlatives
  • Sort regular and irregular verbs
  • Sort by type of pronoun

84
Speaking and Listening to the English Language
  • The primary objective of the 270 activities is to
    give the students the tools they need to succeed
    in school and life by learning Academic English.
  • When spoken and written English are taught
    simultaneously, students are able to access the
    regular curriculum much faster.
  • Speaking and Listening to the English Language is
    best used concurrently with LANGUAGE! although
    can be used independently.
  • Each unit in the TE identifies the concepts
    being taught in the ELL unit.

85
Later that month
You have done a GREAT job teaching your students
about the literacy centers and their expected
behaviors. I have noticed that you are using
literacy centers on a limited basic. Are you
ready to expand their use?
Coach
86
Im game! What are my choices of scheduling?
Teacher
87
There are two main choicesdedicating time daily
or weekly. In order to choose, there are
questions you need to ask and answer about your
students. They can help you decide which is best
for youdaily or weekly. Remember those points
to ponder we talked about earlier such as
motivation, attendance and population? You may
need to consider these factors in addition to
your content mastery scores.
Coach
88
Points to Ponder when considering differentiated
instruction ..
Motivation Can your class handle a whole block
of mostly independent tasks? Or would they do
better with a 10-15 minute differentiated period?
Attendance If absenteeism is a problem for the
class and if students miss direct instruction
once a weekwould they fall too far behind?
Population If your class contains ESOL
studentsdo these students needs dictate daily
or weekly LANGUAGE! differentiated activities?
89
Choosing the Differentiated Instruction Schedule
  • Dedicate a day each week
  • --Mrs. Callis
  • Dedicate a time daily
  • --Mr. Coltrane

90
Why Choose a Dedicated Day Each Week ?
  • Mrs. Callis has opted for dedicated time each
    week based on the needs of her students.
  • Her students exhibit a need for more direct
    instruction rather than independent learning.
  • Absenteeism is low.
  • Students would benefit from more immediate
    feedback .
  • She feels that a dedicated day meets the needs of
    her students more readily than daily
    differentiated instructional time.

91
Mrs. Callis is ready begin a day
designated for Differentiated Instruction.
  • Using the handout Content Mastery Task Class
    Roster for Book A Unit 2, Content Mastery task
    scores, help Mrs. Callis by highlighting students
    who need re-teaching and reinforcement.
  • Remember that reinforcement is 60-80 and
    re-teaching is gt60 mastery.

92
Classroom Roster form
93
  • Based on the results gathered--Mrs. Callis now
    transfers the information on to the Dedicated Day
    sheet by inserting names of students beside
    specific steps.
  • This will allow Mrs. Callis to support these
    students throughout the week to prevent failure.

94
  • Dedicated Day for differentiation

Participants please refer to your packet for
this two page handout
95
  • Sample Literacy Centers that students rotate
    through
  • Reading Table
  • Computers/Interactive CDs
  • Folder Activities
  • Independent reading
  • Whole group activity
  • eReader
  • Sortegories

96
Classroom map
97
Utilizing the Content Mastery and Observation
Sheet
  • On the fourth day, Mrs. Callis reviews her
    observation sheets to make sure that she
    differentiates instruction for struggling and
    excelling students.

98
Sample Dedicated Day Schedule
Scenario Mrs. Callis has set up her groups for
all students to visit 3 stations.
  • Students who are doing well visit
  • Fluency Activities
  • Reading Table
  • Enrichment/Extension Activities
  • Students who are struggling visit
  • Reinforcement Activities
  • Reading Table for re-teaching
  • Fluency Activities
  • Students self select the centers based on the
    number of chairs available. If the chairs are
    full, they select another center. (move over)
  • Students stay approximately 15 minutes at each
    center. The following week centers are changed
    due to current observation data and variety.

99
Why Choose Dedicated Time Each Day?
  • Mr. Coltraine has chosen the dedicated time each
    day based on the needs of his students.
  • His students have demonstrated independent work
    skills but have a high absentee rate.
  • He feels that if he has differentiated
    instruction only one day a week he wont be able
    to keep the students up with their reading skills.

100
Dedicated Time Each Day
  • First or last 10-15 minutes of each day (only if
    in 90 minute block)
  • One group at reading table for
  • reinforcement
  • clarification
  • re-teaching
  • re-administering Content Mastery
  • Other groups at computers, folder activities, or
    independent reading

101
Dedicated Time Daily Lesson Plan
Participants please refer to your packet for
this handout
102
Summary
  • Mr. Coltraine followed the same sequence of
    Content Mastery analysis and observation as Mrs.
    Callis.
  • The classroom set up is similar.
  • Mr. Coltraine allows approximately 15 minutes a
    day for differentiated instruction in Literacy
    Centers.

103
Planning Reinforcement and Consequences
  • Just as you plan for academic tasks, many
    problems can be prevented by planning for
  • Classroom Logistics
  • Behavioral and academic reinforcement
  • Behavioral consequences
  • Grading procedures

104
How can I tell if my differentiated instruction
is working?
Teacher
105
Im so glad that you asked that question! Ill
show you a way for you and your students to
track data that will allow you to see if your
individual students are making progress and it
your class as a whole is making progress,
Coach
106
I cant wait!
Teacher
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