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Society and Social Interaction

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Title: Society and Social Interaction


1
Chapter 5
  • Society and Social Interaction

2
Chapter Outline
  • Understanding Social Interaction
  • Types of Social Interaction
  • Elements of Social Interaction
  • Institutions and Social Organizations
  • Societies

3
Social Distance Zones
  • Intimate
  • Varies from direct physical contact with another
    person to a distance of 6 to 18 inches.
  • Used for private activities with another close
    acquaintance.

4
Social Distance Zones
  • Personal
  • Varies from 2 ½ to 4 feet.
  • Is the most common spacing used by people in
    conversation.

5
Social Distance Zones
  • Social
  • Varies between between 4 and 12 feet.
  • Employed during business transactions or
    interactions with a clerk or salesperson.

6
Social Distance Zones
  • Public
  • Varies from 12 to 25 feet or more.
  • Used by teachers in classrooms or speakers at
    public gatherings.

7
Understanding Social Interaction
  • Social Action - Anything people are conscious of
    doing because of other people.
  • Social interaction - Two or more people taking
    each other into account.

8
Question
  • Most of the time you can be sure that other
    people want the best for you.
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree somewhat
  • Unsure
  • Disagree somewhat
  • Strongly disagree

9
The Context of a Social Interaction
  • Three Elements
  • The physical setting or place.
  • The social environment.
  • The activities surrounding the interactionprecedi
    ng it, happening simultaneously with it, and
    coming after it.

10
Ethnomethodology
  • The study of the rules or guidelines individuals
    use to initiate behavior, respond to behavior,
    and modify behavior in social settings.
  • Ethnomethodologists view all social interactions
    as equally important because they provide
    information about a societys unwritten rules for
    social behavior.

11
Dramaturgy
  • Erving Goffman believed that human interaction
    can be studied on the basis of principles derived
    from the theater.
  • In order to create an impression, people play
    roles, and their performance is judged by others
    who are alert to any slips that might reveal the
    actors true character.

12
Types of Social Interactions
  • Nonverbal Behavior
  • Exchange
  • Cooperation
  • Conflict
  • Competition

13
Eye Contact in the United States
  • We make eye contact more when we listen than when
    we talk.
  • The more rewarding we find the speaker, the more
    we make eye contact.
  • The amount of eye contact we try to establish
    with other people is determined in part by our
    perception of their status.
  • We feel uncomfortable if someone gazes at us for
    longer than 10 seconds at a time.

14
Exchange
  • When people do something for each other with the
    express purpose of receiving a reward or return,
    they are involved in an exchange interaction.
  • Most employer-employee relationships are
    exchange relationships.
  • The employee does the job and is rewarded with a
    salary.

15
Question
  • People who are better off should help friends who
    are less well off.
  • Strongly agree
  • Agree somewhat
  • Unsure
  • Disagree somewhat
  • Strongly disagree

16
Cooperation Interaction
  • Occurs when people act together for common
    interests or shared goals
  • Members of a team assist one another to achieve
    a common goalwinning the game.
  • Family members cooperate to promote their
    interests as a family.
  • College students cooperate by studying together
    for tests.

17
Question
  • Suppose you had the flu and had to stay in bed
    for a few days and needed help around the house,
    with shopping and so on. How likely is that that
    you would ask an acquaintance for help?
  • Very likely
  • Somewhat likely
  • Unsure
  • Somewhat unlikely
  • Very unlikely

18
Conflict
  • Conflict appears to be inevitable in human
    society.
  • Conflict always involves an attempt to gain or
    use power.
  • Competition is a form of conflict in which
    individuals or groups confine their conflict
    within agreed-upon rules.

19
Competition
  • A form of conflict in which individuals or groups
    confine their conflict within agreed upon rules.

20
Marriage and Social Interactions
  • Husbands and wives cooperate in household chores
    and responsibilities.
  • They engage in exchange interactions.
  • Married people experience conflicts in their
    relationship.
  • The husband and wife whose marriage is damaged
    may find themselves in competition.

21
Statuses
  • Socially defined positions that people occupy.
  • Master status - One of the multiple statuses a
    person occupies that seems to dominate the others
    in patterning a persons life.
  • Ascribed statuses - Statues conferred by factors
    not controlled by our own actions or decisions.
  • Achieved status - Statuses occupied as a result
    of an individuals actions.

22
Statuses
  • Common status
  • Protestant, college graduate, African American,
    and teacher.
  • Occupational status
  • Doctor, computer analyst, bank teller, police
    officer, butcher, insurance adjuster, thief, and
    prostitute
  • Nonoccupational status
  • Son, daughter, jogger, friend, Little League
    coach, neighbor, gang leader, and mental patient.

23
Statuses
24
Question
  • Family position, gender and racial identity are
    examples of
  • achieved statuses.
  • a role set.
  • normative statuses.
  • ascribed statuses.

25
Answer D
  • Family position, gender and racial identity are
    examples of ascribed statuses.

26
Roles
  • The culturally defined rules for proper behavior
    that are associated with every status.
  • Role set - All the roles attached to a single
    status.
  • Role strain - Conflicting demands attached to the
    same role.
  • Role conflict - An inability to enact the roles
    of one status without violating those of another
    status.

27
Roles
28
Question
  • A mother is torn between going to her son's
    soccer game or attending her daughter's ballet
    recital. This would be an example of
  • role conflict.
  • role strain.
  • role playing.
  • her role set.

