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Hair Analysis

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Hair Analysis SUPA Forensics What Exactly Is Hair? Typical mammalian hair consists of the shaft, protruding above the skin, and the root, which is sunk in a follicle ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hair Analysis


1
Hair Analysis
  • SUPA Forensics

2
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3
What Exactly Is Hair?
  • Typical mammalian hair consists of the shaft,
    protruding above the skin, and the root, which is
    sunk in a follicle, or pit, beneath the skin
    surface.
  • Except for a few growing cells at the base of the
    root, the hair is dead tissue and is composed of
    keratin and related proteins.
  • The hair follicle is a tubelike pocket of the
    epidermis, that encloses a small section of the
    dermis at its base.
  • Human hair is formed by rapid divisions of cells
    at the base of the follicle. As the cells are
    pushed upward from the follicle's base, they
    harden and undergo pigmentation.

4
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5
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6
The Structure of Hair
7
Cross Section of Hair
8
Hair / Skin Cross section
9
Hair parts
10
Cross Section of Hair
11
Hair follicle
12
Hair shaft
13
Hair Bulb
14
Cuticle differences
15
Medulla Patterns
16
Hair strengthLoss of sulfur causes hair to
harden and lose weight.
17
Hair growth cycle
18
Hair growth cycle
Diagram showing a resting hair follicle returning
from resting telogen to growing anagen. If the
old fiber has not already fallen out it is pushed
out by the new hair fiber growing underneath.
19
Hair tutorial
  • http//www.thegentletouch.com/hairbiol/h-cycl1.htm

20
The phases of the hair growth cycleIt is easy
to remember the lengths of the different phases
ofthe growth cycle. Very roughly
speaking           anagen 1000 days (or
more) catagen    10 days 
telogen   100 daysThe hair growth cycle,
showing the changes from the growing of a new
hair (anagen) to its shedding (telogen) notice
how in anagen the hair bulb lies deep inside the
scalp and then rises towards the surface before
the hair is shed, then moves down again as the
new hair grows
21
On a healthy head
  • 80 to 90 percent of the hair follicles are in
    the anagen phase
  • 2 percent are in the catagen phase
  • 10 to 18 percent are in the telogen phase.

22
Cuticle the scale structure covering the
exterior of the hair   Cortex the main body of
the hair shaft  Medulla a cellular column
running through the center of the hair  Anagen
phase the initial growth phase during which the
hair follicle is actively producing hair Catagen
phase a transition stage between the anagen and
telogen phases of hair growth
23
Telogen phase the final growth phase in which
hair naturally falls out of the skin   Nuclear
DNA DNA present within the nucleus of a cell.
This form of DNA is inherited from both
parents  Mitochondrial DNA DNA present in
small structures (mitochondria) located outside
the nucleus of a cell. Mitochondria are
responsible for supplying energy to the cell.
This form of DNA is maternally (from the mother)
inherited.
24
Three major parts of Hair Cuticle
  • Cuticle
  • Gives hair resistance to chemical breakdown and
    retains its structural features.
  • Results in important forensic use
  • Overlapping scales always point towards tip end
    of hair
  • Scale pattern allows for differentiation of
    species
  • Study scale by SEM or embedding into soft medium

25
Three major parts of Hair Cuticle
 
Diamond Petal
Mosaic
Pectinate
Imbricate
Petal
Chevron
26
Three major parts of Hair Cuticle
27
Three major parts of Hair Cortex
  • Cortex is the main part of the hair
  • Has pigment granules
  • Compare color, shape, distribution
  • Examine by mounting in a liquid with similar
    REFRACTIVE INDEX
  • Allows for less light to be reflected and light
    penetration is optimized

28
Melanin
29
Medulla
  • Cellular column running through middle of hair
  • Modullarly index is how much of diameter of hair
    medulla takes up
  • Human lt1/3
  • Other animals gt1/2
  • Medulla can vary even in same individual
  • Shape human and most animals have
    cylindrical shape

