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???? ????????: (Hydrogen chloride, organic

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Title: ???? ????????: (Hydrogen chloride, organic


1
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????"- ?????? ???????? ????" ?? ????? ?????
???? ???????? (Hydrogen chloride, organic
inorganic chlorides) ?? ?????? ????? ????
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4
???? ????????? (Hydrogen sulfide, Mercaptans
organic sulfur) ????? ??? ?????? ??????
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?5) ??? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????? (Coke)
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6
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8
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9
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(Sulfates to Sulfides) ????? ??? ???????
?????????? ???? ????? ?????? ?????" ???????
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10
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11
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??????????? (Caustic Sodium Hydroxide)
?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ??
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????? ??? ??? ???? ????" ?? ????? ??????.
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?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????
???????? ????????? (Caustic embrittlement) ?????"
????? ???? ???? ??????? ???? ??? (200?). ??????
??????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ???
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(400 ?) ????? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????
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12
???? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????
????????? ?????? (85-90 ????") ????? ????? ??
????? ??????? (Alkylation units) ?? ???? ??????
?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????. ?? ?????
?????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??? (?)
?????? ?????? ???? (??? ?? 85 ????") ????
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??????? ????? ??????? (70 ???? ? 30 ????)
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13
??????? (Carbolic Acid) ?????? ?? ????? ????
??????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???? ??????
??????? ?????????? ???????????????? ??????????.
?????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????
??? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ????
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??????" ?????" ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ????
?????? (pH8) ?????" ?????" ?????" ???? ????
????? ????? ????. ???????? Chlorine ?????? ??
????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?????
?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ????
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??????? ?????- (?) ????? ?????????? ? C
Hastelloy (????? ?????? ????????????). (?)
??????????. (?) ??????????. (?) ??????. (??)
PVC. (?) ?????? ??? ????????.
14
????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????
??????? (1) ?????? ??????? uniform
corrosion ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ??????
????? Atmospheric corrosion ????? ??????? ?????
???? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????. (2)
?????? ??????? Pitting corrosion ??? ??? ??
????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????
?????????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ???
????? ?????" ????" ????? ?? ??????? ???" ????
????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ??????
??? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ????
??????? (Pit gauge). (3) ?????? ????????
(Galvanic corrosion) ???? ???? ????? ????
???- (?) ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????
?????? ???? ??????????- (?) ??????? ???? ??
?????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? (Crevice
corrosion)- ???? ????
??? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ?????
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??? ?????? (?) ????? ???? ????? ???????
????????????Differential Temp. ???? ????
?????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? (Tube Supports).
15
(4) ?????? ??? ???? ???????? ????????
Intergranular corrosion ??? ???? ????? ????
????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????
????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????"
?????" ?????" ??? ???? ???????? ????? ?? ?????
?????? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ??????
?????. ???? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?????
??????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ????????????
(18/8) ???? ??? (1 ???) ??? ???????? ???????? ???
???? ????? (425-870?5) ??? ???? ??? ??? ???????
????? ?????? (Weld Decay) ??? ???? ?????? ???
???????? ??? ???????? ??????. ?????? ???????
????? ???? ???????? (02?0-03?0) ??? ???????
(316L,304L).????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?? ????
?? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ???
???? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?
??????????? ? ???????????. (5) ?????? ??????
(Stress corrosion) ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????
??? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ???? ???????? ????????
?? ???? ???????? ????? (Intergranular or
Transgranular) ????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ???
??????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ???
???? ?????? (????? ???????) ????? ?????. ?? ?????
??????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ??????
????" ?? ???????.
16
????? (?) ??????? ??????? ????? / ??????
???????? ? ?????? ? ??? ????? ? ?????????
????????. (?) ?????? ????????? / ?????? ?????????
???????? ? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?
????? ????? ??????? ??????????. (?) ??????? /
???? ???? ????????????? ?? ???? ????????. (6)
?????? ??????????? (Hydrogen Attack) ??
?????? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???? ??
????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ???
?????? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ??????. (7)
?????? ?????? (Corrosion Fatigue) ???? ?? ????
?????? ??? ????? ?????? (Cyclic stress) ??????
??????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??? ???? ?????
???? ???????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?????
????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????. ????
??????? ???????.
17
(8) ?????? ???????? (Erosion corrosion)
????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????
????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ????
??????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ????
?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????
???????. ???? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ????
????? ????? ????? ???? ?????" ??? ???? ??????
??????. ????? (?) ????? ???????? ? ??????? ?
????????? ? ?????? ???????. (?) ????? ??????
?????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????
???????. ?????? (?) ??????? ????? ???? ????
????? ?????? ??????? ?????????. (?)??????? ?????
?????? ?????? ?????. (?) ??????? ????? ????. (?)
????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????
???? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? Hard
surfacing. (??) ??????? ?????????.
18
  • ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????
    ?????-
  • ????????? ? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?
    ????????? ? ???????? ????????.
  • (10) ?????? ???????? ???????? Corrosion
    Microbiological (Bacteria)
  • ???? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????
    ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ????
    ??????? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ????? ??????
    ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????.
  • ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ????
    ???? ?????????.
  • ??????
  • (?) ????? ???????? ????? ?????.
  • (?) ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????.
  • (?) ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????
    ???? ???????.
  • (?) ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????.
  • ????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ????? ? ????? ????? ???? ??
    ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ???-
  • (11) ?????? ????????? Cavitations.

19
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