29
Answer B
  • A mother is torn between going to her son's
    soccer game or attending her daughter's ballet
    recital. This would be an example of role strain.

30
Social Institutions
  • The ordered social relationships that grow out of
    the values, norms, statuses, and roles that
    organize those activities that fulfill societys
    fundamental needs.

31
Society
  • A grouping of people who share the same territory
    and participate in a common culture.
  • Organized societies are rare among mammals with
    the exception of the wolf pack, the prairie dog
    town, and the baboon troop.
  • Society is universal among humans and must have
    performed major adaptive functions that increased
    the chances of human survival.

32
Types of Societies
  • Hunting and food-gathering
  • Horticultural
  • Pastoral
  • Agricultural
  • Industrial and postindustrial

33
Hunting and Food GatheringSocieties
  • Early societies foraged for vegetables and small
    game, fished, collected shellfish, and hunted
    larger animals.
  • They subsisted on whatever was at hand and when
    the food in an area was exhausted they moved on.
  • Anthropologists estimate that humans hunted for 1
    million years, but it has been only 10,000 years
    since people began to experiment with the
    possibilities of organized agriculture.

34
Horticultural Societies
  • 12-15,000 years ago, a drying trend took place in
    what had been subtropical climates, and the
    deserts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East
    developed.
  • Some groups began to cultivate gardens and
    fields.
  • It appears women invented horticulture by
    planting seeds with the goal of having a sure
    source of food later, by observing the
    relationship between seeds and plant growth.

35
Pastoral Societies
  • Rely on herding and the domestication and
    breeding of animals for food and clothing.
  • Pastoral societies appear in many regions that
    are not suitable for agriculture such as semiarid
    desert regions and the northern tundra plains of
    Europe and Asia.
  • Pastoralism almost never occurs in forests or
    jungles.

36
Agricultural Societies
  • Societies that use the plow in food production.
  • Plowing turns the topsoil deeper, allowing for
    better fertilization and producing more food.
  • By 5500 B.C. farmers in the Middle East were
    using the plow and irrigation.
  • Reliance on agriculture had dramatic consequences
    for society.
  • Populations came together and gave rise to cities
    and new social arrangements.

37
Agricultural Societies
  • For the first time society was not organized
    principally in terms of kinship.
  • As cities developed, the need arose for some
    central authority that could serve the interests
    of the leaders by enabling them to collect taxes
    and create a military to protect the new centers
    of population.
  • These developments led to the emergence of the
    centralized state.

38
Industrial Revolution
  • Developed in the mid-18th century and gained
    momentum by the turn of the 19th century.
  • In 1798, Eli Whitney built the first American
    factory for the mass production of guns.
  • By the mid-1800s the invention of the steam
    locomotive and Henry Besemers development of
    large-scale production techniques at his
    steelworks in England, brought the industrial
    revolution into full swing.

39
Industrial Societies
  • Industrial societies use mechanical means of
    production instead of human or animal power.
  • They require an immense, mobile, specialized,
    skilled and well-coordinated labor force.
  • Industrial societies usually have an educational
    system open to all.
  • They require an organized system of exchange
    between the suppliers of raw materials and
    industrial manufacturers and between
    manufacturers and consumers.

40
Industrial Societies
  • All industrial societies have at least two social
    classes
  • A large labor force that produces goods and
    services but has little or no influence on what
    is done with them.
  • A much smaller class that determines what will be
    produced and how it will be distributed.

41
Postindustrial Society
  • Postindustrial societies depend on specialized
    knowledge to bring about continuing progress in
    technology.
  • The computer and biotech industries are integral
    parts of postindustrial society.
  • Postindustrial societies depend on a
    well-educated population.
  • The economies of postindustrial societies are
    service oriented and more than half of theUnited
    States work is involved in service occupations.

42
Question
  • An educational system open to all is a hallmark
    of ________ societies.
  • hunting and gathering
  • pastoral
  • agricultural
  • industrial

43
Answer D
  • An educational system open to all is a hallmark
    of industrial societies.

44
Quick Quiz
45
  • 1. According to Hall, which of the following is
    not a part of the context of social interaction?
  • The physical setting.
  • The social environment.
  • The relative power of each of the participants.
  • The activities surrounding the interaction.

46
Answer C
  • According to Hall, the relative power of each of
    the participants is not a part of the context of
    social interaction.

47
  • 2. When people get together to promote common
    interests or achieve shared goals it is known as
  • exchange.
  • cooperation.
  • conflict.
  • competition.

48
Answer B
  • When people get together to promote common
    interests or achieve shared goals it is known as
    cooperation.

49
  • 3. Role conflict is likely to occur when an
    individual
  • is unable to accomplish the tasks of the
    different roles.
  • is having difficulty accomplishing the tasks of
    different roles.
  • has a number of statuses that have different
    goals.
  • is not able to meet the demands of a single
    status.

50
Answer c
  • Role conflict is likely to occur when an
    individual has a number of statuses that have
    different goals.

51
  • 4. The primary difference between conflict and
    competition is that
  • conflict has negative effects on individuals.
  • no one benefits in a conflict.
  • competition is regulated by agreed upon rules.
  • competition results in change.

52
Answer C
  • The primary difference between conflict and
    competition is that competition is regulated by
    agreed upon rules.

53
  • 5. _________________ is anything people are
    conscious of doing because of other people.
    _________________ involves two or more people
    taking one another into account.

54
Answer social action, social interaction
  • Social action is anything people are conscious of
    doing because of other people. Social interaction
    involves two or more people taking one another
    into account.
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