30
Hair Removal
http//www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/july2000/de
edric1.htmHair20Evidence
Naturally shed hairs, such as a head hair dislodged through combing, display undamaged, club-shaped roots. A hair forcibly removed from the scalp will exhibit stretching and damage to the root area. Forcibly removed hairs may have tissue attached.
31
Human vs. Human
  • All unknowns are compared to
  • KNOWN standards color, length, shape and
    diameter.
  • Concentration of Medullary/ cortex pigments
  • Growth after Dyed or bleached?
  • Dyed (color) throughout
  • Bleached pigments removed provides a yellowish
    tint

32
  • The hair on our scalps and in our eyebrows and
    eyelashes are different from other bodily hairs.
  • The hair on our heads grows a healthy .5 inch per
    month, and long scalp hairs have an average life
    of 3 to 5 years. Most of us have between 100,000
    and 150,000 hairs on our heads!

33
Head Hairs
  • Head hairs are usually the longest hairs on the
    human body. They are characterized as having a
    uniform diameter and, often, a cut tip.
  • Head hairs can appear uncut, with tapered tips
    but are more often cut with scissors, razors, or
    clippers.
  • Head hairs are subject to more alteration than
    hairs from other body areas such as hair dyes,
    rinses, permanents, frosts, and other chemical
    applications.

34
Hair use in crimes
  • Environmental alterations can result from
    exposure to excessive sunlight, wind, dryness,
    and other conditions.
  • It is recommended that head hair samples be
    obtained as soon as possible from suspects and
    victims of crime. Head hair samples obtained
    years after a crime are generally not suitable
    for meaningful comparison purposes.

35
Hair use in crimes
  • The known sample should contain a random sampling
    of hair from different areas of the scalp (
    because of different morphology).
  • The number of hairs required for a meaningful
    comparison may vary depending on the uniformity
    of characteristics present in the hairs from an
    individual. (usually 50 head hairs combed and
    plucked)
  • Head hair vairations are 14500 individuals

36
Pubic Hairs
  • Pubic hairs are generally coarse and wiry in
    appearance. They exhibit considerable diameter
    variation or buckling and often have a continuous
    to discontinuous medulla. While tapered tips are
    common, these hairs may also be abraded or cut
  • Pubic hairs are not subject to as much change as
    head hairs over time, and because of this, a
    sample taken a year or more after a crime may
    still be suitable for meaningful comparison
    purposes.
  • About 25 full length pubic hairs are required for
    a sampling
  • Variations exist in 1800 individuals

37
Facial Hairs
  • Facial hairs are more commonly called beard hairs
    or mustache hairs. These hairs are coarse in
    appearance and can have a triangular cross
    section. Heavy shouldering or troughs in the hair
    are observed under magnification. Other
    characteristics include a wide medulla and a
    razor-cut tip.
  • The presence of facial hairs on the clothing of a
    suspect or victim may help establish contact
    between these individuals. While these hairs may
    be compared microscopically, the significance of
    the association may not be as great as head hair
    and pubic hair associations.

38
Limb Hairs
  • Hairs from the legs and arms constitute limb
    hairs. These hairs are shorter in length,
    arc-like in shape, and often abraded or tapered
    at the tips. The pigment in limb hair is
    generally granular in appearance, and the medulla
    is trace to discontinuous.
  • While limb hairs are not routinely compared in a
    forensic laboratory, they can differ in
    appearance between individuals. These
    differences, however, are not considered
    sufficient to allow limb hairs to be of value for
    meaningful comparison purposes.

39
Fringe Hairs and Axillary Hairs
  • Hairs originating from areas of the body outside
    those specifically designated as head or pubic
    are generally not suitable for significant
    comparison purposes. These hairs might originate
    from the neck, sideburns, abdomen, upper leg, and
    back
  • Axillary (underarm) hairs, chest hairs, eye
    hairs, and nose hairs are not routinely compared.
    As with limb hairs and fringe hairs, their
    presence may help to corroborate information
    obtained during an investigation.

40
Hair color
  • There are two kinds of melanin found in the hair
    eumelanin (the most common and responsible for
    hair shades from brown to black) and phaeomelanin
    (responsible for yellowish-blond, ginger and red
    colors). Absence of pigment produces white/gray
    hair. Before any permanent color can be deposited
    into the hair shaft, the cuticle, or outer layer,
    must be opened. The insoluble formula then reacts
    with the cortex to deposit or remove the color.

41
Chemicals in hair coloring
  • The two main chemical ingredients involved in any
    coloring process that lasts longer than 12
    shampoos are
  • Hydrogen peroxide (also known as the developer or
    oxidizing agent) -- This ingredient, in varying
    forms and strengths, helps initiate the
    color-forming process and creates longer-lasting
    color. The larger the volume of the developer,
    the greater the amount of sulfur is removed from
    the hair. Loss of sulfur causes hair to harden
    and lose weight. This is why, for the majority of
    hair coloring, the developer is maintained at 30
    volume or less.
  • Ammonia -- This alkaline allows for lightening by
    acting as a catalyst when the permanent hair
    color comes together with the peroxide. Like all
    alkalines, ammonia tends to separate the cuticle
    and allow the hair color to penetrate the cortex
    of the hair.
  • In addition, various types of alcohols, which can
    also dry the hair, are present in most hair color

42
How Do Hair Coloring Products Work?
  • Semi-permanent color -- This product adds color
    without changing natural color dramatically. The
    hair color contains tiny color molecules that
    enter the hair's cuticle, or outer layer, and go
    into your hair's cortex. They don't interact with
    your natural pigments. And since the molecules
    are small, they eventually exit the hair shaft
    after several shampoos, leaving the hair as it
    was before treatment. This level generally lasts
    for 6 to 12 shampoos, covers up to 50 percent
    gray, enhances your natural color and leaves no
    roots. This hair coloring won't lighten your hair
    color because it contains no ammonia or peroxide.

43
How Do Hair Coloring Products Work?
  • demi-permanent color -- This product level lasts
    longer, through 24 to 26 shampoos. In this
    process, pre-color molecules penetrate the
    cuticle and enter the cortex where they then
    partner to create medium-sized color molecules.
    Their larger size means they take longer to wash
    out. These products do not contain ammonia so the
    natural pigment can't be lightened. However, it
    contains a small amount of peroxide, which allows
    for a subtle, but noticeable, color enhancement.
    It also blends and covers gray. (Both semi- and
    demi-permanent colors can become permanent on
    permed or already-colored hair!)

44
How Do Hair Coloring Products Work?
  • permanent color -- This is what you need for a
    more significant color change. In this level,
    both ammonia and peroxide are used. Tiny
    molecules enter all the way into the cortex,
    where they react and expand to a size that cannot
    be washed out. Your hair actually has to grow out
    over time. This product acts to lighten the
    hair's natural pigment to form a new base and
    then to add a new permanent color. The end result
    is a combination of your natural hair pigment and
    the new shade you chose. That means the color may
    appear different on you than on someone else
    using the same color. (That's why the "strand
    test" is so important.) Regular touch-ups of 4 to
    6 weeks are generally needed to eliminate roots
    -- hair with your natural color growing at half
    an inch per month from your scalp.

45
What actually happens to your hair?
  • If you're blonde and are going darker -- to brown
    -- permanent hair color uses the interaction
    between the ammonia and the peroxide to create a
    new color base in your hair shafts.
  • If you go in the opposite direction -- from black
    or brown to blonde -- the hair goes through an
    additional step. First, bleach is used to strip
    the color from the hair. Then the
    ammonia-peroxide reaction creates the new color
    and deposits it in the hair shaft.
  • If you use a semi-permanent color, the hair is
    coated with color, rather than deposited into the
    hair shaft.

46
Differences in hair length depend on the length
of anagen, which is genetically determined. These
two people started off with hair of the same
length and went without a haircut for 18 months
the man's hair grows only to his collar before it
falls out naturally, but the woman's anagen
period is clearly much longer
47
Normal Telogen Phase haircompound e-
micrograph
48
An anagen hair that has been plucked out notice
the soft, sticky tail
49
A method of measuring the rate of hair growth
both cut hairs and newly emerging hairs can be
seen
50
Forensic Hair Morphology
51
Muskrat Hair
52
This is a deer hair. Unlike that of
any other animal, the root of deer hair has a
wine-glass shape a narrow root that gradually
widens. In addition, the medulla, or inner layer
of cells, consists of spherical cells that take
up the whole width of the hair in a repeating
pattern of different shapes, such as a hexagonal
shape, depending on what member of the deer
family the subject belongs to.
53
Deer Hair
54
This is a deer hair. Unlike that of any other
animal, the root of deer hair has a wine-glass
shape a narrow root that gradually widens. In
addition, the medulla, or inner layer of cells,
consists of spherical cells that take up the
whole width of the hair in a repeating pattern of
different shapes, such as a hexagonal shape,
depending on what member of the deer family the
subject belongs to.
55
Muskrat Hair
56
This is a deer hair. Unlike that of
any other animal, the root of deer hair has a
wine-glass shape a narrow root that gradually
widens. In addition, the medulla, or inner layer
of cells, consists of spherical cells that take
up the whole width of the hair in a repeating
pattern of different shapes, such as a hexagonal
shape, depending on what member of the deer
family the subject belongs to.
57
Deer Hair
58
This is a cat hair. Cat hair has fibrous roots
and its pigment particles do not run down to the
root. In addition, its medulla, or inner layer of
cells, is thicker than that of dog hair.
59
Cat Hair
60
This is a cat hair. Cat hair has fibrous roots
and its pigment particles do not run down to the
root. In addition, its medulla, or inner layer of
cells, is thicker than that of dog hair.
61
  • This is a dog hair. Dog hair has spade-like roots
    and its pigmentation runs down throughout the
    shaft to the root. Its medulla, or inner layer of
    cells, is thinner, too, than that of cat hair.

62
Dog Hair
63
This is a dog hair. Dog hair has spade-like roots
and its pigmentation runs down throughout the
shaft to the root. Its medulla, or inner layer of
cells, is thinner, too, than that of cat hair
64
Muskrat Hair
65
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66
Human Head Hair - Cut
67
Human Hair Cut
68
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69
Darn those Split Ends
70
Human Pubic Hair
71
Hair Structure
72
Cuticle Human Hair
73
Cuticle Oragutan hair
74
Human Orangutan
75
Slight Lifting Normal cuticle
76
Cuticle damage by overperming
77
Brush down Brush up
78
Electronmicrograph showing new hairs emerging
from the hair follicles of the scalp
79
Zinc deficiency Normal
80
Hair density patterns
81
A hair, carrying some normal fragments of debris,
seen under the electron microscope
82
This is a human head hair of Caucasian origin.
Caucasian hairs come in the widest variety of
colors, can be of fine to medium coarseness and
are generally straight or wavy. In addition, the
shafts vary from round to oval in cross section.
Finally, color pigments are fine- to medium-sized
and are evenly distributed throughout the shaft.
83
Caucasian / European Hair
84
HairThis is a human head hair of Caucasian
origin. Caucasian hairs come in the widest
variety of colors, can be of fine to medium
coarseness and are generally straight or wavy. In
addition, the shafts vary from round to oval in
cross section. Finally, color pigments are fine-
to medium-sized and are evenly distributed
throughout the shaft.
85
Caucasoid hair can be anything from blond to
black in color, and may be curly, wavy or straight
86
This is a human head hair of Asian origin. Such
hair is generally coarse, straight and circular
in cross section. Its diameter is wider than the
hair of other racial groups, and the outer layer
of the hair, the cuticle, is usually
significantly thicker. The medulla, or inner
layer of cells, is continuous and wide. In
addition, the hair shaft contains pigment
particles that are generally larger than those of
Caucasian hairs, and often appear to be grouped
in patchy areas. Finally, the hair may have a
reddish appearance, a product of its pigment.
87
Mongoloid / Asian Hair
88
This is a human head hair of Asian origin. Such
hair is generally coarse, straight and circular
in cross section. Its diameter is wider than the
hair of other racial groups, and the outer layer
of the hair, the cuticle, is usually
significantly thicker. The medulla, or inner
layer of cells, is continuous and wide. In
addition, the hair shaft contains pigment
particles that are generally larger than those of
Caucasian hairs, and often appear to be grouped
in patchy areas. Finally, the hair may have a
reddish appearance, a product of its pigment.
89
Asian hair is straight and thick, and resists
damage well
90
This is a human head hair of Afro-Caribbean
origin. Such hairs are generally curly or kinky,
and have a flattened cross section. Larger than
those of other racial groups, its pigment
particles are grouped in clumps of different
sizes and shapes and may be so dense that they
render the hair opaque. Furthermore, the hair
shaft may vary or seem to vary in diameter
because of its flattened nature and the way it
settles on the microscope slide
91
African American Hair
92
This is a human head hair of Afro-Caribbean
origin. Such hairs are generally curly or kinky,
and have a flattened cross section. Larger than
those of other racial groups, its pigment
particles are grouped in clumps of different
sizes and shapes and may be so dense that they
render the hair opaque. Furthermore, the hair
shaft may vary or seem to vary in diameter
because of its flattened nature and the way it
settles on the microscope slide.
93
African hair is vulnerable to damage, because of
its shape and twisted structure
94
Human HairsRacial Determination
Negroid Afro-Carribean
Mongoloid Asian
Caucasian
95
POST-Mortem root band
96
Burnt Human Hair
97
Forced Removal - Naturally Shed
98
Comparison Microscope evaluation of hair.
99
Naturally shed hairs have an undisturbed club
shaped root
100
Hair forecably removed with stretching / damage
to the root area
101
Tissue attached to root. Recall tissue is the
part that has DNA
102
Examination of the Medulla
103
Age of hair donor
  • The age of an individual cannot be determined
    definitively by a microscopic examination
    however, the microscopic appearance of certain
    human hairs, such as those of infants and elderly
    individuals, may provide a general indication of
    age.
  • The hairs of infants, for example, are generally
    finer and less distinctive in microscopic
    appearance.
  • As individuals age, hair can undergo pigment loss
    and changes in the configuration of the hair
    shaft to become much finer and more variable in
    diameter.

104
Sex of hair donor
  • Although the sex of an individual is difficult to
    determine from microscopic examination, longer,
    treated hairs are more frequently encountered in
    female individuals.
  • Sex can be determined from a forcibly removed
    hair (with tissue), but this is not routinely
    done.
  • Nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) tests
    will provide more specific information regarding
    the possible origin of the hair.

105
Questions concerning hair examinations and their
significance include
  • Is the significance of a hair association
    dependent on a set number of compared
    characteristics?
  • Does the length of the compared hairs affect the
    significance of an association?
  • Does treatment influence the significance?
  • Are hairs of specific racial groups more
    significant than others?
  • Do hair sprays, gels, or other hair applications
    influence the significance of a hair match?
  • Is a hair match significant when the comparison
    was made with a limited number of known hairs? 

106
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107
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108
Forensic Hair Morphology
109
Examination of the Medulla
110
Patterns in Animal Species Examination of Scale
Pattern
111
Hair Roots
Pulled
Forcibly Removed Shed
112
Tip of the Shaft
Burned Cut
Razored
split
113
Collection of Hair Specimen
114
All slides pictures and commentaries copied from
a variety of sources
115
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116
One Small Snip Of Hair... One giant headache
for Ohio barber who sold Neil Armstrong's locks
117
JUNE 1--Former Apollo astronaut Neil Armstrong is
threatening to sue an Ohio barber who once cut
his hair and then sold the locks to a collector.
Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon, is
steamed at Marx Sizemore, who peddled the shorn
hair for 3000 last May. Now, according to the
below May 17 letter from Armstrong's attorney,
the ex-astronaut wants Sizemore to retrieve the
hair or contribute his proceeds from the sale to
charity (Armstrong also wants to be reimbursed
for his legal expenses). Ross Wales, Armstrong's
lawyer, contends that the 35-year-old Sizemore's
tonsorial hijinks violated a state law protecting
the "persona rights" of famous Ohioans. Sizemore,
who used to cut Armstrong's hair monthly at his
Lebanon shop, told TSG that he did not initiate
the hair sale, but rather was approached by Todd
Mueller, a Colorado memorabilia dealer.
118
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119
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120
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121
The death of Napoleon Bonaparte.Murder? The
answer is in the hair.
                                          

 
Portrait of Louis Marchand
Portrait of Longwood House, St. Helena
http//www.crimelibrary.com/terrorists_spies/assas
sins/napoleon_bonaparte/index.html
122
Beethovens Hair Locke
  • http//www.sjsu.edu/depts/beethoven/hair/hair.html

123
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124
The Fourth Amendment
  • Does the collection of a hair sample from a
    prisoner violate their fourth amendment rights?

The right of the people to be secure in their
persons, houses, papers, and effects, against
unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be
violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon
probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation,
and particularly describing the place to be
searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
125
Coddington v. Evanko
At the end of last month, in the case of
Coddington v. Evanko, the U.S. Court of Appeals
for the Third Circuit ruled that police officers
may constitutionally shave large amounts of hair
from a suspect's head, neck, and shoulders,
without a warrant, probable cause, or any basis
for suspecting that the hair would provide
evidence of crime. The Fourth Amendment
guarantees the people the right to be free from
unreasonable searches and seizures. But according
to the court, the Fourth Amendment does not apply
to hair removal.
http//writ.news.findlaw.com/colb/20041117.html
Find Law
Hair lacks constitutional protection CNN Law
126
Thats Not My Hair!!!!Hair Analysis Acceptable
Means of IdentificationVolume 4, Issue 11 --
Published Thursday, Oct 12, 2000 -- Last
Updated Monday, Mar 11, 2002
  • Stanford Johnson was found dead in the home he
    shared with his son, Terrence Johnson. An autopsy
    later revealed that the victim was killed by
    manual strangulation. Because there was no
    evidence that the victim's home was entered
    forcibly, Terrence Johnson immediately became a
    suspect in the investigation of his father's
    murder

127
  • At trial, witnesses testified that the cuts and
    bruises the medical examiner observed on Terrence
    Johnson had not been there the day before the
    murder.
  • Still other witnesses contradicted Terrence
    Johnson's statements that he was not home the
    entire evening before he called the Jefferson
    County emergency service to report his discovery
    of his father's body.
  • Perhaps most convincing, however, was the
    physical evidence A blood spot found on the
    victim's clothing matched Terrence Johnson's
    relatively rare blood type, and hairs found in
    the victim's hands had the same characteristics
    as hair samples taken from Terrence Johnson's
    head.
  • The murder suspect moved to suppress the
    testimony of the serologist who made the
    connection between the hair in Stanford Johnson's
    hands and the hair on Terrence Johnson's head.
    The trial court overruled that motion.

128
Frye Yes, Daubert No
Sentenced to a lifetime prison term for his
father's strangulation, Terrence Johnson
appealed, arguing that, among other things, the
court should have suppressed the testimony of the
hair analysis expert. Johnson primarily relied
on Williamson v. Reynolds, 904 F. Supp. 1529
(1995), a case in which a federal district judge
in Oklahoma concluded that hair analysis by
microscopic comparison, which may have satisfied
the test established in Fyre v. United States, 54
App. D.C. 46 (D.C. Cir. 1923), did not satisfy
the test of reliability established in Daubert v.
Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, 509 U.S. 579 (1993).
129
Frye Yes, Daubert No
The Supreme Court of Kentucky took judicial
notice (that is, accepted as true) the state's
assertion that hair analysis is scientifically
reliable based upon the overwhelming acceptance
of this evidence by other jurisdictions, as well
as our own history of routine admission of this
evidence at trial. The Court further held that
the Appellant could still convince the Court that
the trial court erred when it admitted the
serologist's testimony, however, by proving that
hair analysis is no longer deemed reliable.
130
Frye Yes, Daubert No
  • The opinion in Williamson was virtually the only
    evidence submitted by Appellant in support of his
    contention that hair analysis is unreliable.
  • Finding that the case was reversed by its own
    appellate court and was thus stripped of any
    precedential value, the Supreme Court of
    Kentucky sustained Terrence Johnson's conviction

131
Drug Testing Network
Questions and Answers About Hair Testing
Court Cases Involving Hair Testing
132
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133
mRNA
  • Scott Peterson Case
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